Frederick County, Maryland
Frederick County is located in the northern part of the U. S. state of Maryland. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the population was 240,336; the county seat is Frederick. Frederick County is included in the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. Like other outlying sections of the Washington metropolitan area, Frederick County has experienced a rapid population increase in recent years, it borders the northeastern border of Virginia. The county is home to Catoctin Mountain Park and to the U. S. Army's Fort Detrick, it has been the home to several important historical figures like Francis Scott Key, Chris Rose, Zach Taylor, Matt Bennett, Thomas Johnson, Roger B. Taney, Barbara Fritchie; the namesake of Frederick County and its county seat is unknown, but it was either Frederick, Prince of Wales, or Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore. Frederick County was created in 1748 by the Province of Maryland from parts of Prince George's County and Baltimore County. In 1776 following Independence, Frederick County was divided into three parts.
The westernmost portion became Washington County, named after George Washington, the southernmost portion became Montgomery County, named after another Revolutionary War general, Richard Montgomery. The northern portion remained Frederick County. In 1837 a part of Frederick County was combined with a part of Baltimore County to form Carroll County, east of current day Frederick County; the county has a number of properties on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 667 square miles, of which 660 square miles is land and 7.2 square miles is water. It is the largest county in Maryland in terms of land area. Frederick County straddles the boundary between the Piedmont Plateau Region and the Appalachian Mountains; the county's two prominent ridges, Catoctin Mountain and South Mountain, form an extension of the Blue Ridge. The Middletown Valley lies between them. Attractions in the Frederick area include the Clustered Spires, a monument to Francis Scott Key, the National Museum of Civil War Medicine, Monocacy National Battlefield and South Mountain battlefields, the Schifferstadt Architectural Museum.
Adams County, Pennsylvania Carroll County Howard County Franklin County, Pennsylvania Montgomery County Washington County Loudoun County, Virginia Catoctin Mountain Park Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Monocacy National Battlefield Frederick County has experienced a rapid increase in population in recent years, including that of minority groups. The summary statistics for Frederick County from the 2000 U. S. Census are provided to contrast with the more current data from the 2010 Census; the following table includes the total persons and self-designated ethnicity based on 2000 Census. 2000 Census total population: 195,277 Male: 96,079 Female: 99,198 Ethnicity as percent total population: White: 176,965 Black or African American: 13,605 American Indian and Alaskan: 1,083 Asian: 4,066 Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 156 Some other ethnicity: 2,434 The total of those self-identifying as Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.4%, those persons who were white alone made up 88.1%.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 233,385 people, 84,800 households, 61,198 families residing in the county. The population density was 353.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 90,136 housing units at an average density of 136.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 81.5% white, 8.6% black or African American, 3.8% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 2.9% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races. The total of those self-identifying as Hispanic or Latino origin made up 7.3%, those persons who were white alone made up 77.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 26.3% were German, 17.4% were Irish, 12.1% were English, 7.2% were Italian, 6.3% were American. Of the 84,800 households, 37.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.8% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.8% were non-families, 22.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.17.
The median age was 38.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $81,686 and the median income for a family was $95,036. Males had a median income of $62,494 versus $46,720 for females; the per capita income for the county was $35,172. About 3.2% of families and 4.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.8% of those under age 18 and 5.6% of those age 65 or over. The United States Census Bureau estimates Frederick County's population at 245,322, marking a 5.1% increase since 2010. The racial makeup was estimated to be the following in 2014: 75% White, 9.7% Black, 4.6% Asian, 0.5% Native American, 0.1% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, 2.8% Two or more races, 8.7% were Hispanic or Latino, of any race. Until 2014, Frederick County was governed by county commissioners, the traditional form of county government in the state of Maryland. Effective December 1, 2014, Frederick County transitioned to a "charter home rule government"; the voters approved this governmental change on November 6, 2012 election with 62,469 voting for the transition and 37,368 voting against.
A county executive is responsible for providing direction, supervision
Waterloo is a city in Monroe County, United States. The population was 9,811 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Monroe County. Waterloo is located at 38°20′7″N 90°9′10″W. According to the 2010 census, Waterloo has a total area of 7.66 square miles, of which 7.52 square miles is land and 0.14 square miles is water. Illinois Route 3 and Illinois Route 156 intersect within its bounds, it is along the historic trail from Kaskaskia to St. Louis. Waterloo's history dates back to the 18th century, with the French being the first Europeans to settle in the area; the site was ideal because of its elevation. It was close to Fort de Chartres, a French stronghold, they named their settlement Bellefontaine, meaning'beautiful spring.' This name related to a spring of water a mile south of the site of Waterloo, a frequent campsite on journeys between Kaskaskia, St. Louis. France had long since abandoned the area, as it had been ceded to Britain in the wake of the Seven Years' War in 1763 and had since been unoccupied.
The first documented English-speakers came, in the spring of 1782, when James Moore, Larken Rutherford, James Garretson, of Maryland and Virginia, settled at or near Bellefontaine. Upon their arrival, they were the first permanent English-speakers, in the entire Northwest Territory. James Moore and many of the settlers that followed him had been soldiers in George Rogers Clark's Illinois campaign of 1778. Moore established himself at the site of the namesake spring, the tract remained in possession of the Moore family for over a century; the kitchen of the Bellefontaine House, situated a short distance west of the southern end of Main Street, is believed to be Moore's original log cabin. It remains as a local landmark; the Rutherford family settled in the vicinity, while the Garretsons selected a location a mile northeast of the spring. Judge Shadrach Bond and namesake of Illinois first governor, was a part of the Moore party of settlers, it had been assumed that when these immigrants left the country east of the Alleghenies that the settlers would not come into conflict with the natives.
However, it was not long before the new settlers began to feel threatened, James Moore was elected captain of the company raised for the protection of the colony. At this point in time Illinois was considered a county of Virginia, so the commission received by Captain Moore came from the Governor of Virginia, Patrick Henry, he was directed to command the Illinois militia. Moore's company was one of four raised from Illinois, which along with six others raised elsewhere that would become the 17th U. S. Infantry. A fort was accordingly built at Bellefontaine, during the Indian Wars it was one of the most frequented places of sanctuary. Captain Moore made considerable effort to establish amicable relations with the Native Americans, it was with the help of Gabriel Cerré, a wealthy merchant of St. Louis, that he achieved peace by establishing a trade agreement between the warring factions. One of Moore's sons, James B. Moore, would be a delegate to the convention that framed the first Illinois Constitution and was elected to the State Legislature.
Other settlers came to the area and by 1800, Bellefontaine's population had reached 286, making it the third largest town in Illinois and representing over a tenth of the then-total population of the territory. In 1816, a man named Emery Peters Rogers arrived in the area from Massachusetts and, four years opened the first permanent store and quarry. Peters, as he preferred to be called, built a stone structure in 1830 at the north end of Main Street to serve as his store as well as a stagecoach stop. Now known as the Peterstown House, it is still standing, was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on November 16, 1977. Due to his influence, the neighborhood around Peters's store came to be referred to as Peterstown; as the years passed, the town was divided into two parts: Bellefontaine at the south and Peterstown at the north. The two communities were divided by a creek, there was said to have been intense rivalry between them. Legend has it that in 1818, a man named Charles Carroll, an Irishman, came upon the scene, to the astonishment of the Peterstown men and the Bellfontainers, ignored the rivalry and built his house on one side of the creek, his barn on the other and said “It won’t be Bellefontaine, it won’t be Peterstown, but begorra, I’ll give ye’s both your Waterloo.”
Emery Peters Rogers' brother, Dr. John Rogers, arrived in 1826 and would come to be known as the region's leading physician. David H. Ditch's log home-turned-hotel was converted into a courthouse in 1825, when Waterloo was declared the county seat. In 1836 the town contained no more than twenty buildings, including a small, two-story brick courthouse, a Methodist church, a log building used as a schoolhouse, a wind-powered mill, a blacksmith's shop; the town was inhabited by several notable residents throughout the 1800s. George Forquer of Pennsylvania purchased a considerable portion of land in 1818, working with Daniel P. Cook to plan out the developing town. Forquer would serve as an Illinois State Senator, the 5th Secretary of State of Illinois, the 5th Illinois Attorney General and, most famously, an early political enemy of Abraham Lincoln. Cook was a prominent lawyer, a member of Congress, giving his name to Cook County. Forquer's younger half brother, Thomas Ford, would become the State's governor.
The town experienced a marked population increa
Cahokia is a village in St. Clair County, United States, it is located east of the Mississippi River in the Greater St. Louis metropolitan area; as of the 2010 census, 15,241 people lived in the village, a decline from 16,391 in 2000. The name refers to one of the clans of the historic Illini confederacy, who met early French explorers to the region. Early European settlers named the nearby Cahokia Mounds in present-day Madison County after the Illini clan, but the UNESCO World Heritage Site and State Historic Park was developed by the prehistoric Mississippian culture, active here from 900AD to 1500AD. They created an extensive urban complex, the largest of the farflung Mississippian culture territory through the Mississippi and Ohio river valleys. French Canadian colonists founded Cahokia village in 1696 as a Catholic mission; the historic Church of the Holy Family is the oldest continually active Catholic parish in the United States, as well as the oldest church west of the Allegheny Mountains.
Other significant colonial and Federal-period buildings listed on the National Register of Historic Places include the Cahokia Courthouse. Archeologists ascribe the earthwork mounds Cahokia complex to the Mississippian culture, an earlier indigenous people who are not believed to have been ancestral to the Illini; the city site reached its peak in the 13th century and was abandoned centuries before European contact. The Cahokia Native Americans of the Illini did not coalesce as a tribe and live in the Illinois area until nearly the time of French contact 300 years ago. Father Pinet founded a mission in late 1696 to convert the Cahokian and Tamaroa Native Americans to Christianity. Father Pinet and the Seminary of Foreign Missions of Quebec built a log church and dedicated it to the Holy Family. During the next 100 years, Cahokia became one of the largest French colonial towns in the Illinois Country, it was centrally located for trading Indian goods and furs, grew to about 3,000 inhabitants. Its thriving business district reflected a frontier society numerically dominated by needy males, as it had 24 brothels.
The nearby town of Kaskaskia on the Mississippi River became the region's leading shipping port, Fort de Chartres was developed by the French as a military and governmental command center. The 50-mile area of land between the two villages was cultivated by farming settlers, known as habitants, whose main crop was wheat; as settlement expanded, the relationship between the settlers and the Indians continued to be peaceful. Settlers were Canadien migrants whose families had been in North America for a while. Cahokia declined after the French lost the French and Indian War in North America to the British in 1763, as part of the broader Seven Years' War in Europe. Only Fort Kaskaskia was destroyed in the conflict, Cahokia remained regionally important for another four decades. In the treaty ending the war, France ceded large parts of what it called the Illinois Country east of the Mississippi River to the British, including the area of Canada. Many French-speaking residents of Cahokia and elsewhere in what had been Upper Louisiana moved west of the river to territory still controlled by the French rather than live under British rule.
Many moved to Lower Louisiana, where they founded new Canadien villages on the west side of the Mississippi River, such as Ste. Genevieve, Missouri and St. Louis; the Odawa leader Pontiac was assassinated by other Indians in or near Cahokia on April 20, 1769. In 1778, during the American Revolutionary War, Virginian George Rogers Clark captured Kaskaskia and set up a court in Cahokia, making Cahokia an independent city state though it was part of the British Province of Quebec. Cahokia became part of the United States by the Treaty of Paris, by which the United States took over former British territory west of the Appalachian Mountains; the US soon designated this area as the Northwest Territory. Meanwhile, 105 Cahokia "heads of household" pledged loyalty to the Continental Congress of the United States. After Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance in 1787 and established a governmental system for the territory, the Cahokia Courthouse was adapted for use as a United States territorial courthouse.
Cahokia continued as a major political center for the next 24 years. Flood-prone Kaskaskia became the governmental seat of the Illinois Territory, until the territorial seat was moved to Vandalia, in 1809 became the county seat of Randolph County. Cahokia became the seat of St. Clair County, named by and after Arthur St. Clair, the first territorial governor; when St. Clair County was enlarged in 1801 and 1809, Governor William Henry Harrison named the Cahokia Courthouse as the legal and governmental center of a sizeable area extending to the Canada–U. S. Border. By 1814, other counties and territories had been organized, St. Clair County became its current size; the county seat was moved to the more centrally located Belleville, Illinois when a local developer offered to donate land for a new county courthouse and seat. In the late 1950s, Cahokia annexed some population and territory, increasing its population by more than 15,000 in 1960. Cahokia is located at 38°33′43″N 90°10′22″W. According to the 2010 census, Cahokia has a total area of 9.9 square miles, of which 9.4 square miles is land and 0.5 square miles is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 16,391 people
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Brooke County, West Virginia
Brooke County is a county in the Northern Panhandle of the U. S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,069, its county seat is Wellsburg. The county was created in 1797 from part of Ohio County and named in honor of Robert Brooke, Governor of Virginia from 1794 to 1796. Brooke County is part of the Weirton-Steubenville, WV-OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, PA-WV-OH Combined Statistical Area; the Ohio Company of Virginia petitioned the British King for 500,000 acres of land in the Ohio River Valley in 1747, but the first settlers to this area, in what became known as West Virginia's Northern Panhandle, were brothers Jonathan and Friend Cox. They staked a "tomahawk claim" to 1200 acres at the mouth of Buffalo Creek and extending along the Ohio River, their cousin George Cox staked an adjacent claim a few years later. In 1788 Charles Prather purchased 481 acres from John Cox. In 1791 the Ohio County Court incorporated the town around the post as "Charlestown".
On November 30, 1796 the Virginia General Assembly formed Brooke County, from parts of Ohio County, designated "Charlestown" as the county seat. Across the Appalachian Continental Divide to the east in Jefferson County, another Charlestown had been incorporated. In addition, Charleston had been established at the confluence of the Elk and Kanawha rivers in 1788. Addressing this confusion, the Virginia General Assembly on December 28, 1816 changed the Brooke county seat's name from "Charlestown" to Wellsburg to honor Charles Wells, Prather's son-in-law; the first Masonic Lodge west of the Allegheny Mountains was established in Wellsburg on March 4, 1799. It was under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania for six years, but since December 17, 1817, it has been under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Virginia and of West Virginia; the first glass factory in Wellsburg was built in 1813, taking advantage of the easy transportation on the Ohio River. When the National Road was built about five years its first crossing of the Ohio River was via a ferry further west.
In 1818 Alexander Campbell founded the first Virginia school west of the Appalachians, which the Virginia General Assembly chartered in 1840 as Bethany College. During the American Civil War, Brooke County's elected officials helped found the new state of West Virginia, after their efforts to block secession failed at the Virginia Secession Convention of 1861. Wellsburg received a new charter in 1866 from the newly established West Virginia legislature, Samuel Marks became Wellsburg's first elected mayor. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 93 square miles, of which 89 square miles is land and 3.4 square miles is water. It is the second-smallest county in West Virginia by area; the highest point of elevation in Brooke County is 1372 ft. and located about 1.5 miles south of Franklin. US 22 WV 2 WV 27 WV 27 Alt. WV 67 WV 88 WV 105 Hancock County Washington County, Pennsylvania Ohio County Jefferson County, Ohio Ohio River Islands National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 25,447 people, 10,396 households, 7,152 families residing in the county.
The population density was 286 people per square mile. There were 11,150 housing units at an average density of 126 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.90% White, 0.85% Black or African American, 0.10% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.09% from other races, 0.69% from two or more races. 0.39% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,396 households out of which 26.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.30% were married couples living together, 9.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.20% were non-families. 27.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.88. In the county, the population was spread out with 20.40% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 25.80% from 25 to 44, 26.00% from 45 to 64, 18.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years.
For every 100 females there were 91.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,981, the median income for a family was $39,948. Males had a median income of $34,397 versus $19,711 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,131. About 9.50% of families and 11.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.40% of those under age 18 and 9.10% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 24,069 people, 10,020 households, 6,636 families residing in the county; the population density was 269.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 10,967 housing units at an average density of 122.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.0% white, 1.2% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.1% American Indian, 0.2% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 21.5% were German, 17.5% were Irish, 16.4% were Italian, 11.5% were English, 7.2% were American, 5.9% were Scotch-Irish, 5.7% were Polish.
Monroe County, Illinois
Monroe County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 32,957, its county seat and largest city is Waterloo. Monroe County is included in MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is located in the southern portion of Illinois known locally as "Little Egypt". Indigenous peoples lived along the Mississippi River and related waterways for thousands of years before European contact. French Jesuit priests in the Illinois Country encountered the Kaskaskia and Cahokia, bands of the Illiniwek confederacy; the first European settlement in this area was St. Philippe, founded in 1723 by Philippe François Renault, a French courtier, on his concession about three miles north of Fort de Chartres along the Mississippi River; this early agricultural community produced a surplus, grains were sold to the lower Louisiana colony for years. They were integral to that community's survival, as its climate did not allow cultivation of such staple grains. After the American Revolution, Monroe County was formed in 1816 out of Randolph and St. Clair counties, as the 8th county created from the Illinois Territory.
Beginning on the Mississippi River where the base line, about three-fourths of a mile below Judge Briggs's present residence, strikes the said river. Illinois Territorial Laws 1815-16, p. 25 It was named in honor of James Monroe, who had just served as United States Secretary of War and, elected President that same year. Its first county seat was Harrisonville, named for William Henry Harrison, former governor of the Northwest Territory and future President. Harrison invested in several tracts of land in the American Bottoms above Harrisonville in the present precinct of Moredock, ownership of which he retained until his death. Waterloo was designated as the mantle of county seat in 1825; the sites of the colonial towns of St. Philippe and Harrisonville were submerged by the Mississippi River, in flooding caused by deforestation of river banks during the steamboat years. Crews cut so many trees that banks destabilized and collapsed in the current, making the river wider and more shallow from St. Louis to the confluence with the Ohio River.
This change caused more severe flooding, as well as lateral channel changes, such as the one that cut off the village of Kaskaskia from the Illinois mainland. An unincorporated community of Harrisonville was re-established east of the original site; the bounds of Monroe County in 1816 did not include Precincts 1 and 6, Precinct 1 and most of 6 was added in 1825 from St. Clair County; the strip of Precinct 6 from the survey township line east to the Kaskaskia was added, once again from St. Clair, two years in 1827; some minor adjustments and clarifications of the boundaries have taken place, but the borders have remained static since 1827. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 398 square miles, of which 385 square miles is land and 13 square miles is water; the western part of the county on the Mississippi River is part of the American Bottom floodplain, while the eastern portion of the county is flat and was prairie. The transition zone between has high bluffs of limestone and dolomite and has distinctive Karst topography with numerous sinkholes and springs.
In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Waterloo have ranged from a low of 20 °F in January to a high of 89 °F in July, although a record low of −18 °F was recorded in December 1989 and a record high of 107 °F was recorded in August 1962. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.32 inches in January to 4.25 inches in July. Interstate 255 Illinois Route 3 Illinois Route 156 Illinois Route 159 Illinois Route 158 St. Clair County - northeast Randolph County - southeast Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri - south Jefferson County, Missouri - west St. Louis County, Missouri - northwest As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 32,957 people, 12,589 households, 9,375 families residing in the county; the population density was 85.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 13,392 housing units at an average density of 34.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.0% white, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.3% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 53.9% were German, 16.5% were Irish, 9.6% were English, 6.2% were American. Of the 12,589 households, 34.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.9% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.5% were non-families, 21.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.02. The median age was 41.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $68,253 and the median income for a family was $80,832. Males had a median income of $55,988 versus $39,375 for females; the per capita income for the county was $31,091. About 3.5% of families and 4.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.3% of those under age 18 and 2.4% of those age 65 or over. Interstate 255 From Jefferso
Methodism known as the Methodist movement, is a group of related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley. George Whitefield and John's brother Charles Wesley were significant early leaders in the movement, it originated as a revival movement within the 18th-century Church of England and became a separate denomination after Wesley's death. The movement spread throughout the British Empire, the United States, beyond because of vigorous missionary work, today claiming 80 million adherents worldwide. Wesley's theology focused on the effect of faith on the character of a Christian. Distinguishing Methodist doctrines include the new birth, an assurance of salvation, imparted righteousness, the possibility of perfection in love, the works of piety, the primacy of Scripture. Most Methodists teach that Jesus Christ, the Son of God, died for all of humanity and that salvation is available for all; this teaching rejects the Calvinist position that God has pre-ordained the salvation of a select group of people.
However and several other early leaders of the movement were considered Calvinistic Methodists and held to the Calvinist position. Methodism emphasises charity and support for the sick, the poor, the afflicted through the works of mercy; these ideals are put into practice by the establishment of hospitals, soup kitchens, schools to follow Christ's command to spread the gospel and serve all people. The movement has a wide variety of forms of worship, ranging from high church to low church in liturgical usage. Denominations that descend from the British Methodist tradition are less ritualistic, while American Methodism is more so, the United Methodist Church in particular. Methodism is known for its rich musical tradition, Charles Wesley was instrumental in writing much of the hymnody of the Methodist Church. Early Methodists were drawn from all levels of society, including the aristocracy, but the Methodist preachers took the message to labourers and criminals who tended to be left outside organised religion at that time.
In Britain, the Methodist Church had a major effect in the early decades of the developing working class. In the United States, it became the religion of many slaves who formed black churches in the Methodist tradition; the Methodist revival began with a group of men, including John Wesley and his younger brother Charles, as a movement within the Church of England in the 18th century. The Wesley brothers founded the "Holy Club" at the University of Oxford, where John was a fellow and a lecturer at Lincoln College; the club met weekly and they systematically set about living a holy life. They were accustomed to receiving Communion every week, fasting abstaining from most forms of amusement and luxury and visited the sick and the poor, as well as prisoners; the fellowship were branded as "Methodist" by their fellow students because of the way they used "rule" and "method" to go about their religious affairs. John, leader of the club, took the attempted mockery and turned it into a title of honour.
In 1735, at the invitation of the founder of the Georgia Colony, General James Oglethorpe, both John and Charles Wesley set out for America to be ministers to the colonists and missionaries to the Native Americans. Unsuccessful in their work, the brothers returned to England conscious of their lack of genuine Christian faith, they looked for help to other members of the Moravian Church. At a Moravian service in Aldersgate on 24 May 1738, John experienced what has come to be called his evangelical conversion, when he felt his "heart strangely warmed", he records in his journal: "I felt I did trust in Christ alone, for salvation. Charles had reported a similar experience a few days previously. Considered a pivotal moment, Daniel L. Burnett writes: "The significance of Wesley's Aldersgate Experience is monumental … Without it the names of Wesley and Methodism would be nothing more than obscure footnotes in the pages of church history."The Wesley brothers began to preach salvation by faith to individuals and groups, in houses, in religious societies, in the few churches which had not closed their doors to evangelical preachers.
John Wesley came under the influence of the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius. Arminius had rejected the Calvinist teaching that God had pre-ordained an elect number of people to eternal bliss while others perished eternally. Conversely, George Whitefield, Howell Harris, Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon were notable for being Calvinistic Methodists. George Whitefield, returning from his own mission in Georgia, joined the Wesley brothers in what was to become a national crusade. Whitefield, a fellow student of the Wesleys at Oxford, became well known for his unorthodox, itinerant ministry, in which he was dedicated to open-air preaching—reaching crowds of thousands. A key step in the development of John Wesley's ministry was, like Whitefield, to preach in fields and churchyards to those who did not attend parish church services. Accordingly, many Methodist converts were those disconnected from the Church of England. Faced with growing evangelistic and pastoral responsibilities and Whitefield appointed lay preachers and leaders.