Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Fordham University is a private research university in New York City. Founded by the Catholic Diocese of New York in 1841, it is the oldest Catholic university in the northeastern United States, the third-oldest university in New York, the only Jesuit university in New York City. Established as St. John's College by John Hughes a coadjutor bishop of New York, it was placed in the care of the Society of Jesus shortly thereafter, has since become a Jesuit-affiliated independent school under a lay board of trustees; the college's first president, John McCloskey, was the first Catholic cardinal in the United States. While governed independently of the Church since 1969, every president of Fordham University since 1846 has been a Jesuit priest, the curriculum remains influenced by Jesuit educational principles. Fordham enrolls 15,300 students from more than 65 countries, is composed of ten constituent colleges, four of which are undergraduate and six of which are postgraduate, across three campuses in southern New York State: the Rose Hill campus in the Bronx, the Lincoln Center campus in Manhattan's Upper West Side, the Westchester campus in West Harrison, New York.
In addition to these locations, the university maintains a study abroad center in London and field offices in Spain and South Africa. The university offers degrees in over 60 disciplines. Fordham's alumni and faculty include U. S. Senators and representatives, four cardinals of the Catholic Church, several theologians, several U. S. governors and ambassadors, a number of billionaires, two directors of the CIA, Academy Award and Emmy-winning actors, royalty, a foreign head of state, a White House Counsel, a vice chief of staff of the U. S. Army, a U. S. Postmaster General, a U. S. Attorney General, a U. S. vice-presidential candidate, a president of the United States, Donald Trump. The university's athletic teams, the Rams, include a football team that boasts a win in the Sugar Bowl, two Pro Football Hall of Famers, two All-Americans, two Canadian Football League All-Stars, numerous NFL players. Fordham's baseball team played the first collegiate baseball game under modern rules in 1859, has fielded 56 major league players, holds the record for most NCAA Division I baseball victories in history.
Fordham was founded as St. John's College in 1841 by the Irish-born coadjutor bishop of the Diocese of New York, John Hughes; this makes it the third-oldest university in the state of New York, the first Catholic institution of higher education in the northeastern United States. In 1839, Hughes 42 years old, had purchased the 106-acre Rose Hill Manor farm in the village of Fordham, New York for $29,750, his intent was to establish St. Joseph's Seminary following the model of Mount Saint Mary's University, of which he was an alumnus. "Rose Hill" was the name given to the site in 1787 by its owner, Robert Watts, a wealthy New York merchant, in honor of his family's ancestral home in Scotland. In 1840, St. Joseph's Seminary opened at Rose Hill; the seminary was paired with St. John's College, which opened at Rose Hill with a student body of six on June 24, 1841, the feast day of Saint John the Baptist; the Reverend John McCloskey was the school's first president, the faculty were secular priests and lay instructors.
The college presidency went through a succession of four diocesan priests in five years, including the Rev. James Roosevelt Bayley, a distant cousin of Theodore and Franklin D. Roosevelt and a nephew of St. Elizabeth Ann Seton. In 1845, the seminary church, Our Lady of Mercy, was built; the same year, Bishop Hughes convinced several Jesuit priests from the St. Mary's College in Kentucky to staff St. John's; the college received its charter from the New York State Legislature in 1846, the first Jesuits began to arrive about three months later. In 1846 Bishop Hughes sold St. John's College to the Jesuits for $40,000. Hughes deeded the college over but retained title to the seminary property, which totaled about nine acres. In 1847, Fordham's first school in Manhattan opened; the school became the independently chartered College of St. Francis Xavier in 1861, it was in 1847 that the American poet Edgar Allan Poe arrived in the village of Fordham and began a friendship with the college Jesuits that would last throughout his life.
In 1849, he published his famed work The Bells. Some traditions credit the college's church bells as the inspiration for this poem. Poe spent considerable time in the Fordham Library, occasionally stayed overnight. St. John's curriculum consisted of a junior division, requiring four years of study in Latin, grammar, history, geography and religion. Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, famed commander of the all-black 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry American Civil War regiment, attended the junior division. An Artium Baccalaureus degree was earned for completion of both curricula, an additional year of philosophy would earn a Magister Artium degree. There was a "commercial" track similar to a modern business school, offered as an alternative to the Classical curriculum and resulting in a certificate instead of a degree. In 1855, the first student stage production, Henry IV, was presented by the St. John's Dramatic Society; the seminary was closed in 1859. The Civil War was a significant time for the college.
The Record (Bergen County)
The Record is a newspaper in North Jersey, United States. It serves Bergen County, though it covers Hudson and Passaic counties as well, it has the second largest circulation behind The Star-Ledger. Its editor is Daniel Sforza; the Record was under the ownership of the Borg family from 1930 on and the family went on to form North Jersey Media Group, which bought its competitor, the Herald News. Both papers are now owned by Gannett Company, which purchased the Borgs' media assets in July 2016. For years, The Record had its primary offices in Hackensack with a bureau in Wayne. Following the purchase of the competing Herald News of Passaic, both papers began centralizing operations in what is now Woodland Park, where The Record is located. In 1930 John Borg, a Wall Street financier, bought The Record. From 1952 to 1963 the circulation of The Record doubled and its coverage changed from local to regional, it was one of the papers whose editorial position was in favor of the Metropolitan Regional Council In 1974, writers in the area voted The Record first in the categories of writing and local coverage.
It provided different local news coverage for various areas in its distribution range. In 1983, the paper had a daily circulation of just over 149,000 with its readership described as "upscale". On September 12, 1988, its afternoon publication and delivery changed to early morning; when combined with more centralized distribution requiring carriers to have automobiles, many "youth carriers" were put out of work. The paper's approach to coverage made it "read like a magazine". Rather than a focus on breaking news on its front page, it featured "The Patch," a thematic topic or investigative report. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City, a photographer for The Record, Thomas E. Franklin, took a photograph of three firefighters raising an American flag over the rubble of what had been the World Trade Center; this became an iconic photo known as Raising the Flag at Ground Zero. A follow-up story by Jeannine Clegg, a reporter for The Record, about the flag raising efforts by the firemen that led to the photo appeared in the newspaper on September 14, 2011.
The Record owns the rights to the photograph, but has licensed it in exchange for donations to September 11 causes, as long as the photo is used in a "dignified and proper manner" for non-commercial purposes. William A. Caldwell, Pulitzer Prize-winning former columnist Mike Kelly Robert Leckie, rejoined The Record after returning from World War II. John R. MacArthur John Tierney Kaavya Viswanathan The Record's and North Jersey Media Group website The Record website
Stephen M. Sweeney
Stephen M. Sweeney is an American executive and Democratic Party politician who serves as the President of the New Jersey Senate, he has served in the New Jersey Senate since 2002. He has been the President of the New Jersey Senate since January 12, 2010. A Union Ironworker by trade, Sweeney is described as a political power broker in New Jersey politics. Sweeney was born on June 11, 1959 in Camden, New Jersey and graduated from Pennsauken High School in 1977, he joined Ironworkers Local 399 and gained journeyman status on January 1, 1980. Sweeney serves as General Vice President of the International Association of Bridge, Structural and Reinforcing Iron Workers. Sweeney and his wife, were married in 1986, they live in West Deptford Township, New Jersey and have two children and Lauren. Sweeney served on the Gloucester County Board of Chosen Freeholders, a post he held since 1997, served as the Freeholder Director from January 6, 2006, until he left office in 2010. During that period of time he held a seat in the New Jersey Senate and as Freeholder, a practice known as "double dipping", allowed under a grandfather clause in the state law enacted by the New Jersey Legislature and signed into law by former Governor of New Jersey Jon Corzine in September 2007 that prevents dual-office-holding but allows those who had held both positions as of February 1, 2008, to retain both posts.
Sweeney sponsored a 2002 law allowing municipalities and other public entities beginning a construction project to enter into a Project Labor Agreement, an agreement that establishes the terms and conditions of employment and prohibits the use of strikes and lockouts, which can save money by reducing cost overruns and work stoppages, contribute to decreased labor unrest. A 2005 law Sweeney sponsored enabled the Delaware River and Bay Authority to establish an ethanol plant in Southern New Jersey, the first of its kind in any of the Mid-Atlantic states, a project intended to create jobs for South Jersey and supply a new market for farmers in the region. In response to heightened security warnings around potential targets such as chemical and nuclear plants since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks that destroyed the World Trade Center, Senator Sweeney pushed to require vulnerable facilities to implement security standards and to explore possible safer technologies, he sponsored legislation which would allow security guards at nuclear plants to carry assault weapons and high-powered ammunition to better protect the security of New Jersey residents.
The bill, signed into law in September 2003, requires guards to undergo mandated training in the use of the firearms before getting access to the weapons. Legislation sponsored by Sweeney and signed into law provides state pensions to surviving family members of police and emergency services workers who die in the line of duty, as well as the law that removes the remarriage prohibition to receive death benefits for spouses of police officers and firefighters killed while serving the public good. Senator Sweeney co-sponsored the law providing health benefits to New Jersey National Guard members who serve for 30 days or more on state active duty. On June 1, 2006, Senator Sweeney and two Assembly Democrats, Paul Moriarty and Jerry Green, held a press conference to announce their support for cuts of as much as 15% to New Jersey state worker salaries and benefits, as part of an effort to avoid a one-point increase in the state's sales tax proposed by Governor of New Jersey Jon Corzine, supported by unions representing state government workers.
He advocated that those workers affected by the state shutdown in July 2006 should not be able to collect pay for the time they were furloughed, saying that he would have voted to reject the budget if he had known that state workers would be paid for the time they were not working. He supported efforts to ban the hazardous gasoline additive MTBE, proven to contaminate ground water and private wells. Sweeney sponsored "Maggie's Law," which establishes driving while fatigued as a form of driver recklessness; the first law of its kind in the United States, "Maggie's Law" was signed by Governor of New Jersey Jim McGreevey in August 2003. It requires that sleep deprived drivers, who have been up for 24 hours or more, face up to 10 years in jail and fines up to $150,000 if they get into fatal car accidents caused by their lack of sleep. Senator Sweeney first pursued the legislation when he was contacted by the mother of Maggie McDonnell, a Washington Township resident, killed in a car accident by a driver, up for over 30 hours without sleeping.
Senator Sweeney was selected by the Senate Democratic Caucus to serve as Majority Leader on November 8, 2007 Joint Budget Oversight Budget and Appropriations Legislative Services Commission On the afternoon of November 23, 2009, the New Jersey Senate Democrats chose Sweeney as State Senate President over the incumbent, former governor Richard Codey. He took office on January 12, 2010. In the absence of the governor and lieutenant governor, Sweeney served as acting governor of New Jersey during the eastern seaboard storm of December 2010. In January 2010, Senate President-elect Sweeney abstained when the New Jersey Senate voted on the question of allowing same-sex couples to marry. Sweeney called his abstention a mistake and said that the issue was a civil rights issue, not a religious issue. In 2012, Senate President Sweeney was one of the prime sponsors of legislation that would legalize same-sex marriage for al
New Jersey General Assembly
The New Jersey General Assembly is the lower house of the New Jersey Legislature. Since the election of 1967, the Assembly has consisted of 80 members. Two members are elected from each of New Jersey's 40 legislative districts for a term of two years, each representing districts with average populations of 210,359. To be eligible to run, a potential candidate must be at least 21 years of age, must have lived in their district for at least one year prior to the election, have lived in the state of New Jersey for two years, they must be residents of their districts. Membership in the Assembly is considered a part-time job, many members have employment in addition to their legislative work. Assembly members serve two-year terms, elected every odd-numbered year in November. Several members of the Assembly hold other elective office, as they are grandfathered in under a New Jersey law that banned multiple office holding in 2007; the Assembly is led by the Speaker of the Assembly, elected by the membership of the chamber.
After the Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey and the President of the New Jersey Senate, the Speaker of the Assembly is third in the line of succession to replace the Governor of New Jersey in the event that he or she is unable to execute the duties of that office. The Speaker decides the schedule for the Assembly, which bills will be considered, appoints committee chairmen, runs the Assembly's agenda; the current Speaker is Craig Coughlin. Members of the NJ General Assembly receive an annual base salary of $49,000 with the Senate President and the Assembly Speaker earning more. Members receive $110,000 for staff salaries. In addition, they receive stationery and a telephone card, they receive other benefits. The total cost to the State of New Jersey for each member of the general assembly is $200,000 annually. See: New Jersey Legislature#Colonial period and New Jersey Legislative Council#Composition Committee chairs for the 2018-2019 Legislative Session are: Agriculture and Natural Resources - Asm.
Bob Andrzejczak Appropriations - Asm. John Burzichelli Budget - Aswm. Eliana Pintor Marin Commerce and Economic Development - Asm. Gordon M. Johnson Consumer Affairs - Asm. Paul Moriarty Education - Asw. Pamela R. Lampitt Environment and Solid Waste - Asw. Nancy Pinkin Financial Institutions and Insurance - Asm. John F. McKeon Health and Senior Services - Asm. Herb Conaway, MD Higher Education - Asw. Mila Jasey Homeland Security and State Preparedness - Asw. Valerie Vainieri Huttle Housing and Community Development - Asm. Jerry Green Human Services - Asw. Joann Downey Judiciary - Asw. Annette Quijano Labor - Asm. Joseph Egan Law and Public Safety - Asm. Adam Taliaferro Military and Veterans' Affairs - Asw. Cleopatra Tucker Oversight and Federal Relations - Asm. Joseph Danielsen Regulated Professions - Asm. Thomas Giblin Regulatory Oversight - Asm. Reed Gusciora Science and Technology - Asm. Andrew Zwicker State and Local Government - Asm. Vincent Mazzeo Telecommunications and Utilities - Asm. Wayne DeAngelo Tourism and the Arts - Asm.
Ralph Caputo Transportation and Independent Authorities - Asm. Daniel R. Benson Women and Children - Asw. Gabriela Mosquera Note: The first three subsections below end with a constitutional year: 1776, 1844 or 1947; the fourth subsection ends in 1966, the year of the U. S. Supreme Court decision that required legislative apportionment based on the principle of "one person, one vote"; the following is a list of Speakers of the Assembly since 1703. On December 6, 1775, Gov. William Franklin prorogued the New Jersey Legislature until January 3, 1776, but it never met again. On May 30, 1776, Franklin attempted to convene the legislature, but was met instead with an order by the New Jersey Provincial Congress for his arrest. On July 2, 1776, the Provincial Congress approved a new constitution; the Constitution of 1844 expanded the General Assembly to 60 members, elected annually and apportioned to the then-nineteen counties by population. Category:Members of the New Jersey General Assembly New Jersey State Constitution New Jersey Legislature official website Assembly Democrats official website Assembly Republicans official website New Jersey section of Project Vote Smart a national database of voting records and other information about legislators
Western Michigan University Cooley Law School
Western Michigan University Cooley Law School is a private American law school located in Lansing and established in 1971. It has four campuses, its main campus is in Lansing and the satellite campuses are in Grand Rapids, Auburn Hills and Tampa, Florida. First year courses may be taken at Western Michigan University's Kalamazoo campus. In 1972, the Thomas M. Cooley Law School was established by a group of lawyers and judges led by Thomas E. Brennan, a former Chief Justice of the Michigan Supreme Court; the school was named in honor of Thomas McIntyre Cooley, a prominent 19th-century jurist, a former Michigan Supreme Court Chief Justice. Cooley was a dean of the University of Michigan Law School and visiting faculty at The Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. On July 28, 2014, the ABA and the Higher Learning Commission gave their approval to an affiliation between Cooley and Western Michigan University. On August 13, 2014, the affiliation became official and included Cooley changing its name from "Thomas M. Cooley Law School" to "Western Michigan University Cooley Law School".
Cooley Law School classes are offered on each of Western Michigan's four campuses. Cooley's curriculum is designed to prepare its graduates for entry into the legal profession. While most students work toward a Juris Doctor degree, Cooley offers the Master of Laws degree as well as joint degrees in Master of Business Administration and Master of Public Administration; the J. D/M. B. A. is offered in partnership with Oakland University. D./M. P. A. is offered in partnership with Western Michigan University. Cooley operates programs allowing ABA-approved foreign study credit in Canada and New Zealand. In addition, students are able to study at ABA-approved programs through partner law schools, including U. S. law schools operating programs in: Oxford, England. Cooley awards J. D. and LL. M. degrees. Students may obtain joint M. P. A. or M. B. A. degrees awarded by Western Michigan University. J. D. students are able to select from several concentrations: General Practice Litigation Business Transactions Administrative Law International Law Environmental Law Intellectual Property Canadian Practice Focused Studies Cooley has been accredited by the American Bar Association since 1975 and by the Higher Learning Commission since 2001.
In 2017, Cooley was sanctioned by the American Bar Association for violating the ABA requirement that schools only admit students who appear capable of earning a Juris Doctor degree and passing a bar exam. The ABA announced in April 2018 that the school was now in compliance with the ABA standards for admissions, the sanction was lifted. Cooley offers clinical programs at each campus. Students who participate in any of the Michigan clinics are allowed to practice law in Michigan under the Michigan Court Rules by representing clients in court, drafting client documents, giving legal advice under the supervision of faculty; the Innocence Project is nationally recognized in the United States for helping free persons wrongfully incarcerated by obtaining DNA evidence and providing pro bono legal advocacy to overturn their convictions - Cooley's Innocence Project clinic has contributed to overturning four convictions. Cooley offers an elder law clinic, Sixty Plus, Inc. which provides free legal services to senior citizens, as well as two Public Defender's clinics, which allow students to work in the Public Defender’s office with indigent clients who are accused of committing a crime.
The Access to Justice Clinic provides a general civil practice, focusing on consumer law. Free legal help in family law and domestic violence matters is offered at the Family Legal Assistance Project. Evening and weekend students can gain experience in the Estate Planning Clinics or the Public Sector Law Project, which provides civil legal services of a transactional, legislative or systemic nature to governments. Cooley offers externships throughout the United States at over 2600 approved externship sites. Student externs work under the supervision of experienced attorneys, with the guidance of full-time faculty. Cooley has a library at each of its five campuses. Legal research can be conducted at the libraries through a variety of media, including print and multimedia sources. Reference librarians are present at each campus; the libraries have a total of about 60 staff. CoolCat is the online library catalog; the Cooley libraries collectively house 670,000 volumes with an annual growth rate of more than 17,000 volumes.
Cooley Law has a reciprocal agreement with both Western Michigan University and Oakland University allowing access to the materials in each institution's collections. Cooley's Latin motto, In corde hominum est anima legis, was written in the 1970s by its founder, former Michigan Supreme Court Chief Justice Thomas E. Brennan. Brennan had described the meaning as "the spirit of the law is in the heart of man"; the total cost of attending Cooley for the 2017-18 academic year was between $69,104 and $70,134, depending on the campus. In recent years, the average school bar passage rate has been about 50%. 53% of graduates passed the Michigan bar exam on their first attempt in July 2017, below the 83% average for other Michigan law schools. The average school bar passage rate was 51.86% in 2015, 52.73% in 2014, 51.45% in 2013. Cooley
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem