Lawrence C. Phipps
Lawrence Cowle Phipps was a United States Senator representing Colorado from 1919 until 1931. Lawrence Cowle Phipps was born on August 30, 1862 in Amity, Pennsylvania a son of William Henry Phipps and Agnes McCall, he grew up in Pennsylvania where he joined the Carnegie Steel Company as a clerk. His uncle, Henry Phipps, was the second largest shareholder in the company. Lawrence Phipps advanced to first vice president, he retired in 1901 and moved to Denver, where he was active in investments, was president of the Colorado Taxpayers Protective League in 1917. In 1918, Phipps was elected to the United States Senate as a member of the Republican Party, defeating the Democratic incumbent, John Franklin Shafroth. Phipps was reelected in 1924 on the memorable slogan, "A vote for Lawrence C. Phipps is another vote for Coolidge." He did not run again in 1930. Between 1931 and 1933 Senator Phipps and his third wife, the former Margaret Rogers, built the Phipps Estate, in part to provide jobs during the Great Depression.
Mrs. Phipps donated the mansion and grounds to the University of Denver in 1964. Lawrence Phipps died on March 1958 in Santa Monica, California, he was entombed in the Fairmount Mausoleum at Fairmount Cemetery in Denver. Phipps is the namesake of Colorado. Official Congressional Biography, which credits both the U. S. Senate Historical Office and the biography below: Dictionary of American Biography. "Colorado Crusader and Western Conservative: Lawrence C. Phipps and the Congressional Campaign of 1926." Essays in Colorado History 9: 25–36. Media related to Lawrence Cowle Phipps at Wikimedia Commons
Neshaminy Creek is a 40.7-mile-long stream that runs through Bucks County, rising south of the borough of Chalfont, where its north and west branches join. Neshaminy Creek flows southeast toward Bristol Township and Bensalem Township to its confluence with the Delaware River; the name "Neshaminy" originates with the Lenni Lenape and is thought to mean "place where we drink twice". This phenomenon refers to a section of the creek known as the Neshaminy Palisades, where the course of the water slows and changes direction at a right angle, nearly forcing the water back upon itself; these palisades are located in Dark Hollow Park, operated by the county, are flanked by Warwick Township to the south and Buckingham Township to the north. The watershed of the Neshaminy Creek covers an area of 236 square miles, 86 percent of, located in Bucks County and 14 percent in Montgomery County, it is part of the greater Delaware River watershed. The creek's course runs through suburban areas to the north of Philadelphia.
However, the course of the creek does run through a few sections of rural and semi-rural terrain, some forested areas remain. Neshaminy Creek passes through Tyler State Park and Neshaminy State Park. Neshaminy Creek has the distinction of having three tributaries named Mill Creek; the name seems to derive from the Lenape'Nesha-men-ning', loosely meaning'the place where we drink twice' or'two drinking places'. Older names were written as Nishambanach, Nishammis, Neshimineh, Neshaminia and others; this may refer to two springs near a village of the Lenape, since native people drink from a spring whenever available rather than from a stream. The location of the springs is unknown, but may have been two springs extant many years ago, not far from the confluence of the north and west branches. One was known at the time as the'Great Spring' and the other much smaller about 300 feet away and was said to have been near an old Indian trail; the Neshaminy was the first stream in Bucks County to have been crossed by bridges.
The Gordon Gazetteer of 1832 called it the Neshaminy River and stated that "over it, there are many fine wooden and stone bridges. The bridge nearest its mouth on the road to New York is a draw bridge-in private property, erected by the Messrs. Bassonet and Johnson, whose heirs and assigns levy tolls by virtue of the Act of Assembly 6th Sept. 1785. The Neshaminy as far as Barnsleys Ford was declared a public highway by Act of 9th March, 1771." The stream has seen a number of major floods. In the Mina flood of 1833, most of the bridges were washed away and was the highest flood known at that time. Compared to the flood of 16-17 July 1865, the 1833 flood was exceeded by 6 feet, rupturing the Turk Dam and destroying all of the bridges downstream; as the waters reached the Delaware River, the flow was so great as to reach the New Jersey shoreline leaving a large pile of debris and preventing shipping from traversing the river. The Neshaminy has been the subject of many artists over the years. Appalachian Division, Piedmont Province, Gettysburg-Newark SectionBeginning at the junction of the West Branch and North Branch Neshaminy Creeks, Neshaminy Creek begins in the Brunswick Formation, formed during the Jurassic and Triassic, which consists of mudstone and siltstone.
Mineralogy includes hornfels. West of Chalfont it passes into an extension of the Lockatong formation for a short distance, back into the Brunswick again to the Lockatong; the Lockatong Formation was deposited during the Triassic and consists of argillite, a layer of limestone. East of Chalfont, the Neshaminy flows into the Stockton Formation, laid during the Triassic, consisting of arkosic sandstone, shale and mudstone, it flows along the Stockton and Lockatong transition until the Neshaminy palisades, where it turns west in a few miles turns south into a region of felsic gneiss, which contains quartz, microcline and biotite. Appalachian Division, Piedmont Province, Upland SectionAfter passing Oakford, it passes through a small deposit of mafic gneiss, from the Precambrian, which contains calcic plagioclase, hypersthene or augite and hornblende. Appalachian Division, Piedmont Province and Intermediate Upland SectionNext, the stream passes into the Wissahickon Formation, a schist which has metamorphosed into a facies, containing garnet, staurolite and sillimanite.
The Wissahickon contains oligoclase-mica schist and augen gneiss', some feldspar. It passes through a region of Pensauken and Bridgeton Formations, from the Tertiary, but it has eroded through it to the underlying Wissahickon Formation. Both formations consis of quartz sand; the Neshaminy passes through the Trenton gravel formation, from the Quaternary, sand and clay-silt where it meets the Delaware River. Mill Creek Pine Run Ironworks Creek Newtown Creek Mill Creek Robin Run Watson Creek Lahaska Creek Little Neshaminy Creek Park Creek Cooks Run Mill Creek North Branch Neshaminy Creek Pine Run West Branch Neshaminy Creek Reading Creek Bensalem Township Bristol Township Buckingham Township Chalfont Doylestown Doylestown Township Hatfield Hulmeville Ivyland Langhorne Langhorne Manor Lansdale Lower Southampton Township Middletown Township New Britain New Britain Township Newtown Newtown Township Northampton Township Penndel Plumstead Township Upper Southampton Township Warminster Township Warwick Township Wrightstown Township Like other rivers and streams, the Neshaminy Creek poses a flooding threat to neighboring areas in ti
George W. Pepper
George Wharton Pepper was an American lawyer, law professor, Christian activist and Republican politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He founded the law firm of Pepper Hamilton. Pepper was born to upper-class parents, physician George Pepper and his wife, the former Mehitable Markoe Wharton, on March 16, 1867; each was descended from families prominent in the region since the colonial era: Pennsylvania Dutch on his father's side and Quakers and Episcopalians on his mother's. He was born in a fashionable neighborhood, 1215 Walnut Street, their first child had died in infancy, the family soon moved to quarters on Pine Street. Dr. Wharton died when George was seven and his only sister Frances a newborn, so the family moved to smaller quarters, 346 S. 16th Street in the Rittenhouse Square neighborhood with his grandmother. His mother home-schooled her weak-eyed son, with the assistance of his uncle, Dr. William Pepper, a blind tutor, John F. Maher, his grandmother's summer estate up the Schuylkill River became one of those consolidated into Laurel Hill Cemetery.
He considered Willie Ryder his best friend, noting that he was "colored". In 1876, his mother remarried, to his father's friend and former classmate, lawyer Ernest Zantzinger. Admitted to his father's alma mater, the University of Pennsylvania, Pepper was active in athletics and drama. In addition to academic activities, Pepper started the school newspaper and edited a literary magazine, he joined several organizations, including the Zeta Psi fraternity, Sketch club and Philomathean Society. Pepper graduated first in his class from the college in 1887, he followed the examples of his maternal grandfather and stepfather, entering the University of Pennsylvania Law School, from which he graduated first in his class and with several honors in 1889. On November 25, 1890 in New Haven, Pepper married Charlotte Root Fischer, daughter of Professor George Park Fisher, dean of the Yale Divinity School, they had three children: Adeline Louise Forbes Pepper, George Wharton Pepper, Charlotte Eleanor Pepper.
Both daughters married Fitz Eugene Newbold, Adeline seven years after her sister Charlotte's death and surviving him as well as her parents. During law school, Pepper worked part-time for Ward, he was admitted to the bar in 1889. He taught law at his alma mater for more than two decades, as well as maintained a private practice. In his autobiography, dedicated to "Andrew Hamilton and all other Philadelphia Lawyers Past and Present", Pepper acknowledged that public dissatisfaction with the bar had always existed, but thought it increasing throughout his lifetime, he thus devoted the penultimate chapter as "a treatise for lawyers only", cautioning them that the poor repute to which the some deserve "to be scolded, is one whose offense does not consist in representing a corporation or in being disloyal to his client, but in allowing fidelity to that client to dim or black out his sense of public duty." He thought those so indifferent to public interest were few and could be identified, but warned against the "far more subtle and more common vice of regarding the client as a suitable subject for exploitation" cautioning "he instant that the attorney's interest becomes inconsistent with the client's the attorney's interest must be forgotten."
Teaching at the Penn Law school for 21 years, Pepper began as a teaching fellow and soon became the first Algernon Sydney Biddle Professor of Law, a position he held from 1893 until 1910, when he became a trustee of the university. In 1890-1891, he visited Harward Law School in Cambridge and studied the case system of instruction being introduced by Dean Christopher C. Langdell, applied by John Chipman Gray in Property, James Bradley Thayer in Evidence and Constitutional Law, James Barr Ames in Torts and Pleading, Samuel Williston in Contracts. Pepper taught about corporations and insurance. After World War I, Draper and Elihu Root founded the American Law Institute, with funding from the Carnegie Corporation and George W. Wickersham as its first President. Pepper became a member of its governing council in 1930 and succeeded Wickersham as President of from 1936 to 1947, he served on the Federal Advisory Committee which drafted the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, with former Attorney General William D. Mitchell as chairman Charles L. Clark as reporter.
He delivered the commencement address at the graduation ceremony at the University of Pittsburgh in 1921. Pepper wrote over 40 articles in various legal publications. And, from 1892 to 1895, edited and published the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, with his friend, William Draper Lewis, his 1895 presentation to the Pennsylvania Bar Association about legal education prompted reforms. With Lewis, he edited the Digest of Decisions and Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania Law, 1754 - 1898. Pepper authored The Borderland of Federal and State Decisions, Pleading at Common Law and Under the Codes, Digest of the Laws of Pennsylvania 1700 - 1901, Digest of Decisio
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, cotton, hemp, or other materials to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, crocheting, knotting or tatting, felting, or braiding; the related words "fabric" and "cloth" and "material" are used in textile assembly trades as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. A textile is any material made of interlacing fibres, including carpeting and geotextiles. A fabric is a material made through weaving, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods. Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but is a piece of fabric, processed; the word'textile' is from Latin, from the adjective textilis, meaning'woven', from textus, the past participle of the verb texere,'to weave'. The word'fabric' derives from Latin, most from the Middle French fabrique, or'building, thing made', earlier as the Latin fabrica'workshop.
The word'cloth' derives from the Old English clað, meaning a cloth, woven or felted material to wrap around one, from Proto-Germanic kalithaz. The first clothes, worn at least 70,000 years ago and much earlier, were made of animal skins and helped protect early humans from the ice ages. At some point people learned to weave plant fibers into textiles; the discovery of dyed flax fibres in a cave in the Republic of Georgia dated to 34,000 BCE suggests textile-like materials were made in prehistoric times. The production of textiles is a craft whose speed and scale of production has been altered beyond recognition by industrialization and the introduction of modern manufacturing techniques. However, for the main types of textiles, plain weave, twill, or satin weave, there is little difference between the ancient and modern methods. Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for clothing and for containers such as bags and baskets. In the household they are used in carpeting, upholstered furnishings, window shades, coverings for tables and other flat surfaces, in art.
In the workplace they are used in scientific processes such as filtering. Miscellaneous uses include flags, tents, handkerchiefs, cleaning rags, transportation devices such as balloons, kites and parachutes. Textiles are used in many traditional crafts such as sewing and embroidery. Textiles for industrial purposes, chosen for characteristics other than their appearance, are referred to as technical textiles. Technical textiles include textile structures for automotive applications, medical textiles, agrotextiles, protective clothing. In all these applications stringent performance requirements must be met. Woven of threads coated with zinc oxide nanowires, laboratory fabric has been shown capable of "self-powering nanosystems" using vibrations created by everyday actions like wind or body movements. Textiles are made from many materials, with four main sources: animal, plant and synthetic; the first three are natural. In the 20th century, they were supplemented by artificial fibres made from petroleum.
Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest microfibre made of strands thinner than one denier to the sturdiest canvas. Textile manufacturing terminology has a wealth of descriptive terms, from light gauze-like gossamer to heavy grosgrain cloth and beyond. Animal textiles are made from hair, skin or silk. Wool refers to the hair of the domestic sheep or goat, distinguished from other types of animal hair in that the individual strands are coated with scales and crimped, the wool as a whole is coated with a wax mixture known as lanolin, waterproof and dirtproof. Woollen refers to a bulkier yarn produced from carded, non-parallel fibre, while worsted refers to a finer yarn spun from longer fibres which have been combed to be parallel. Wool is used for warm clothing. Cashmere, the hair of the Indian cashmere goat, mohair, the hair of the North African angora goat, are types of wool known for their softness. Other animal textiles which are made from hair or fur are alpaca wool, vicuña wool, llama wool, camel hair used in the production of coats, ponchos and other warm coverings.
Angora refers to the long, soft hair of the angora rabbit. Qiviut is the fine inner wool of the muskox. Wadmal is a coarse cloth made of wool, produced in Scandinavia 1000~1500 CE. Sea silk is an fine and valuable fabric, made from the silky filaments or byssus secreted by a gland in the foot of pen shells. Silk is an animal textile made from the fibres of the cocoon of the Chinese silkworm, spun into a smooth fabric prized for its softness. There are two main ty
Simon Cameron was an influential American businessman and politician who served as United States Secretary of War for Abraham Lincoln at the start of the American Civil War. Cameron made his fortune in railways and banking, founded the Bank of Middletown, he turned to a life of politics. He became a U. S. senator in 1845 for the state of Pennsylvania. A Democrat, he failed to secure a nomination for senator from the Know-Nothing party and joined the People's Party, the Pennsylvania branch of what became the Republican Party, he won the Senate seat in 1857 and became one of the candidates for the Republican nomination in the presidential election of 1860. Cameron became his Secretary of War, he served only a year before resigning amidst allegations of disorganization and corruption during the early phases of the American Civil War. Cameron became the minister to Russia but was overseas for less than a year. Beginning in 1867, he again served in the Senate. After leaving the Senate, Cameron lived in retirement, but still participated in politics and tended to his many business interests.
He was buried in Harrisburg. Cameron's chief legacy was a powerful Republican party machine that continued to dominate Pennsylvania politics long after his death. Simon Cameron was born in Maytown, Pennsylvania in 1799, to Charles Cameron, son of Simon Cameron and Martha Pfoutz, his wife Martha McLaughlin, daughter of Hugh McLaughlin, but the above personal information does not match the story that he was orphaned at nine and apprenticed to a printer, Andrew Kennedy, editor of the Northumberland Gazette before entering the field of journalism. It may be that he was apprenticed to Kennedy at age nine for a standard period of seven years, continued as a journeyman printer at age 16, he was the third of five sons. He was editor of the Bucks County Messenger in 1821. A year he moved to Washington, D. C. and studied political movements while working for the printing firm of Seaton. On 17 October 1822 in Harrisburg, Cameron married Margaret Brua, daughter of Peter Brua and Catherine Rupley, the daughter of Johann Jacob Rupple alias Lieut.
Jacob Rupley. Cameron purchased and ran the Harrisburg Republican in 1824. Cameron served as state printer of Pennsylvania from 1825 until 1827 and was state adjutant general in 1826, he merged them into the Northern Central Railway. He engaged in other business enterprises. In 1838, he was appointed as commissioner to settle claims of the Winnebago Indians. Cameron began his political career as a Democrat, supporting the campaigns of Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, he was elected to replace James Buchanan in the United States Senate in 1845, serving until 1849. A persistent opponent of slavery, Cameron switched to the Know Nothing Party, before joining the Republican Party in 1856. In 1857, Cameron was again elected to the US Senate. At the 1860 Republican National Convention, Cameron controlled the votes of the Pennsylvania delegation, he delivered those votes to Abraham Lincoln for the nomination for President, decisive. In return, Lincoln's managers promised a Cabinet post for Cameron; when Lincoln became President, he reluctantly appointed Cameron Secretary of War.
His tenure was marked by allegations of corruption and lax management, he was forced to resign early in 1862. His corruption was so notorious that US Representative Thaddeus Stevens, when asked whether Cameron would steal, said: "I don't think that he would steal a red hot stove." Cameron was succeeded as Secretary of War by Edwin Stanton, serving as Cameron's legal advisor. Cameron served as Minister to Russia. Cameron's brother, James Cameron, colonel of the 79th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment, was killed in action at the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861. Cameron made a political comeback after the Civil War, building a powerful state party machine that would dominate Pennsylvania politics for the next seventy years. In 1866, Cameron was again elected to the Senate. Cameron convinced his close friend Ulysses S. Grant to appoint his son, James Donald Cameron, as Secretary of War in 1876; that year, Cameron helped Rutherford B. Hayes win the Republican nomination in 1876. Cameron resigned from the Senate in 1877 after assuring.
Though Cameron had intended for his son to succeed him as head of the state machine, Matthew Quay succeeded Cameron as the party boss. Cameron retired to his farm at Donegal Springs Cameron Estate near Maytown, Pennsylvania where he died on June 26, 1889, he is buried in the Harrisburg Cemetery in Pennsylvania. Cameron County and Cameron Parish, are named in his honor. Simon Cameron House and Bank, Pennsylvania Simon Cameron House, Pennsylvania Simon Cameron School, Pennsylvania Bradley, Erwin Stanley. Simon Cameron, Lincoln's Secretary of War: A Political Biography. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. LCCN 65020756. Crip
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Daniel Sturgeon was an American physician and Democratic party politician from Uniontown, Pennsylvania. He served in both houses of the state legislature and represented Pennsylvania in the United States Senate. Daniel Sturgeon was born on October 27, 1789, in Mount Pleasant, present-day Adams County, Pennsylvania, he moved with his parents to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1804. He attended Jefferson College in Canonsburg and Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. Sturgeon practiced medicine in Uniontown, until being appointed county coroner in 1813, he served in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives from 1818 until 1824 and the Pennsylvania State Senate from 1825 until 1830, serving as President of that body for the final two years of his term until serving as Pennsylvania Auditor General from 1830 until 1836. Prior to being elected to the U. S. Senate, Sturgeon served as Pennsylvania Treasurer from 1838 until 1839. Sturgeon was elected by the state legislature to the United States Senate on January 14, 1840, to serve the term that commenced on March 4, 1839.
He was re-elected to the U. S. Senate in 1845 and was not a candidate for re-election in 1851, his term expired in March 1851. While a U. S. Senator, Sturgeon served as chairman of the Committee on Patents and the Patent Office and the Committee on Agriculture. Following his tenure in the U. S. Senate, Sturgeon was appointed treasurer of the United States Mint in Philadelphia by President Franklin Pierce, serving from 1853 until 1858, he was interred in Oak Grove Cemetery. United States Congress. "Daniel Sturgeon". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Daniel Sturgeon at Find a Grave This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov