Jacques Alexandre Bernard Law, marquis de Lauriston was a French soldier and diplomat of Scottish descent, a general officer in the French army during the Napoleonic Wars. He was born in Pondicherry in French India, where his father, a nephew of the financier John Law, was the Governor-General, his mother was a member of the Carvallho family of Portuguese traders. Lauriston is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe. Lauriston obtained his first commission about 1786, served with the artillery and on the general staff during the early campaigns of the Revolution, became brigadier of artillery in 1795. Resigning in 1796, he was brought back into the service in 1800 as aide-de-camp to Napoleon, with whom, as a cadet, Lauriston had been on friendly terms. In the years preceding the first empire, Lauriston was, director of the La Fère artillery school and special envoy to Denmark before being selected to convey to England the ratification of the Peace of Amiens in 1802. In 1805, having risen to the rank of general of division, he took part in the war against Austria.
He occupied Venice and the Republic of Ragusa in 1806, was made governor-general of Venice in 1807, took part in the Erfurt negotiations of 1808, was ennobled as a count, served with the emperor during the Peninsular War in Spain, where he commanded the division that besieged and won Pamplona. He fought under Viceroy Eugène de Beauharnais at the Battle of Raab in the Italian campaign and the subsequent advance to Vienna. At the Battle of Wagram on 6 July 1809, Napoleon ordered Lauriston to form a grand battery to stop the surprise Austrian attack against his left flank. To provide time, the emperor directed Étienne Marie Antoine Champion de Nansouty's heavy cavalry to charge. While Nansouty's cuirassiers and carabiniers sacrificed themselves in futile attacks on the Austrians, Lauriston assembled 112 artillery pieces for his huge battery, he gathered all 60 guns from the Imperial Guard, 24 guns from Karl Philipp von Wrede's Bavarian division, 38 pieces from Eugène's Army of Italy. He advanced the batteries into grape shot range, unlimbered the guns, opened fire.
In the face of this terrific blizzard of lead, the Austrian III Armeekorps of Johann Kollowrat halted and edged back out of grape shot range. The barrage allowed time for Napoleon to organize a successful counterattack. In 1811, he was made ambassador to Russia, he commanded the V Corps at Lützen and Bautzen and in the autumn campaign, but he fell into the hands of the enemy during the disastrous retreat after the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813. He was held a prisoner of war until the fall of the empire, he joined King Louis XVIII of France, to whom he remained faithful during the Hundred Days. His reward was a seat in a command in the Royal Guard. In 1817, he was created a marquis, became commandant supérieur of the Département du Finistère et de la place de Brest. In 1823 he was made a Marshal of France and he commanded a corps during the Spanish expedition, he died of a stroke in Paris on 11 June 1828. The name LAURISTON is inscribed on Column 13 of the Arc de Triomphe; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Lauriston, Jacques Alexandre Bernard Law, Marquis de". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. P. 287
Louis Emmanuel Dupaty was a French playwright, naval officer, chansonnier and administrator of the Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal. His brother was the sculptor Louis Dupaty. Theatre Académie française Emmanuel Dupaty on Data.bnf.fr
First ministry of Armand-Emmanuel du Plessis de Richelieu
The First ministry of Armand-Emmanuel du Plessis de Richelieu was formed on 26 September 1815 after the dismissal of the Ministry of Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord by King Louis XVIII of France. It was replaced by the Ministry of Jean-Joseph Dessolles. After the resignation of Talleyrand, Louis XVIII designated the technocrat Duke of Richelieu to form a cabinet; the minister of the Richelieu ministry were Ultras and counter-revolutionaries hostile to Bonapartism and republicanism, in the first phase of the ministry they actualized the legal terror called "Second White Terror", that caused the exile, the imprisonment or the execution of several revolutionaries. After the election held in 1816, the new Parliament, led by a Doctrinaire majority, forced the resignation of several ministers, replaced with Doctrinaires and moderates; the reformed cabinet realised several important laws, like the "Saint-Cyr Law" and the "Lainé Law". However, after the partial-election of 1817, a new Liberal leftist group was formed in the Chamber of Deputies, composed by radicals like General Maximilien Foy and Abbot Henri Grégoire.
There was a rising rivality between Richelieu and his Minister Élie Decazes, a popular Doctrinaire. At the end of December 1818, Richelieu resigned after he lost the favour of the Ultras and the support of the Doctrinaires. On 7 May 1816: On 19 January 1817: On 23 June 1817: On 12 September 1817: On 7 December 1818
Charles Louis Auguste Fouquet, duc de Belle-Isle
Charles Louis Auguste Fouquet, duc de Belle-Isle was a French general and statesman. Born in Villefranche-de-Rouergue, Belle-Isle was the grandson of Nicolas Fouquet, who served as Superintendent of Finances under Louis XIV, his family was in disgrace because of Fouquet's brash ambition in the eyes of Louis XIV. Determined to blot out his family's prior disgrace, he entered the army at an early age and was made proprietary colonel of a dragoon regiment in 1708, he rose during the War of the Spanish Succession to the rank of brigadier, in March 1718 to that of Maréchal de Camp. He was present at the capture of Fuenterrabía in 1718 and of San Sebastián in 1719 during the War of the Quadruple Alliance Aided by the rise of Cardinal Fleury, Belle-Isle was made lieutenant-général, grew in influence over French military policy. In the War of the Polish Succession he commanded a corps under the orders of Marshal Berwick, capturing Trier and Traben-Trarbach and taking part in the Siege of Philippsburg in 1734.
When peace was made in 1736, Louis XV gave Belle-Isle the governments of three important fortresses: Metz and Verdun offices that he would hold until his death. This was in recognition of both his military services and of his taking part in the negotiations for the cession of Lorraine. Belle-Isle's military and political reputation was now at its height, he was one of the government's principal advisers on military and diplomatic affairs. In 1741 he was sent on diplomatic mission to Frankfurt, Germany as French Plenipotentiary to carry out, in the interests of France, a grand scheme of political reorganization in the moribund empire, to obtain the election of Charles Albert, Elector of Bavaria as emperor; the long tradition of Franco-Austrian rivalry had crystallized around Belle-Isle, who had emerged as the leader of the bellicose bloc of French policy makers towards the House of Austria. In the eventful year of 1741, he was at the masthead of French interventionist policy in Germany—characterized by scholar Richard Lodge as a "scheme for the humiliation of the House of Austria,"—and of the beginnings of the War of the Austrian Succession.
French aggression was in large part made possible by the precedent set by the Frederick II of Prussia and his conquest of Silesia. France's initial victories—including the election of Charles Albert to Holy Roman Emperor—were short lived, by 1743 the war was proving to be disappointing for France, as Belle-Isle's military command in Germany was full of setbacks and losses, his aggressive strategy towards Austria was predicated on the swift defeat of an impotent and disorganized Austria, along with the lynchpin, Franco-Prussian alliance. Belle-Isle was named Maréchal de France in 1741 and received control of a large army, with which it is said that he promised to make peace in three months under the walls of Vienna; the truth of this story is open to question, for no one knew better than Belle-Isle the limitations imposed upon commanders by the military and political circumstances of the times. He was, according to one scholar, "the most important single influence on French policy in the crucial year of 1741."
However, the circumstances in which he found himself limited his efforts both as a general and as a statesman. Following his initial victories, Belle-Isle suffered defeat, his aggressive policies had proved disastrous, however the daring French retreat from Prague would distinguish Belle-Isle's military brilliance and bravery. In ten days he led 14,000 men—5000 men stayed in the city under the command of François de Chevert —into and across the Bohemian Forest whilst being harassed by the enemy's light cavalry and suffering great hardships, but by never allowing himself to be cut off, he was able to reach the relative safety of Eger, after losing 1500 men. His subordinate, François de Chevert, his 5000 men, defended Prague so well that the Austrians allowed them to leave the city through an honourable capitulation; the means by which this was obtained included Chevert threatening to burn down the city. The campaign, had discredited Belle-Isle, he was forced to remain a year in England, in spite of the demands of Louis XV and the Emperor Charles VII.
During the French campaigns of 1746–47, Belle-Isle was in command of the Army at Piedmont on the Alpine frontier. His troops conquered Nice, only to suffer a decisive defeat at the Battle of Assietta; the disastrous battle would claim the life of Belle-Isle's younger brother, the soldier and diplomatist, the Chevalier de Belle-Isle, who fought bravely as a French commander in the battle. Following the defeat, French forces were demoralized. However, Belle-Isle still managed to repel an invasion of Provence by Austrian and Italian forces and push the fighting back into the plain of Lombardy. At the peace, having thus retrieved his military reputation from the disasters of 1742–43, Belle-Isle was made a Peer of France in 1748. King Louis XV would make him Secretary of State for War in 1758, a position Belle-Isle would hold until his death in 1761. During his three years as Secretary of War, Belle-Isle undertook many reforms. Most Important was the development of a French military school for officers, seeing as the officer corps was shown to be inadequate during the wars of the past few decades.
This included the suppression of the proprietary colonelcies of nobles who were too young to command. These reforms of the officer corps were similar to the structure of the Prussian army in that it attem
Florence Delay is a French academician and actress. The daughter of Marie-Madeleine Carrez and Jean Delay, Delay studied at the Lycée Jean de La Fontaine and the Sorbonne. In 1962, she played the title role of Joan of Arc in a movie by Robert Bresson, Procès de Jeanne d'Arc. At 30, she published Minuit sur les jeux, she was awarded the Prix Femina in 1983 for her novel légère. With Jacques Roubaud of the Oulipo, she compiled, a series of 10 plays about the Arthurian legend, Graal Théâtre, from 1977 to 2005, she has been an actress, narrator, or writer in movies by Chris Marker, Hugo Santiago, Benoît Jacquot and Michel Deville. She was elected to the Académie française on 14 December 2000. Minuit sur les jeux Le aïe aïe de la corne de brume Graal théâtre L’Insuccès de la fête Riche et légère Acte de la Passion, in Théâtre espagnol du XVIe siècle Marco Polo, le nouveau livre des merveilles, Course d’amour pendant le deuil L'Éclypse de la balle, d’Arnaldo Calveyra Il me semble, Mesdames ou Les Dames de Fontainebleau Petites formes en prose après Edison "La sortie au jour" in Le Livre sacré de l’ancienne Égypte Le divin Narcisse, et autres textes, de Sor Juana Inès de la Cruz, La Décadence de l’analphabétisme, de José Bergamín Partition rouge.
Poèmes et chants des Indiens d’Amérique du Nord, La Célestine, de Fernando de Rojas La Solitude sonore du toreo, de José Bergamín L’Hexaméron Etxemendi Semaines de Suzanne Les Moitiés, de Ramón Gómez de la Serna, enquête Œillet rouge sur le sable La Fin des temps ordinaires La Séduction brève Six poèmes galiciens, de Federico García Lorca L’Homme du Luxembourg, d’Arnaldo Calveyra Beauténébreux, de José Bergamín Dit Nerval, essai Michée, Aggée, Malachie, Le Grand Théâtre du monde suivi de Procès en séparation de l’Âme et du Corps, de Pedro Calderón de la Basca Mon Espagne. Or et Ciel, Hermann The Trial of Joan of Arc Le Jouet criminel Collections privées Écoute voir... L'Académie française Florence Delay on IMDb
Louis XVIII of France
Louis XVIII, known as "the Desired", was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days. He spent twenty-three years in exile, from 1791 to 1814, during the French Revolution and the First French Empire, again in 1815, during the period of the Hundred Days, upon the return of Napoleon I from Elba; until his accession to the throne of France, he held the title of Count of Provence as brother of King Louis XVI. On 21 September 1792, the National Convention abolished the monarchy and deposed Louis XVI, executed by guillotine; when his young nephew Louis XVII died in prison in June 1795, the Count of Provence succeeded as king Louis XVIII. Following the French Revolution and during the Napoleonic era, Louis XVIII lived in exile in Prussia and Russia; when the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, Louis XVIII was placed in what he, the French royalists, considered his rightful position. However, Napoleon restored his French Empire.
Louis XVIII fled, a Seventh Coalition declared war on the French Empire, defeated Napoleon again, again restored Louis XVIII to the French throne. Louis XVIII ruled as king for less than a decade; the government of the Bourbon Restoration was a constitutional monarchy, unlike the Ancien Régime, absolutist. As a constitutional monarch, Louis XVIII's royal prerogative was reduced by the Charter of 1814, France's new constitution. Louis had no children, so upon his death the crown passed to his brother, Charles X. Louis XVIII was the last French monarch to die while still reigning, as Charles X abdicated and both Louis Philippe I and Napoleon III were deposed. Louis Stanislas Xavier, styled Count of Provence from birth, was born on 17 November 1755 in the Palace of Versailles, a younger son of Louis, Dauphin of France, his wife Maria Josepha of Saxony, he was the grandson of the reigning King Louis XV. As a son of the Dauphin, he was a Fils de France, he was christened Louis Stanislas Xavier six months after his birth, in accordance with Bourbon family tradition, being nameless before his baptism.
By this act, he became a Knight of the Order of the Holy Spirit. The name of Louis was bestowed. At the time of his birth, Louis Stanislas was fourth in line to the throne of France, behind his father and his two elder brothers: Louis Joseph Xavier, Duke of Burgundy, Louis Auguste, Duke of Berry; the former died in 1761, leaving Louis Auguste as heir to their father until the Dauphin's own premature death in 1765. The two deaths elevated Louis Stanislas to second in the line of succession, while his brother Louis Auguste acquired the title of Dauphin. Louis Stanislas found comfort in his governess, Madame de Marsan, Governess of the Children of France, as he was her favourite among his siblings. Louis Stanislas was taken away from his governess when he turned seven, the age at which the education of boys of royal blood and of the nobility was turned over to men. Antoine de Quélen de Stuer de Caussade, Duke of La Vauguyon, a friend of his father, was named as his governor. Louis Stanislas was an intelligent boy.
His education was of the same quality and consistency as that of his older brother, Louis Auguste, despite the fact that Louis Auguste was heir and Louis Stanislas was not. Louis Stanislas's education was quite religious in nature. La Vauguyon drilled into young Louis Stanislas and his brothers the way he thought princes should "know how to withdraw themselves, to like to work," and "to know how to reason correctly". In April 1771, when he was 15, Louis Stanislas's education was formally concluded, his own independent household was established, which astounded contemporaries with its extravagance: in 1773, the number of his servants reached 390. In the same month his household was founded, Louis was granted several titles by his grandfather, Louis XV: Duke of Anjou, Count of Maine, Count of Perche, Count of Senoches. During this period of his life he was known by the title Count of Provence. On 17 December 1773, he was inaugurated as a Grand Master of the Order of St. Lazarus. On 14 May 1771, Louis Stanislas married Princess Maria Giuseppina of Savoy.
Marie Joséphine was a daughter of Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy, his wife Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain. A luxurious ball followed the wedding on 20 May. Louis Stanislas found his wife repulsive; the marriage remained unconsummated for years. Biographers disagree about the reason; the most common theories propose Louis Stanislas' alleged impotence or his unwillingness to sleep with his wife due to her poor personal hygiene. She never plucked her eyebrows, or used any perfumes. At the time of his marriage, Louis Stanislas was waddled instead of walked, he never continued to eat enormous amounts of food. Despite the fact that Louis Stanislas was not infatuated with his wife, he boasted that the two enjoyed vigorous conjugal relations – but such declarations were held in low esteem by courtiers at Versaill
Antoine Roy was a French lawyer and politician. He was a National Representative during the Hundred Days when Napoleon returned from Elba, a Deputy from 1815 to 1821, a peer of France and three times Minister of Finance. Antoine Roy was born in Savigny, Haute-Marne, on 5 March 1764, his parents were Charles Roy and resident of Savigny and Miss Claudette Grisot. He studied at the College of Langres studied law in Paris and was admitted to the bar in 1785, he did not approve of the French Revolution and remained at the bar, but took advantage of the opportunity to acquire national property in 1791. He defended Rozoy in 1792, in the year III defended several of the accused of 13 Vendémiaire. On 17 April 1793 Roy married Adélaïde-Sophie Barré, daughter of Jean-Benoît-Vincent Barré, an architect, Marie-Félicité Germain, they had Marie-Élisa and Alexandrine-Sophie-Laure. Roy associated with Claude Caroillon Destillières in exploiting the forests and in running major ironworks. During the Revolution and the Empire Roy was a leading provider of supplies to the Ministries of War and the Navy, which protected him from problems arising from his royalist sympathies.
Roy's royalist leanings led to the Duke of Bouillon giving him enjoyment of the land of Navarre and the administration of its forests in 1798. He acquired the greater part of the property of the Duke of Bouillon, having grave financial difficulties, in exchange for an annual payment of 300,000 francs. A few months the Duke died and Roy became one of the richest landowners in France. In 1801 he was sued by the state for repayment of 2 million francs, saying he had wrongly taken that amount while administering the Duke's property, now the property of the State. Roy refused to give up his claim to the forest of Navarre, but lost trials in 1802 and again in 1813; the Navarre domains passed to the Empress Josephine to prince Eugène de Beauharnais and his son. Roy never forgave Napoleon for this. During the Hundred Days when Napoleon returned from exile Roy was elected on 7 May 1815 to represent the Seine, he stood as an irreconcilable opponent of Napoleon. On 6 June 1815 he opposed taking the oath of fidelity.
On 16 June he asked for a special committee to examine. During the discussion of financial law, he took the floor again and tried all methods of removing resources from the army; when the Bourbon court returned from Ghent Roy hastened to meet it. He was received as a victim of imperial despotism, but the king expressed the view that if he had a complaint, it was not of poverty. Roy was reelected deputy on 22 August 1815, again on 4 October 1816 and 20 September 1817, he voted with the minority on secondary issues, affected a degree of liberalism. He was rapporteur of the budget in 1817 and 1818, in this role in 1819 found a saving of 19 millions. On 7 December 1818 he was called to succeed Louis-Emmanuel Corvetto as Minister of Finance, but was unable to achieve any reforms before the Richelieu cabinet resigned on 28 December 1818, he was named Minister of State and member of the Privy Council, Commissioner of the Sinking Fund and of the Deposit and Consignment Office. He returned to his seat in the Chamber, was responsible for reviewing the backlog of financial statements for the years 1815–1818.
After his report on the new budget he obtained a reduction of 20 million in the movable and immovable contributions. On 19 November 1819 he was again appointed Minister of Finance, he held this position until 14 December 1821, initiated several reforms that improved the financial situation of France. On 4 January 1820 he filed a proposal for the final release of the purchasers of national property. On 16 January 1821 he obtained a considerable reduction of land taxes. After the evacuation of territory by the allies he regularized departmental debts. In December 1821 he handed his portfolio to Jean-Baptiste de Villèle, he was created a Count by the king. In the Upper House he continued to occupy himself with financial issues; when Jean-Baptiste de Martignac formed his ministry Roy was appointed Minister of Finance for a third time, holding office from 5 January 1828 to 7 August 1829. However, his financial proposals met many obstacles from the parliamentary majority. King Charles X decided to form a strong reactionary cabinet under Jules de Polignac, asked Roy to keep his portfolio.
However, due to the attached conditions Roy felt obliged to refuse. Roy retired on 21 February 1830, was awarded the orders of the Holy Spirit and St. Michel. From on Roy devoted himself to the business of the upper chamber, he accepted the government of Louis Philippe I without hesitation and was responsible for reports on taxes, the lottery and the budget. He was awarded the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor. Antoine Roy died in Paris on 3 April 1847, aged 83, he left a fortune, estimated at 40 million francs