A court painter was an artist who painted for the members of a royal or noble family, sometimes on a fixed salary and on an exclusive basis where the artist was not supposed to undertake other work. In the Late Middle Ages, they were given the office of valet de chambre, they were given a salary and formal title, a pension for life, though arrangements were variable. For the artist, a court appointment had the advantage of freeing them from the restriction of local painters' guilds, although in the Middle Ages and Renaissance they often had to spend large amounts of time doing decorative work about the palace, creating temporary works for court entertainments and displays. In England the role of Serjeant Painter was set up for this, leaving the "King's painter" free to paint portraits. See category of Italian art collectors for lists that included non-aristocratic patrons; some artists, like Jan van Eyck or Diego Velázquez, were used in other capacities at court, as diplomats, functionaries, or administrators.
In Islamic cultures between the 14th and 17th centuries, similar arrangements operated for miniaturists and artists in other media. In the Persian miniature, the shah and other rulers maintained a "court workshop" or "atelier", of calligraphers, miniaturists and other crafts managed by the royal librarian. More than in the West, the courts were the essential patrons of large-scale commissions, political changes, or changes in personal tastes, could have a significant effect on the development of a style; the name by which Riza Abbasi is known includes the honorific title "Abbasi", which he and others were given by Shah Abbas I of Persia to associate them with their patron. Abd as-Samad, a Persian painter who moved to the Mughal Empire, was given a number of significant administrative jobs, as indeed was his artist son; the court remained the focus of patronage of painting in the "sub-Mughal" princely courts of India, whether Muslim or Hindu. At many periods rulers owned or controlled royal workshops or factories making high-quality tapestries, porcelain or pottery and other types of object.
This was the case in China and in the Byzantine Empire. Court artists worked on the designs for these products; the same process can be better documented in 17th century France, where the court painter Charles Le Brun was director of the royal Gobelins Manufactory producing far more than just tapestries, designed the royal commissions from the private Savonnerie manufactory of carpets. Le Brun dominated, created, the style found throughout Louis XIV's palaces, hugely influential in France and throughout Europe. By the 20th century court painters was an obsolete position. More artists were granted permission by royalty who would sit for official portraits whether for private of patron purposes. Artists of the Tudor Court 21st Century Court Artists Michael Levey, Painting at Court, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1971
The Latin school was the grammar school of 14th- to 19th-century Europe, though the latter term was much more common in England. Emphasis was placed, on learning to use Latin; the education given at Latin schools gave great emphasis to the complicated grammar of the Latin language in its Medieval Latin form. Grammar was the most basic part of the trivium and the Liberal arts — in artistic personifications Grammar's attribute was the birch rod. Latin school prepared students for university, as well as enabling those of middle class status to rise above their station, it was therefore not unusual for children of commoners to attend Latin schools if they were expected to pursue a career within the church. Although Latin schools existed in many parts of Europe in the 14th century and were more open to the laity, prior to that the Church allowed for Latin schools for the sole purpose of training those who would one day become clergymen. Latin schools began to develop to reflect Renaissance humanism around the 1450s.
In some countries, but not England, they lost their popularity as universities and some Catholic orders began to prefer the vernacular. The Medieval world thought of grammar as a foundation from which all forms of scholarship should originate. Grammar schools otherwise known as Latin schools taught Latin by using Latin. Latin was the language used in nearly all academic and most legal and administrative matters, as well as the language of the liturgy; some of the laity, though not instructed formally and wrote some Latin. Courts church courts, used Latin in their proceedings, although this was less accessible than the vernacular to the lower classes, who could not read at all, let alone Latin. Students studied in Latin school for about five years, but by their third year, students would be deemed as "knowledgeable enough" in Latin grammar to assist the master teacher in teaching the younger or less skilled pupils. Seven seemed an appropriate age for boys to start school, seen as a development from early childhood to boyhood.
However, older men who wanted to study were not discouraged as long. Students finished their schooling during their late teens, but those who desired to join the priesthood had to wait until they were twenty-four in order to get accepted. There was a limit to how long a student could stay in school, although if a relative was one of the school's founders an extended stay was possible. Schools were managed by appointing a committee who employed a teacher and paid their salary; these schools had limited supervision from the town authorities. Freelance Latin masters opened up their own schools quite and would provide Latin education to anyone willing to pay; these freelance schools taught students in the master's home. Others taught as a tutor in a student's household by either living there or making daily visits to teach. Students ranged from those. If a serf's child wanted to go to school, payment given to the lord was required as well as his consent; as Europeans experienced the intellectual, political and social innovations of the Renaissance so did their attitudes towards Medieval Latin schools.
Renaissance humanists criticized Medieval Latin calling it "barbaric jargon". Scholars like the Dutch humanist, Desiderius Erasmus, denounced the church and the way it taught, he desired that a Renaissance in the Roman Catholic Church should accompany the study of the classics. Humanist ideas became so influential that residents in Italian states began to call for a new kind of education in Latin. Schools and academies that centred on instructing Classical Literature, Rhetoric, Natural Philosophy, some Medieval Texts, Greek as well as modern foreign languages, emerged, they called this new curriculum the Studia Humanitatis. Latin school formed the basis of education in the elite Italian city-states. Positions such as headmaster of grammar schools or professor of Latin grammar and dialect, were filled in by erudite humanists. Guarino da Verona, another humanist, devised three stages for humanistic learning which are: the elementary, the grammatical and the rhetorical. Humanists held the belief that by being a learned individual they were contributing to society's benefit.
Hence, humanistic education constituted the intermediate and advanced levels for most of the urban population. It created an opportunity to advance an individual's social status since more institutions intellectual and economic sought workers who possessed a background in classical Latin as well as training in humanistic scripts. Still considered as the language of the learned, Latin was esteemed and used in the academic field. However, at the start of the 14th century, writers started writing in the vernacular. Due to this event and the common practice of interweaving Latin with a dialect at advanced stages in learning, the precedence of Latin schools from other pedagogical institutions diminished. Clergy funded ecclesiastical schools where clerics taught. Many historians argue. Latin church schools seemed to appear around the 12th century, however few remained after the 14th century as a vernacular, more definite form of Latin school emerged in Italy. In some areas in Spain during the late 15th century, the church encouraged priests and sacristans to train others in reading and writing.
After the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic Church tried to deal with the surfacing of Protestant Latin schools that involved itself with orienting church auth
Landgravine Caroline Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt
Caroline Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt, was a consort of Baden, a dilettante artist, scientist and salonist. The daughter of Louis VIII of Hesse-Darmstadt and Charlotte Christine Magdalene Johanna of Hanau, she married on January 28, 1751 to Charles Frederick, Margrave of Baden, she is described as learned, spoke five languages, corresponded with Voltaire and made Karlsruhe to a cultural centre in Germany where she counted Johann Gottfried von Herder, Johann Caspar Lavater, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock, Christoph Willibald Gluck and Christoph Martin Wieland among her guests. She was a member of Markgräflich Baden court orchestra and the Danish Academy of Fine Arts, painted in water colours and had a laboratory set up in the Karlsruhe palace. Carl von Linné named Glückskastanie Carolinea Princeps L. after her, Friedrich Wilhelm von Leysser was hired to gather plants for her. She managed a soap - and candle-factory, her health was ruined by a fall in 1779, she died by a stroke during a trip with her son.
Her collections were the foundation of the Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe and the State Museum of Natural History Karlsruhe. Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden. Charles Louis's son, Charles Louis Frederick, succeeded Charles Frederick as Grand Duke upon the latter's death in 1811. Frederick married on December 9, 1791 Louise of Nassau-Usingen, the daughter of Duke Frederick of Nassau-Usingen Louis I, Grand Duke of Baden married Countess Katharina Werner von Langenstein in 1818. Louis succeeded his nephew Charles Louis Frederick as 3rd Grand Duke in 1818. Son Louise Auguste 11 July 1723 – 28 January 1751 Her Serene Highness Princess and Landgravine Caroline Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt 28 January 1751 – 21 October 1771 Her Serene Highness The Margravine of Baden-Durlach 21 October 1771 – 8 April 1783 Her Serene Highness The Margravine of Baden
François Boucher was a French painter and etcher, who worked in the Rococo style. Boucher is known for his idyllic and voluptuous paintings on classical themes, decorative allegories, pastoral scenes, he was the most celebrated painter and decorative artist of the 18th century. A native of Paris, Boucher was the son of a lesser known painter Nicolas Boucher, who gave him his first artistic training. At the age of seventeen, a painting by Boucher was admired by the painter François Lemoyne. Lemoyne appointed Boucher as his apprentice, but after only three months, he went to work for the engraver Jean-François Cars. In 1720, he won the elite Grand Prix de Rome for painting, but did not take up the consequential opportunity to study in Italy until five years due to financial problems at the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture. On his return from studying in Italy he was admitted to the refounded Académie de peinture et de sculpture on 24 November 1731, his morceau de réception was his Rinaldo and Armida of 1734.
Boucher married Marie-Jeanne Buzeau in 1733. The couple had three children together. Boucher became a faculty member in 1734 and his career accelerated from this point as he was promoted Professor Rector of the Academy, becoming inspector at the Royal Gobelins Manufactory and Premier Peintre du Roi in 1765. Boucher died on 30 May 1770 in his native Paris, his name, along with that of his patron Madame de Pompadour, had become synonymous with the French Rococo style, leading the Goncourt brothers to write: "Boucher is one of those men who represent the taste of a century, who express and embody it." Boucher is famous for saying that nature is "trop verte et mal éclairée". Boucher was associated with the gemstone engraver Jacques Guay, he mentored the Moravian-Austrian painter Martin Ferdinand Quadal as well as the neoclassical painter Jacques-Louis David in 1767. Boucher made a series of drawings of works by Guay which Madame de Pompadour engraved and distributed as a handsomely bound volume to favored courtiers.
Boucher took inspiration from artists such as Antoine Watteau. Boucher's early works celebrate the idyllic and tranquil portrayal of nature and landscape with great elan. However, his art forgoes traditional rural innocence to portray scenes with a definitive style of eroticism as his mythological scenes are passionate and intimately amorous rather than traditionally epic. Boucher's paintings of a flirtatious shepherd and shepherdess in a woodland setting, featured in The Enjoyable Lesson of 1748 and An Autumn Pastoral of 1749, were based upon characters in a 1745 play by Boucher's close friend Charles-Simon Favart. Boucher's characters in those paintings inspired a pair of figurines created by the Sèvres Porcelain Manufactory, c. 1757-66. Marquise de Pompadour, whose name became synonymous with Rococo art, was a great admirer of his work. Marquise de Pompadour is referred to as the "godmother of Rococo" and Boucher’s portraits were central to her self-presentation and cultivation of her image.
For instance, Boucher's'Sketch for a Portrait of Madame de Pompadour', displayed in the Starhemburg room at Waddesdon Manor, acts as a surviving example of the oil preparation prior to the, now lost, portrait. In one hand she holds her hat, in the other she picks up a pearl bracelet with a portrait of the king – symbolising the relationship upon which her status depends. Boucher's paintings such as The Breakfast, a familial scene, show how he was as a master of the genre scene, where he used his own wife and children as models; these intimate family scenes are contrasting to the licentious style seen in his Odalisque portraits. The dark-haired version of the Odalisque portraits prompted claims by the art critic Denis Diderot that Boucher was "prostituting his own wife", the Blonde Odalisque was a portrait that illustrated the extramarital relationships of the King. Boucher gained lasting notoriety through such private commissions for wealthy collectors and, after Diderot expressed his disapproval, his reputation came under increasing critical attack during the last years of his career.
Along with his painting, Boucher designed theater costumes and sets, the ardent intrigues of the comic operas of Charles Simon Favart paralleled his own style of painting. Tapestry design was a concern. For the Beauvais tapestry workshops he first designed a series of Fêtes italiennes in 1736, which proved to be successful and rewoven over the years, commissioned in 1737, a suite of the story of Cupid and Psyche. During two decades' involvement with the Beauvais tapestry workshops Boucher produced designs for six series of hangings in all, like the tapestry showing Psyche and the Basketmaker from 1741–1742. Boucher was called upon for designs for court festivities organized by that section of the King's household called the Menus-Plaisirs du Roi and for the opera and for royal châteaux Versailles and Choisy, his designs for all of the aforementioned augmented his earlier reputation, resulting in many engravings from his work and reproduction of his designs on porcelain and biscuit-ware at the Vincennes and Sèvres factories.
The death of Oudry in 1755 put an end to its contribution to Beauvais but his collaboration with the Gobelins lasted until 1765, when he stepped down from his position as an inspector. Boucher was a prolific and varied draftsman, his drawings served not only as preparatory studies for his paintings and as designs for prin
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Alsace is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland. From 1982 to 2016, Alsace was the smallest administrative région in metropolitan France, consisting of the Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin departments. Territorial reform passed by the French legislature in 2014 resulted in the merger of the Alsace administrative region with Champagne-Ardenne and Lorraine to form Grand Est. Alsatian is an Alemannic dialect related to Swabian and Swiss German, although since World War II most Alsatians speak French. Internal and international migration since 1945 has changed the ethnolinguistic composition of Alsace. For more than 300 years, from the Thirty Years' War to World War II, the political status of Alsace was contested between France and various German states in wars and diplomatic conferences; the economic and cultural capital of Alsace, as well as its largest city, is Strasbourg. The city is the seat of bodies; the name "Alsace" can be traced to the Old High German Ali-saz or Elisaz, meaning "foreign domain".
An alternative explanation is from a Germanic Ell-sass, meaning "seated on the Ill", a river in Alsace. In prehistoric times, Alsace was inhabited by nomadic hunters. By 1500 BC, Celts began to settle in Alsace and cultivating the land, it should be noted that Alsace is a plain surrounded by the Vosges mountains and the Black Forest mountains. It creates Foehn winds which, along with natural irrigation, contributes to the fertility of the soil. In a world of agriculture, Alsace has always been a rich region which explains why it suffered so many invasions and annexations in its history. By 58 BC, the Romans had established Alsace as a center of viticulture. To protect this valued industry, the Romans built fortifications and military camps that evolved into various communities which have been inhabited continuously to the present day. While part of the Roman Empire, Alsace was part of Germania Superior. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Alsace became the territory of the Germanic Alemanni; the Alemanni were agricultural people, their Germanic language formed the basis of modern-day dialects spoken along the Upper Rhine.
Clovis and the Franks defeated the Alemanni during the 5th century AD, culminating with the Battle of Tolbiac, Alsace became part of the Kingdom of Austrasia. Under Clovis' Merovingian successors the inhabitants were Christianized. Alsace remained under Frankish control until the Frankish realm, following the Oaths of Strasbourg of 842, was formally dissolved in 843 at the Treaty of Verdun. Alsace formed part of the Middle Francia, ruled by the eldest grandson Lothar I. Lothar died early in 855 and his realm was divided into three parts; the part known as Lotharingia, or Lorraine, was given to Lothar's son. The rest was shared between Louis the German; the Kingdom of Lotharingia was short-lived, becoming the stem duchy of Lorraine in Eastern Francia after the Treaty of Ribemont in 880. Alsace was united with the other Alemanni east of the Rhine into the stem duchy of Swabia. At about this time, the surrounding areas experienced recurring fragmentation and reincorporations among a number of feudal secular and ecclesiastical lordships, a common process in the Holy Roman Empire.
Alsace experienced great prosperity during the 13th centuries under Hohenstaufen emperors. Frederick I set up Alsace as a province to be ruled by ministeriales, a non-noble class of civil servants; the idea was that such men would be more tractable and less to alienate the fief from the crown out of their own greed. The province had a central administration with its seat at Hagenau. Frederick II designated the Bishop of Strasbourg to administer Alsace, but the authority of the bishop was challenged by Count Rudolf of Habsburg, who received his rights from Frederick II's son Conrad IV. Strasbourg began to grow to become the commercially important town in the region. In 1262, after a long struggle with the ruling bishops, its citizens gained the status of free imperial city. A stop on the Paris-Vienna-Orient trade route, as well as a port on the Rhine route linking southern Germany and Switzerland to the Netherlands and Scandinavia, it became the political and economic center of the region. Cities such as Colmar and Hagenau began to grow in economic importance and gained a kind of autonomy within the "Décapole", a federation of ten free towns.
As in much of Europe, the prosperity of Alsace came to an end in the 14th century by a series of harsh winters, bad harvests, the Black Death. These hardships were blamed on Jews, leading to the pogroms of 1336 and 1339. In 1349, Jews of Alsace were accused of poisoning the wells with plague, leading to the massacre of thousands of Jews during the Strasbourg pogrom. Jews were subsequently forbidden to settle in the town. An additional natural disaster was the Rhine rift earthquake of 1356, one of Europe's worst which made ruins of Basel. Prosperity returned to Alsace under Habsburg administration during the Renaissance. Holy Roman Empire central power had begun to decline following years of imperial adventures in Italian lands ceding hegemony in Western Europe to France, which had long since centralized power. France began an aggressive policy of expanding eastward, first to the riv
Order of Friars Minor Capuchin
The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin is an order of friars within the Catholic Church, among the chief offshoots of the Franciscans. The worldwide head of the Order, called the Minister General, is Roberto Genuin; the Order arose in 1525 when Matteo da Bascio, an Observant Franciscan friar native to the Italian region of Marche, said he had been inspired by God with the idea that the manner of life led by the friars of his day was not the one which their founder, St. Francis of Assisi, had envisaged, he sought to return to the primitive way of life of solitude and penance, as practiced by the founder of their Order. His religious superiors tried to suppress these innovations, Friar Matteo and his first companions were forced into hiding from Church authorities, who sought to arrest them for having abandoned their religious duties, they were given refuge by the Camaldolese monks, in gratitude for which they adopted the hood worn by that Order—which was the mark of a hermit in that region of Italy—and the practice of wearing a beard.
The popular name of their Order originates from this feature of their religious habit. In 1528, Friar Matteo obtained the approval of Pope Clement VII and was given permission to live as a hermit and to go about everywhere preaching to the poor; these permissions were not only for himself, but for all such as might join him in the attempt to restore the most literal observance possible of the Rule of St. Francis. Matteo and the original band were soon joined by others. Matteo and his companions were formed into a separate province, called the Hermit Friars Minor, as a branch of the Conventual Franciscans, but with a Vicar Provincial of their own, subject to the jurisdiction of the Minister General of the Conventuals; the Observants, the other branch of the Franciscan Order at that time, continued to oppose the movement. In 1529, they had four houses and held their first General Chapter, at which their particular rules were drawn up; the eremitical idea was abandoned, but the life was to be one of extreme austerity and poverty—in all things as near an approach to St Francis' ideals as was practicable.
Neither the monasteries nor the Province should possess anything, nor were any loopholes left for evading this law. No large provision against temporal wants should be made, the supplies in the house should never exceed what was necessary for a few days. Everything was to be obtained by begging, the friars were not allowed to touch money; the communities were to be small, eight being fixed as twelve as the limit. In furniture and clothing extreme simplicity was enjoined and the friars were discalced, required to go bare-footed—without sandals. Like the Observants, the Capuchins wore a brown habit, their form, was to be of the most simple form, i.e. only of a tunic, with the distinctive large, pointed hood reaching to the waist attached to it, girdled by the traditional woolen cord with three knots. By visual analogy, the Capuchin monkey and the cappuccino style of coffee are both named after the shade of brown used for their habit. Besides the canonical choral celebration of the Divine Office, a portion of, recited at midnight, there were two hours of private prayer daily.
The fasts and disciplines were frequent. The great external work was preaching and spiritual ministrations among the poor. In theology the Capuchins abandoned the Franciscan School of Scotus, returned to the earlier school of St. Bonaventure; the movement at the outset of its history underwent a series of severe blows. Two of the founders left it: Matteo Serafini of Bascio returning to the Observants, while his first companion, on being replaced in the office of Vicar Provincial, became so insubordinate that he had to be expelled from the Order. More scandalously, the third Vicar General, Bernardino Ochino, left the Catholic faith in 1543 after fleeing to Switzerland, where he was welcomed by John Calvin, became a Calvinist pastor in Zürich and married. Years claims that he had written in favor of polygamy and Unitarianism caused him to be exiled from that city and he fled again, first to Poland and to Moravia, where he died; as a result, the whole province came under the suspicion of heretical tendencies and the Pope resolved to suppress it.
He was dissuaded with difficulty. Despite earlier setbacks, the authorities were satisfied as to the soundness of the general body of Capuchin friars and the permission to preach was restored; the movement at once began to multiply and by the end of the 16th century the Capuchins had spread all over the Catholic parts of Europe, so that in 1619 they were freed from their dependence on the Conventual Franciscans and became an independent Order. They are said to have had at that time 1500 houses divided into fifty provinces, they were one of the chief tools in the Catholic Counter-reformation, the aim of the order being to work among the poor, impressing the minds of the common people by the poverty and austerity of their life, sometimes with sensationalist preaching, such as their use of the possessed Marthe Brossier to arouse Paris against the Huguenots. The activities of the Capuchins were not confined to Europe. From an early date they undertook missions to non-Catholics in America and Africa, a College was founded in Rome for the purpose of preparing their members for foreign missions.
Due to this strong missionary thrust, a large number of Capuchins have suffered martyrdom over the centuries. Activity in Europe and elsewhere continued until the close of the 18th century, when the number of Capuchin friars was estimated at 31,000; the crypt i