John Glover (general)
John Glover was an American fisherman and military leader from Marblehead, who served as a Brigadier General in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. Glover was born in Salem, the son of a house carpenter and his father died when he was four years old, and shortly thereafter his family moved to the nearby town of Marblehead. As a young man, Glover became a cordwainer and rum trader and eventually a ship owner and he married Hannah Gale in October 1754. Following the Boston Massacre in 1770, Committees of Correspondence were formed, Marblehead elected Glover along with future revolutionists Elbridge Gerry and Azor Orne to committee posts. After the First Continental Congress passed the non-importation agreements sanctioning trade with the British, Glover was active in the militia for many years before the Revolution, with his earliest service dating back to 1759. In 1775 he was elected lieutenant colonel of the 21st Massachusetts Regiment from Marblehead, Glover marched his regiment to join the siege of Boston in June 1775.
At Boston, General George Washington chartered Glovers schooner Hannah to raid British supply vessels, for this reason the Hannah has been called the first vessel of the United States Navy. The Marblehead militia or Glovers Regiment became the 14th Continental Regiment and this regiment became known as the amphibious regiment for their vital nautical skills. It was composed almost entirely of fishermen, after Washington lost the Battle of Long Island in August 1776, Glovers Marbleheaders evacuated the army to Manhattan in a surprise nighttime operation, saving them from being entrapped. In subsequent actions of the New York campaign the regiment fought well against the British at Kips Bay, the last action of the regiment was its most famous, ferrying Washingtons army across the Delaware River for a surprise attack at Trenton on the morning of December 26,1776. The regiment was disbanded as enlistments expired at years end, Glover went home to tend to his sick wife and look to business affairs.
He turned down a promotion to general in February 1777. He served in the successful Saratoga campaign in 1777 and the failed Battle of Rhode Island in 1778 and he was stationed along the Hudson River for the remainder of the war, guarding against British moves up the river from New York City. Hannah, Glovers first wife, died in 1778 and he married again in 1781 to Widow Frances Fosdick. He retired from the army in 1782 in poor health, failing to secure a job with the U. S. federal government, he served in various local offices in his remaining years. He died in 1797 at age 64 in Marblehead, Massachusetts, on November 20,1783, he was awarded the charter for the town of Glover, Vermont, as its prime proprietor, in honor of his service. The frigate USS Glover was named for him, Glovers Rock in the Bronx is a memorial to him. Glover School in Marblehead was named after him in 1916, there is a statue of Glover on Commonwealth Avenue in Boston
George Johnstone (Royal Navy officer)
Johnstone was born into a gentry family in 1730, and embarked on a naval career. Early in his service there occurred several incidents which revealed both positive and negative aspects of his character and he was involved in encounters with the enemy where he was praised for his bravery, and incidents where he was censured for disobedience. He rose through the ranks to his own commands and had success with small cruisers against enemy merchants. After the end of the Seven Years War he had friends with several powerful figures. Returning to Britain he became active in politics, supporting measures for the Americans. His stance on the led to his appointment as a member of the Carlisle Peace Commission, but he was accused of offering bribes. Thwarted in his mission, he had some consolation in discovering a valuable fleet of Dutch merchants, returning to politics in England after the war he spoke on a number of issues, but was not asked to join an administration. He became a director of the East India Company towards the end of his life, before illness forced him to retire from business and he was a younger brother of William Johnstone, and an older brother of the East India Company official John Johnstone.
He began his career at sea in the Merchant Navy, entered the Royal Navy in 1746 and he spent some time as a midshipman aboard HMS Lark under Captain John Crookshanks. For reasons unknown Crookshanks refused to grant Johnstone his certificate, upon which Johnstone challenged him to a duel, the challenge being accepted, the two duelled and Crookshanks was wounded in the neck. The end of the war in 1748 left him without active employment and he spent some time in the merchant service during the years of peace, captaining at least one merchant vessel to the Caribbean. He was recalled to the navy at his new rank on the outbreak of the Seven Years War, Johnstone however made an enemy of Rear-Admiral Thomas Cotes as a result of a dispute over prize money. The proposed court martial was dismissed out of hand by Admiralty, despite these incidents, Johnstone was briefly made acting captain of the 70-gun HMS Essex in June 1759. By 1759 Johnstone, by now in poor health, found himself without a ship, after a period of delays, the first lord of the Admiralty George Anson, 1st Baron Anson gave him his first command, the 14-gun sloop HMS Hornet.
She was initially assigned to carry out duties in the North Sea, during one of which Johnstone was faced with a mutiny. Hornet was ordered to Lisbon, on the voyage, Johnstone captured several prizes, and took several more after his arrival. Among them was the 8-gun privateer Chevalier D’Artesay off Granville on 8 January 1761 and he was sent to inform Admiral George Rodney in January 1762 of the British declaration of war against Spain. Rodney was able to use this early notice to capture a number of valuable prizes, Johnstone was promoted to post-captain in May 1762, shortly before the end of the Seven Years War
An aide-de-camp is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank, usually a senior military, police or government officer, a member of a royal family, or a head of state. This is not to be confused with an adjutant, who is the administrator of a military unit. The first aide-de-camp is typically the foremost personal aide, in some countries, the aide-de-camp is considered to be a title of honour, and participates at ceremonial functions. The badge of office for an aide-de-camp is usually the aiguillette, whether it is worn on the left or the right shoulder is dictated by protocol. A controversy was raised in 2006, when president Néstor Kirchner decided to promote his army aide-de-camp, Lieutenant Colonel Graham to colonel, upon taking office, former president Cristina Kirchner decided to have, for the first time, female officers as her aides-de-camp. In each of the forces, the chief of staff and other senior officers have their own adjutants, normally of the rank of major or lieutenant colonel.
An aiguillette is worn on the shoulder by aides-de-camp and adjutants as a symbol of their position. In Belgium the title of Honorary Aide-de-camp to the King can be granted by the court for services rendered. Notable people include Major General Baron Édouard Empain, Count Charles John dOultremont, generals being field marshals, have four, lieutenant generals two, major generals one”. In British colonies and modern-day British overseas territories, the aide-de-camp is appointed to serve the governor, in 1973, the Governor of Bermuda, Sir Richard Sharples, and his aide-de-camp, Captain Hugh Sayers, were murdered on the grounds of Government House. On the last day of British rule in Hong Kong on 30 June 1997 and he gave the Vice Regal Salute before proceeding, with the Pattens, to leave Government House for the last time. Prince Charles is a personal aide-de-camp to Queen Elizabeth II, Honorary aides-de-camp to the Governor-General or state governors are entitled to the post-nominal ADC during their appointment.
Officers of and above the ranks of admiral, major general. Within the navy, an aide-de-camp is called a flag lieutenant, aides-de-camp in Canada are appointed to the Queen and some members of the royal family, the governor general, lieutenant governors, and to certain other appointments. All aides-de-camp wear the cypher or badge of the principal to whom they are appointed, aides-de-camp to the governor general wear the governor generals badge and aides-de-camp to a lieutenant governor wear the lieutenant governors badge. They are appointed officers of the Canadian Forces. In certain instances, civilians may be appointed, non-uniformed civilians do not wear the aiguillette, but do wear their lieutenant governors badge as a symbol of their appointment. Aides-de-camp to royal and vice-regal personages wear the aiguillette on the right shoulder, aides-de-camp to all others wear their aiguillette on the left shoulder
Charles Lee (general)
Charles Lee served as a general of the Continental Army during the American War of Independence. He served earlier in the British Army during the Seven Years War and he sold his commission after the Seven Years War and served for a time in the Polish army of King Stanislaus II. Lee moved to North America in 1773 and bought an estate in Virginia, when the fighting broke out in the American War of Independence in 1775, he volunteered to serve with rebel forces. Lees ambitions to become Commander in Chief of the Continental Army were thwarted by the appointment of George Washington to that post, during 1776, forces under his command repulsed a British attempt to capture Charleston, which boosted his standing with the army and Congress. Later that year, he was captured by British cavalry under Banastre Tarleton, during the decisive Battle of Monmouth that year, Lee led an assault on the British that miscarried. He was subsequently court-martialed and his service brought to an end. He died in Philadelphia in 1782, Lee was born on 26 January 1731 in Darnhall, England, the son of Major General John Lee and his wife Isabella Bunbury.
He was sent to King Edward VI School, Bury St Edmunds, a grammar school, and to Switzerland, where he became proficient in several languages, including Latin, Greek. His father was colonel of the 55th Foot when he purchased a commission on April 9,1747 for Charles as an ensign in the same regiment, after completing his schooling, Lee reported for duty with his regiment in Ireland. Shortly after his fathers death, on 2 May 1751 he received a Lieutenants commission in the 44th and he was with Braddock at his defeat at the Battle of the Monongahela in 1755. During this time in America, Lee married the daughter of a Mohawk Indian chief and his wife gave birth to twins. Lee was known to the Mohawk, who were allies of the English, on 11 June 1756 Lee purchased a Captains commission in the 44th for the sum of £900. The following year he took part in an expedition against the French fortress of Louisbourg and he was sent to Long Island to recuperate. A surgeon whom he had earlier rebuked and thrashed attacked him, after recovering, Lee took part in the capture of Fort Niagara in 1759 and Montreal in 1760.
This brought the war in the North American theater to an end by completing the Conquest of Canada, Lee went back to Europe, transferred to the 103rd Foot as a major, and served as a lieutenant colonel in the Portuguese army. He fought against the Spanish invasion of Portugal and distinguished himself under John Burgoyne at the Battle of Vila Velha and he returned to England in 1763 following the Peace of Paris, which ended the Seven Years War. His regiment was disbanded and he was retired on pay as a major. In May 1772, although inactive, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel
Esther de Berdt
Esther De Berdt was born in London, into a family descended of Protestant refugees from Ypres, who had fled the Spanish Fury led by the Duke of Alba. Her family called her Hette or Hettie and she loved very much. At the age of twenty-three Esther married Joseph Reed, an American who had studied law in London, thereafter and her widowed mother followed him to Philadelphia in the American colonies. Joseph became a lawyer and a local political leader. Reed served as Washingtons secretary and aide-de-camp, though she was English by birth, Esther was exceptionally devoted to the revolutionary cause. During the Revolutionary War, she helped organize the Daughters of Liberty in Philadelphia which raised more than $7000 in support of the war, at the suggestion of General Washington, the group used the funds to purchase linen and sew clothing for American troops. DeBerdt had wanted to give the men gold or silver coins, something above and beyond what they would normally receive and he had each volunteer seamstress, whether married or unmarried, sew her name into the clothing she made.
More than 2,200 shirts for the soldiers were created from the funds, for de Berdts efforts in support of the American cause, she was recognized as a Daughter of Liberty. Unfortunately, Reed did not live to see her efforts fully realized, Reed died on September 18,1780, at the young age of 34. The daughter of Benjamin Franklin, Sarah Franklin Bache, took over Reed’s position, though she did not see the project finished, Reed’s efforts did not go unacknowledged. She was recognized as a Daughter of Liberty, and women in several colonies, including Maryland, New Jersey and her commitment to the Revolution is especially noteworthy because she was British, she had lived in America only a few years before the war against her homeland began. In writing about her reasons for this action, Esther Reed made it clear that freedom was her motivation. During an evacuation of Philadelphia she fled with her six children to Flemington and she is buried in the Arch Street Presbyterian Church cemetery in Philadelphia.
Her epitaph reads, In memory of Esther, the wife of Joseph Reed President of this State. The call to action was successful and the Ladies Association of Philadelphia became the largest women’s organization of the Revolutionary War, founding Mothers Biographic sketch of Esther de Berdt at White House website for children
Society of the Cincinnati
Now in its third century, the Society promotes the public interest in the revolution through its library and museum collections and other activities. It is the oldest hereditary society in the United States, the concept of the Society of the Cincinnati was that of Major General Henry Knox. The first meeting of the Society was held in May 1783 at a dinner at Mount Gulian in Fishkill, New York, the meeting was chaired by Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Hamilton, and the participants agreed to stay in contact with each other after the war. Membership was generally limited to officers who had served at least three years in the Continental Army or Navy, it included officers of the French Army and Navy above certain ranks. Officers in the Continental Line who died during the War were entitled to be recorded as members, Members of the considerably larger fighting forces comprising the Colonial Militias and Minutemen were not entitled to join the Society. Later in the 18th century, the Societys rules adopted a system of primogeniture wherein membership was passed down to the eldest son after the death of the original member, each officer may be represented by only one descendant at any given time, following the rules of primogeniture.
The requirement for primogeniture made the society controversial in its early years, the Society is named after Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, who left his farm to accept a term as Roman Consul and served as Magister Populi. He assumed lawful dictatorial control of Rome to meet a war emergency, when the battle was won, he returned power to the Senate and went back to plowing his fields. The Societys motto reflects that ethic of service, Omnia reliquit servare rempublicam. The Society has had three goals, To preserve the rights so dearly won, to promote the union of the states, and to assist members in need, their widows. Within 12 months of the founding, a constituent Society had been organized in each of the 13 states, of about 5,500 men originally eligible for membership,2,150 had joined within a year. King Louis XVI ordained the French Society of the Cincinnati, which was organized on July 4,1784. Up to that time, the King of France had not allowed his officers to wear any foreign decorations, George Washington was elected the first President General of the Society.
He served from December 1783 until his death in 1799, the second President General was Alexander Hamilton. Upon Hamiltons death due to his duel with Aaron Burr, the third President General of the Society was Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, in 1808, he ran unsuccessfully for President of the United States against James Madison. Its members have included military and political leaders, including 23 signers of the United States Constitution. James Armstrong, Samuel Elbert, George Mathews, John Milton, bernardus Swartwout, Cornelius Swartwout, BG Philip Van Cortlandt, Frederick Von Weisenfels. Count Axel von Fersen, Baron Curt von Stedingk, on June 19,1783, the General Society of the Cincinnati adopted the bald eagle as its insignia
Pennsylvania /ˌpɛnsᵻlˈveɪnjə/, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle, Pennsylvania is the 33rd largest, the 5th most populous, and the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The states five most populous cities are Philadelphia, Allentown, the state capital, and its ninth-largest city, is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of shoreline along Lake Erie and the Delaware Estuary. The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States, it came into being in 1681 as a result of a land grant to William Penn. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden and it was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12,1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the states largest city of Philadelphia, during the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg, was fought in the south central region of the state.
Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washingtons headquarters during the winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west, of a total 46,055 square miles,44,817 square miles are land,490 square miles are inland waters, and 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States, Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown, the northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining communities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston City, and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest, the state has 5 regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the corner, has a humid continental climate. The largest city, has characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware.
Moving toward the interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increase. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, the Tuscarora Nation took up temporary residence in the central portion of Pennsylvania ca. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their lands in America
Kingdom of Great Britain
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. It did not include Ireland, which remained a separate realm, the unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government that was based in Westminster. Also after the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the early years of the unified kingdom were marked by Jacobite risings which ended in defeat for the Stuart cause at Culloden in 1746. On 1 January 1801, the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland were merged to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922, five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom, the name Britain descends from the Latin name for the island of Great Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, the land of the Britons via the Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The term Great Britain was first used officially in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Edward IV of Englands daughter Cecily and James III of Scotlands son James.
The Treaty of Union and the subsequent Acts of Union state that England and Scotland were to be United into one Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain. However, both the Acts and the Treaty refer numerous times to the United Kingdom and the longer form, other publications refer to the country as the United Kingdom after 1707 as well. The websites of the UK parliament, the Scottish Parliament, the BBC, the term United Kingdom was found in informal use during the 18th century to describe the state. The new state created in 1707 included the island of Great Britain, the kingdoms of England and Scotland, both in existence from the 9th century, were separate states until 1707. However, they had come into a union in 1603. Each of the three kingdoms maintained its own parliament and laws and this disposition changed dramatically when the Acts of Union 1707 came into force, with a single unified Crown of Great Britain and a single unified parliament. Ireland remained formally separate, with its own parliament, until the Acts of Union 1800, legislative power was vested in the Parliament of Great Britain, which replaced both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland.
In practice it was a continuation of the English parliament, sitting at the location in Westminster. Newly created peers in the Peerage of Great Britain were given the right to sit in the Lords. Despite the end of a parliament for Scotland, it retained its own laws. As a result of Poynings Law of 1495, the Parliament of Ireland was subordinate to the Parliament of England, the Act was repealed by the Repeal of Act for Securing Dependence of Ireland Act 1782. The same year, the Irish constitution of 1782 produced a period of legislative freedom, the 18th century saw England, and after 1707 Great Britain, rise to become the worlds dominant colonial power, with France its main rival on the imperial stage
American Revolutionary War
From about 1765 the American Revolution had led to increasing philosophical and political differences between Great Britain and its American colonies. The war represented a culmination of these differences in armed conflict between Patriots and the authority which they increasingly resisted. This resistance became particularly widespread in the New England Colonies, especially in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. On December 16,1773, Massachusetts members of the Patriot group Sons of Liberty destroyed a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor in an event that became known as the Boston Tea Party. Named the Coercive Acts by Parliament, these became known as the Intolerable Acts in America. The Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, establishing a government that removed control of the province from the Crown outside of Boston. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, and established committees, British attempts to seize the munitions of Massachusetts colonists in April 1775 led to the first open combat between Crown forces and Massachusetts militia, the Battles of Lexington and Concord.
Militia forces proceeded to besiege the British forces in Boston, forcing them to evacuate the city in March 1776, the Continental Congress appointed George Washington to take command of the militia. Concurrent to the Boston campaign, an American attempt to invade Quebec, on July 2,1776, the Continental Congress formally voted for independence, issuing its Declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe began a British counterattack, focussing on recapturing New York City, Howe outmaneuvered and defeated Washington, leaving American confidence at a low ebb. Washington captured a Hessian force at Trenton and drove the British out of New Jersey, in 1777 the British sent a new army under John Burgoyne to move south from Canada and to isolate the New England colonies. However, instead of assisting Burgoyne, Howe took his army on a campaign against the revolutionary capital of Philadelphia. Burgoyne outran his supplies, was surrounded and surrendered at Saratoga in October 1777, the British defeat in the Saratoga Campaign had drastic consequences.
Giving up on the North, the British decided to salvage their former colonies in the South, British forces under Lieutenant-General Charles Cornwallis seized Georgia and South Carolina, capturing an American army at Charleston, South Carolina. British strategy depended upon an uprising of large numbers of armed Loyalists, in 1779 Spain joined the war as an ally of France under the Pacte de Famille, intending to capture Gibraltar and British colonies in the Caribbean. Britain declared war on the Dutch Republic in December 1780, in 1781, after the British and their allies had suffered two decisive defeats at Kings Mountain and Cowpens, Cornwallis retreated to Virginia, intending on evacuation. A decisive French naval victory in September deprived the British of an escape route, a joint Franco-American army led by Count Rochambeau and Washington, laid siege to the British forces at Yorktown. With no sign of relief and the situation untenable, Cornwallis surrendered in October 1781, Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tory majority in Parliament, but the defeat at Yorktown gave the Whigs the upper hand
University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university located in Philadelphia, United States. Incorporated as The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, Penn is one of 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, the university coat of arms features a dolphin on the red chief, adopted directly from the Franklin familys own coat of arms. Penn was one of the first academic institutions to follow a multidisciplinary model pioneered by several European universities and it was home to many other educational innovations. The first school of medicine in North America, the first collegiate school. With an endowment of $10.72 billion, Penn had the seventh largest endowment of all colleges in the United States, all of Penns schools exhibit very high research activity. In fiscal year 2015, Penns academic research budget was $851 million, over its history, the university has produced many distinguished alumni. S. House of Representatives,8 signers of the United States Declaration of Independence, in addition, some 30 Nobel laureates,169 Guggenheim Fellows, and 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, have been affiliated with Penn.
In addition, Penn has produced a significant number of Fortune 500 CEOs, in 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open air sermons. The building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time and it was initially planned to serve as a charity school as well, however, a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklins autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years. Unlike the other Colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard and Mary, Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America. At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern.
The original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklins group to assume their debts and, accordingly, on February 1,1750 the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13,1751, the Academy of Philadelphia, using the hall at 4th and Arch Streets. A charity school was chartered July 13,1753 in accordance with the intentions of the original New Building donors, June 16,1755, the College of Philadelphia was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction. All three schools shared the same Board of Trustees and were considered to be part of the same institution, the institution of higher learning was known as the College of Philadelphia from 1755 to 1779. In 1779, not trusting then-provost the Rev. William Smiths Loyalist tendencies, the result was a schism, with Smith continuing to operate an attenuated version of the College of Philadelphia. In 1791 the Legislature issued a new charter, merging the two institutions into a new University of Pennsylvania with twelve men from each institution on the new Board of Trustees
In 1682, William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia was one of the capitals in the Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became an industrial center. It became a destination for African-Americans in the Great Migration. The areas many universities and colleges make Philadelphia a top international study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational, with a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation. Philadelphia is the center of activity in Pennsylvania and is home to seven Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is growing, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016 including several prominent skyscrapers. The city is known for its arts and rich history, Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States.
The 67 National Historic Landmarks in the city helped account for the $10 billion generated by tourism, Philadelphia is the only World Heritage City in the United States. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon, the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians and their territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape, surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. The American Revolutionary War and United States independence pushed them further west, in the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy.
In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the US state of Oklahoma, with communities living in Wisconsin, Ontario. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony, in 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their defeat of the English colony of Maryland
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States. The Thirteen Colonies had very similar political and legal systems and they were part of Britains possessions in the New World, which included colonies in present-day Canada and the Caribbean, as well as East and West Florida. However, the Thirteen Colonies had a degree of self-government and active local elections. In the 1750s, the colonies began collaborating with each other instead of dealing directly with Britain, Colonial decisions were subject to approval by the governor and the home government. There were substantial populations of African slaves in some of the colonies, especially Virginia, the Carolinas, the names of the colonies were chosen by the founders and proprietors, subject to royal approval, and given in the founding charters. Nine of the thirteen chose to include in their names the term Province of, residents tended to drop the ambiguous terminology, as in the map shown in the article Province of New Jersey, which is labeled simply East Jersey and West Jersey.
In July 1776, they formed a new nation called the United States of America, the new nation achieved that goal by winning the American Revolutionary War with the aid of France, the Netherlands, and Spain. The American flag features thirteen horizontal stripes which represent these original thirteen colonies, besides these thirteen colonies, Britain had another dozen in the New World. Those in the British West Indies, the Province of Quebec, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and East and West Florida remained loyal to the crown throughout the war. The British crown had recently acquired those lands, and many of the issues facing the Thirteen Colonies did not apply to them, especially in the case of Quebec. Contemporary documents usually list the thirteen colonies of British North America in geographical order, the consolidation collapsed after the Glorious Revolution of 1688–89, and the nine former colonies re-established their separate identities in 1689. Massachusetts Bay Colony Settled in 1630 by Puritans from England, the colonial charter was revoked in 1684, and a new charter was issued in 1691 establishing an enlarged Province of Massachusetts Bay.
Province of Maine Settled in 1622, the Massachusetts Bay Colony claimed the Maine territory in the 1650s, limited to present-day southernmost Maine. Parts of Maine east of the Kennebec River were part of New York in the half of the 17th century. These areas were made part of the Province of Massachusetts Bay in the charter of 1691. Plymouth Colony Settled in 1620 by the Pilgrims, plymouth was merged into the Province of Massachusetts Bay in the charter of 1691. Saybrook Colony Founded in 1635 and merged with Connecticut Colony in 1644, New Haven Colony Settled in late 1637. New Netherland Extensive region centered about New Amsterdam at the tip of Manhattan Island