Montebello is a municipality located in the Papineau Regional County Municipality of Western Quebec, Canada. At the 2001 census, there were 1,039 permanent residents; the village has a total area of 7.95 square kilometres, is located at the eastern edge of Quebec's Outaouais region. It is located on the border with Ontario; the village is world-famous for the Château Montebello resort, the largest log structure built. The resort was the host of the 1983 NATO Nuclear Planning Group, the 1981 G7 Economic Summit. Parc Omega, a large drive-through wildlife park, is just to the north in Notre-Dame-de-Bonsecours. Since 2005, it hosts the Amnesia Rockfest, which has become Canada's largest rock festival. Past performers include System of a Down, Blink-182, Alice Cooper, The Offspring, Marilyn Manson, Linkin Park, Rise Against and Dream Theater. Non-native settlement of the area began when the land of the Petite Nation Seigneury was purchased by Joseph Papineau in 1801. In 1817, Louis-Joseph Papineau inherited the property and starting in 1846, built the Manor of Montebello, now a National Historic Site in the national park system, operated by Parks Canada.
The Family Museum, on the national Register of Historic Places, is next to Manoir Papineau, on the grounds of the National Historic Site. Louis-Joseph is credited with giving the name "Monte-Bello" to the location in 1854 as tribute to Napoleon-Auguste Lannes, Duke of Montebello, French diplomat and foreign minister in 1839, with whom he had become acquainted during his exile in France from 1839 to 1845. In 1855, the village got its post office. In 1878, it separated from the Parish Municipality of Notre-Dame-de-Bon-Secours-de-la-Petite-Nation and formed the Village Municipality of Montebello. On August 2, 2003, its status were changed and it became the Municipality of Montebello. On August 20–21, 2007, the President of the United States, the Prime Minister of Canada, the President of Mexico held a major trilateral summit meeting, in relation to the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America, at the Château Montebello. A diverse group numbering more than 1,200 protestors opposed the SPP meeting.
The group included environmental activists, political parties and NGOs. Population trend: Population in 2011: 978 Population in 2006: 987 Population in 2001: 1039 2001 to 2006 population change: 5.0% Population in 1996: 1066 Population in 1991: 1022Private dwellings: 457 Languages: English as first language: 4% French as first language: 92% English and French as first language: 0% Other as first language: 4% Official website Manoir Papineau
Ezekiel Hart was an entrepreneur and politician in British North America. He is said to be the first Jew to be elected to public office in the British Empire, though this assertion is discredited by the election of Francis Salvador to the South Carolina General Assembly in 1774, he was elected three times by the voters of Trois-Rivières to the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada. Some members prevented him from taking his seat by observing that as a Jew, he could not take the oath of office, which included the phrase "on the true faith of a Christian". Hart was born May 1767 at Trois-Rivières, Quebec, to Aaron Hart and Dorothea Judah, his father was member of the British forces, a well-known and successful businessman in Lower Canada. Hart obtained part of his education in the United States. In 1792 his father involved him in his fur trade activities. On January 29, 1794 he married niece of Ephraim Hart. He, along with his brother Benjamin, served as a colonel in the militia during the American War of Independence.
Hart and his brothers Moses and Benjamin established a brewery in Trois-Rivières, the M. and E. Hart Company, in 1796, he remained a partner for only a few years. He went into the import and export trade, owned a general store, acquired property. Ezekiel Hart inherited the seigneury of Bécancour and bought land at Trois-Rivières and Cap-de-la-Madeleine. On April 11, 1807, Ezekiel Hart was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada over three other candidates, obtaining 59 out of the 116 votes cast.. The election having taken place on Shabbat, Hart refused to take his oath of allegiance at that time, he would await the opening of the session of the legislature in Quebec the following January. Hart caused controversy when, being Jewish he swore his oath on a Hebrew Bible, instead of on the Christian Bible, with his head covered in preparation for taking up his seat on January 29, 1808; the next day an objection was raised by the attorney general, Jonathan Sewell, seconded by Justice Pierre-Amable de Bonne, that the oath was not taken in the manner required for sitting in the assembly — an oath of abjuration, which would have required Hart to swear "on the true faith of a Christian".
Sewell moved that the assembly pass a resolution to this effect, that Hart be provided with a copy of the resolution, "to the end that he may thereupon pursue such further course in the premises as the law of Parliament may be found to require". Shortly after, Thomas Coffin, the runner-up in the election in Trois-Rivières, petitioned the assembly, calling for the removal of Hart because, as a Jew, he was "not capable of being elected to serve in the House of Assembly, or of taking the oaths requires, or sitting or voting in the Assembly," and asking that the election be considered null and void and that Coffin be given the seat for Trois-Rivières in his place. On April 18, Le Canadien, the mouthpiece of the Canadian Party, published a poem decrying the choice of a Jew for a seat as more foolish than Caligula's appointment of his horse as a Roman consul and priest. In the same issue, a more ideologically explicit attack was launched. Many antisemitic letters to the editor were published, one of which argued that the electors of Trois-Rivières should be reprimanded for electing a Jew to office.
Hart was a personal friend of many Quebec authorities, notably Sir James Henry Craig, Governor-General and Lieutenant Governor of Lower Canada, insomuch that he was godfather to one of his children, Ira James. Craig tried to protect Hart. Hart petitioned the legislature, saying that, while he believed that he was justified in the law in taking a seat by means of the oath used by Jews in the courts, he was willing to swear the oaths used for those elected to the assembly. After some deliberation, however, on February 20, 1808, the assembly resolved by a vote of 35 to 5 that "Ezekiel Hart, professing the Jewish religion cannot take a seat, nor sit, nor vote, in this House."In 1808, new elections were held, once again Trois-Rivières returned Hart as one of its two representatives. This time, to avoid controversy, Hart took the oath in the same fashion as a Christian. In his presentation to the assembly, Pierre-Stanislas Bédard, the leader of Le Canadien, argued against granting a seat to Hart in the assembly.
He claimed that no Christian nation had granted Jews the rights of citizens, not for unjust reasons, but because they themselves do not wish to be part of any country. They may make a country their residence to never their home; this state of affairs is a result of the Jewish tradition, which requires Jews to wait for the messiah, their prince. When the assembly reconvened in 1809, Hart sat as a member for Trois-Rivières for a few days. After ascertaining that Hart had been expelled the previous year, the assembly voted to expel him again; the events of 1807–1809 are known to many as the Hart Affair. Some historians explain these events as the result of the rivalry between the contemporary English and French factions in Lower Canada rather than antisemitism; some have interpreted this affair as proof of ongoing hostility toward Jews among French Canadians. Ezekiel Hart stated that, with only one exception, his opponents were Catholics, he assumed they were encouraged in voting against him by their priests.
Hart did not run for public office again. He continued to live in Trois-Rivières wh
National Assembly of Quebec
The National Assembly of Quebec is the legislative body of the province of Quebec in Canada. Legislators are called MNAs; the Queen in Right of Quebec, represented by the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec and the National Assembly compose the Legislature of Quebec, which operates in a fashion similar to those of other Westminster-style parliamentary systems. The National Assembly was the lower house of Quebec's legislature and was called the Legislative Assembly of Quebec. In 1968, the upper house, the Legislative Council, was abolished and the remaining house was renamed; the office of President of the National Assembly is equivalent to speaker in other legislatures. The Coalition Avenir Québec has the most seats in the Assembly following the Quebec general election, 2018; the Legislative Assembly was created in Lower Canada by the Constitutional Act of 1791. It was abolished from 1841 to 1867 under the 1840 Act of Union, which merged Upper Canada and Lower Canada into a single colony named the Province of Canada.
The Constitution Act, 1867, which created Canada, split the Province of Canada into the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada was thus restored as the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Quebec; the original Quebec legislature was bicameral, consisting of the Legislative Council and the Legislative Assembly. In 1968, Bill 90 was passed by the government of Premier Jean-Jacques Bertrand, abolishing the Legislative Council and renaming the Legislative Assembly the "National Assembly", in line with the more strident nationalism of the Quiet Revolution. Before 1968, there had been various unsuccessful attempts at abolishing the Legislative Council, analogous to the Senate of Canada. In 1978, television cameras were brought in for the first time to televise parliamentary debates; the colour of the walls was changed to suit the needs of television and the salon vert became the salon bleu. Constructed between 1877 and 1886, the Parliament Building features the Second Empire architectural style, popular for prestigious buildings both in Europe and the United States during the latter 19th century.
Although somewhat more sober in appearance and lacking a towering central belfry, Quebec City's Parliament Building bears a definite likeness to the Philadelphia City Hall, another Second Empire edifice in North America, built during the same period. Though the building's symmetrical layout with a frontal clock tower in the middle is typical of legislative institutions of British heritage, the architectural style is believed to be unique among parliament buildings found in other Canadian provincial capitals, its facade presents a pantheon representing significant people of the history of Quebec. Additional buildings were added next to the Parliament Buildings: Édifice André-Laurendeau was added from 1935 to 1937 to house the Ministry of Transport. Édifice Honoré-Mercier was added from 1922 to 1925 to house the Ministries of the Treasury, the Attorney General and the Secretary General of the National Assembly. Édifice Jean-Antoine-Panet was added from 1931 to 1932 for the Ministry of Agriculture.
Édifice Pamphile-Le May added from 1910 to 1915 for the Library of the National Assembly, various other government offices and for the Executive Council. General elections are held every five years or less. Any person holding Canadian citizenship and who has resided in Quebec for at least six months qualifies to be on the electoral list; the leader of the political party with the largest number of elected candidates is asked by the Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec to form the government as premier.. Quebec's territory is divided into 125 electoral districts. In each riding, the candidate who receives the most votes is elected and becomes a Member of the National Assembly; this is known as the first-past-the-post voting system. It tends to produce strong disparities in the number of seats won compared to the popular vote best exemplified by the 1966, 1970, 1973, 1998 elections. Quebec elections have tended to be volatile since the 1970s, producing a large turnover in Assembly seats. Existing political parties lose more than half their seats with the rise of new or opposition political parties.
For instance, the 1970 and 1973 saw the demise of the Union Nationale and rise of the Parti Québécois which managed to take power in 1976. The 1985 and 1994 elections saw the Liberals lose power in landslide elections; the 2018 elections saw the rise of the Coalition Avenir Québec which managed to take power for the first time. Cabinet ministers are in bold, party leaders are in italic and the president of the National Assembly is marked with a †. Last update: March 21, 2019 Members of the National Assembly swear two oaths: one to the Canadian monarch as Quebec's head of state, a second one to the people of Quebec. Previous Parti Québécois premier René Lévesque added the second oath. One of the members of the National Assembly is chosen as the President of the Assembly
Civil law notary
Civil-law notaries, or Latin notaries, are agents of noncontentious private civil law who draft and record instruments for private parties and are vested as public officers with the authentication power of the State. As opposed to most notaries public, their common-law counterparts, civil-law notaries are trained, licensed practitioners providing a range of regulated services, whereas they hold a public office, they nonetheless operate usually—but not always—in private practice and are paid on a fee-for-service basis, they receive the same education as attorneys at civil law but without qualifications in advocacy, procedural law, or the law of evidence, somewhat comparable to solicitor training in certain common-law countries. Civil-law notaries are limited to areas of private law, that is, domestic law which regulates the relationships between individuals and in which the State is not directly concerned; the most common areas of practice for civil-law notaries are in residential and commercial conveyancing and registration, contract drafting, company formation and estate planning, powers of attorney.
Ordinarily, they have no authority to appear in court on their client's behalf. In some countries, such as the Netherlands, France or Italy, among others, they retain and keep a minute copy of their instruments—in the form of memoranda—in notarial protocols, or archives. Notaries hold undergraduate degrees in civil law and graduate degrees in notarial law. Notarial law involves expertise in a broad spectrum of private law including family law and testamentary law and property law, the law of agency, contract and company law. Student notaries must complete a long apprenticeship or articled clerkship as a trainee notary and spend some years as a junior associate in a notarial firm before working as a partner or opening a private practice. Any such practice is tightly regulated, most countries parcel out areas into notarial districts with a set number of notary positions; this has the effect of making notarial appointments limited. A civil-law notary executes legal instruments called notarial instruments.
To be valid, a notarial instrument must be signed contemporaneously by the appearer, sometimes in the presence of attesting witnesses, before the notary who signs and officiates the signing ceremony. Notarial instruments, if prima facie duly executed, are: presumed regular. Traditionally, notarial instruments trigger a præsumptio veritatis et solemnitatis entailing two consequences—regularity and probativity. First, being an official act, a presumption of regularity attaches to the instrument, meaning all prescribed formalities have been carried out, including the reading over of the instrument. Second, a notarial instrument is self-authenticating and probative, i.e. it constitutes full proof of the agreement it contains, as against the parties, their heirs, successors. It means the notary's firsthand narrations of fact are conclusively presumed true and correct, whereas secondhand narrations are assertio notarii which are rebuttably presumed valid. While all notarial instruments are official documents, they are not all public.
In either case, the appearer always walks away with an instrument, self-executing, that is, it requires no further implementing action to be effective and enforceable, just like a court order. Notarial instruments have a fixed effective or signature date that cannot be ante- or postdated, or left blank and filled in after signing. Notarial instruments can not be overridden by prior or subsequent instruments under hand. In other words, for example, a notarial will could not be amended or superseded by a non-notarial codicil or will, they estop an appearer as contract denier from raising most affirmative defenses as to enforceability, including: non est factum, the contents do not express the appearers' intentions, defenses against formation. One thing that distinguishes a civil-law notary's instruments from those of a common lawyer is the fact that, under common law legal systems and non-identical copies are considered separate documents, while under civil law public documents may be proved by secondary evidence.
An unexecuted minute is deemed firsthand proof of an instrument and considered the original, whereas the engrossment is not. The minute is therefore the authenticum, or original instrument of writing, as distinguished from the self-executing copy, or instrumentum. A notarial instrument’s “valid” portions are open to direct rebuttal, but the “conclusive” portions can, in some jurisdictions, only be rebutted by an action of improbation in which a challenger must bring a collateral attack against the instrument, proving a willful material error by strong and positively convincing proof, rather than the ordinary prepo
Denis-Benjamin Papineau was joint premier of the Province of Canada for Canada East from 1846 to 1848. His joint premiers for Canada West during this period were Henry Sherwood. Papineau was a seigneurial agent, seigneur, office holder, justice of the peace, politician. Born in Montreal, he was the son of Rosalie Cherrier, he studied at the Petit Séminaire de Québec. He oversaw the operation of the Seigneury of Petite-Nation, first for his father and for his brother Louis-Joseph, he was a partner in a Montreal bookstore. He was named a justice of the peace for Montreal district. In 1822, he became seigneur for the fief of Plaisance, he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada representing Ottawa district in Canada East in 1842 and served until the end of 1847. Besides serving as joint premier, he was Commissioner of Crown Lands and of public works from 1844 to 1847, he died in Lower Canada. When he yielded to requests from Denis-Benjamin Viger and Sir Charles Metcalfe to accept an appointment on the Executive Council, Papineau was criticized by many French-Canadians, despite his family's association with reform.
His brother Louis-Joseph Papineau had been leader of the reform movement and was exiled for a time for his role in the Lower Canada Rebellion. His son Denis-Émery represented the County of Ottawa in the Legislative Assembly. "Denis-Benjamin Papineau". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto Press. 1979–2016. "Biography". Dictionnaire des parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours. National Assembly of Quebec. Ancestry of Denis-Benjamin Papineau
Seigneurial system of New France
The manorial system of New France was the semi-feudal system of land tenure used in the North American French colonial empire. Both in nominal and legal terms, all French territorial claims in North America belonged to the French king. French monarchs did not impose feudal land tenure on New France, the king’s actual attachment to these lands was non-existent. Instead, landlords were allotted land holdings and presided over the French colonial agricultural system in North America. Manorial land tenure was introduced to New France in 1627 by Cardinal Richelieu. Richelieu granted the newly formed Company of One Hundred Associates all lands between the Arctic Circle to the north, Florida to the south, Lake Superior in the west, the Atlantic Ocean in the east. In exchange for this vast land grant and the exclusive trading rights tied to it, the Company was expected to bring two to three hundred settlers to New France in 1628, a subsequent four thousand during the next fifteen years. To achieve this, the Company subinfeudated all of the land awarded to it by Cardinal Richelieu — that is, parceled it out into smaller units that were run on a feudal-like basis, worked by habitants.
Despite the official arrangement reached between Cardinal Richelieu and the Company of One Hundred Associates, levels of immigration to French colonies in North America remained low. The resulting scarcity of labor had a profound effect on the system of land distribution and the habitant-seigneurial relationship that emerged in New France. King Louis XIV instituted a condition on the land, stating that it could be forfeited unless it was cleared within a certain period of time; this condition kept the land from being sold by the seigneur, leading instead to its being sub-granted to peasant farmers, the habitants. When a habitant was granted the title deed to a lot, he had to agree to accept a variety of annual charges and restrictions. Rent could be set in money, produce or labour. Once this rent was set, it could not due to inflation or time. An habitant was free to develop his land as he wished, with only a few obligations to his seigneur. A seigneur did not have many responsibilities towards his habitants.
The seigneur was obligated to build a gristmill for his tenants, they in turn were required to grind their grain there and provide the seigneur with one sack of flour out of every 14. The seigneur had the right to a specific number of days of forced labour by the habitants and could claim rights over fishing and common pastures. Though the demands of the seigneurs became more significant at the end of French rule, they could never obtain enough resources from the habitants to become wealthy, nor leave their tenants in poverty. Habitants were free individuals; the seigneur–habitant relationship was one where both parties were owners of the land, who split the attributes of ownership between them. In practice, the lands were arranged in long, narrow strips, called seigneuries or fiefs, along the banks of the St. Lawrence River, its estuaries, other key transit features; this physical layout of manorial property developed as a means of maximizing ease of transit and communication by using natural waterways and the few roads.
A desirable plot had to be directly bordering or in close proximity to a river system, which plot-expansion was limited to one of two directions—left or right. Estates in free socage were the most macro-level of land division in New France but, within them, there existed several tenurial subdivisions. Below the level of free socage was that of the villeinage. Throughout New France, several thousand estates in villeinage were developed. Furthermore, these villein tenancies were remarkably uniform in terms of size. Barring extreme cases, it is estimated that around 95% of all villein estates were between 40 and 200 arpents in size, though most were 120 arpents or less. Estates of less than 40 square arpents were considered to be of little value by villein socagers. To maximize simplicity when surveying, estates in villein socage were invariably distributed in rectangular plots following a rowed system, wherein the first row bordered the river, was the first to be filled, followed by the second behind it and so on.
The proportions of such rectangles coincided with the ratio of 1:10 for width and length, respectively. However, extremes all the way up to 1:100 are known to have occurred; this method of land division confers obvious advantages in terms of easy access to transportation and cheap surveying, but allowed socagers to live remarkably close to families on neighboring plots—often within a few hundred yards—creating something of a proto-neighborhood. Although legislation and enforcement varied depending on the period and administration, a socager’s rights of entitlement to their villeinage could not be revoked as long as they paid their duties and fees to the lord of the manor and satisfied the requirements of tenir feu et lieu; this stipulated that they were obliged to improve their landholdings or these would be confiscated. By ordinance of the Intendant in 1682, a socager could not hold more than two villeinages; the lord of the manor rented most of the land to tenants, known as censitaires or habitants, who cleared the land, built houses and other buildings, farmed the land.
A smaller portion of the land was kept as a demesne, economically significant in the early days of settl