McDonnell Douglas A-12 Avenger II
The McDonnell Douglas/General Dynamics A-12 Avenger II was a proposed American attack aircraft from McDonnell Douglas and General Dynamics. It was to be an all-weather, carrier-based stealth bomber replacement for the Grumman A-6 Intruder in the United States Navy and its Avenger II name was taken from the Grumman TBF Avenger of World War II. The manner of its cancellation was contested through litigation until a settlement was reached in January 2014, the United States Navy began the Advanced Tactical Aircraft program in 1983. The program was to develop and field a replacement for the A-6 Intruder by 1994, stealth technology developed for the United States Air Force would be used heavily in the program. Concept design contracts were awarded to the teams of McDonnell Douglas/General Dynamics. The teams were awarded contracts for further development in 1986. The McDonnell Douglas/General Dynamics team was selected as the winner on 13 January 1988, the McDonnell Douglas/General Dynamics team was awarded a development contract and the ATA aircraft was designated A-12.
The first flight was planned for December 1990. The A-12 was named Avenger II in homage to the World War II-era Navy torpedo-bomber Grumman TBF Avenger, the Navy initially sought to buy 620 A-12s and Marines wanted 238. In addition, the Air Force briefly considered ordering some 400 of an A-12 derivative, the A-12 was promoted as a possible replacement for the Air Forces General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark, and for the United Kingdoms Panavia Tornado fighter-bombers. The craft was a wing design in the shape of an isosceles triangle. The A-12 gained the nickname Flying Dorito, the aircraft was to be powered by two General Electric F412-D5F2 turbofan engines, each producing about 13,000 pounds-force of thrust. It has been claimed that the A-12 was to be capable of delivering nuclear weapons held in its weapons bay as well. The A-12 was to have a load of 5,160 pounds. Beginning in early 1990 McDonnell Douglas and General Dynamics revealed delays, due to complications with the composite materials, aircraft weight had increased to 30% over design specification.
This was unwelcome for an airplane that needed to efficiently and effectively from an aircraft carrier. Technical difficulties with the complexity of the system to be used caused costs to increase. After delays, its critical design review was completed in October 1990
It provides day and night, high-altitude, all-weather intelligence gathering. The U-2 has used for electronic sensor research, satellite calibration. Early versions of the U-2 were involved in several events through the Cold War, being flown over the Soviet Union, Vietnam, in 1960, Gary Powers was shot down in a CIA U-2A over the Soviet Union by a surface-to-air missile. Another U-2, piloted by Major Rudolf Anderson, Jr. was lost in a fashion during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. The U-2 is one of a handful of types to have served the USAF for over 50 years. The newest models entered service in the 1980s, the current model, the U-2S, received its most recent technical upgrade in 2012. They have taken part in post–Cold War conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq, after World War II, the U. S. military desired better strategic aerial reconnaissance to help determine Soviet capabilities and intentions. Richard Leghorn of the USAF suggested that an aircraft that could fly at 60,000 feet should be safe from the MiG-17, the Soviet Unions best interceptor, which could barely reach 45,000 feet.
He and others believed that Soviet radar, which used American equipment provided during the war, the highest-flying aircraft available to America and its allies at the time was the English Electric Canberra, which could reach 48,000 feet. Air Research and Development Command mandated design changes made the aircraft more durable for combat. The Soviet Union, unlike the United States and Britain, had improved radar technology after the war and it was thought that an aircraft that could fly at 70,000 feet would be beyond the reach of Soviet fighters and radar. Another USAF officer, John Seaberg, wrote a request for proposal in 1953 for an aircraft that could reach 70,000 feet over a target with 1,500 nmi of operational radius. The USAF decided to solicit designs only from smaller companies that could give the project more attention. Under the code name Bald Eagle, it contracts to Bell Aircraft, Martin Aircraft. Officials at Lockheed Aircraft Corporation heard about the project and decided to submit an unsolicited proposal, to save weight and increase altitude, Lockheed executive John Carter suggested that the design eliminate landing gear and avoid attempting to meet combat load factors for the airframe.
The company asked Clarence Kelly Johnson to come up such a design. Johnson was Lockheeds best aeronautical engineer, responsible for the P-38 and he was known for completing projects ahead of schedule, working in a separate division of the company, informally called the Skunk Works. Johnsons design, named CL-282, was based on the Lockheed XF-104 with long, slender wings, the design was powered by the General Electric J73 engine and took off from a special cart and landed on its belly
National Medal of Technology and Innovation
The award may be granted to a specific person, to a group of people or to an entire organization or corporation. It is the highest honor the United States can confer to a US citizen for achievements related to technological progress, the National Medal of Technology was created in 1980 by the United States Congress under the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act. It was an effort to foster technological innovation and the technological competitiveness of the United States in the international arena. The first National Medals of Technology were issued in 1985 by then-U. S, President Ronald Reagan to 12 individuals and one company. Among the first recipients were Steve Jobs and Stephen Wozniak, founders of Apple Computer, the medal has since been awarded annually. On August 9,2007, President George Bush signed the America COMPETES Act of 2007, the Act amended Section 16 of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980, changing the name of the Medal to the National Medal of Technology and Innovation.
Each year the Technology Administration under the U. S. Department of Commerce calls for the nomination of new candidates for the National Medal of Technology, candidates are nominated by their peers who have direct, first-hand knowledge of the candidates achievements. Candidates may be individuals, teams of individuals, organizations or corporations and all members of teams nominated must be U. S. citizens and organizations and corporations must be U. S. -owned. All nominations are referred to the National Medal of Technology Evaluation Committee which issues recommendations to the U. S. Secretary of Commerce, all nominees selected as finalists through the merit review process will be subject to an FBI security check. Information collected through the security check may be considered in the selection of winners. The Secretary of Commerce is able to advise the President of the United States as to which candidates ought to receive the National Medal of Technology. The new National Medal of Technology laureates are announced by the U. S.
President once the final selections have been made. As of 2005, there have more than 135 individuals and 12 companies recognized. Summarized here is a list of laureates and a summary of their accomplishments
Delray Beach, Florida
Delray Beach is a coastal city in Palm Beach County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 60,522. The population was estimated at 66,255 in 2015, Delray Beach is part of the Miami metropolitan area. Recorded history began with the construction of the Orange Grove House of Refuge in 1876, settlement began around 1884, when African-Americans from the Panhandle of Florida purchased land a little inland from the Orange Grove House of Refuge and began farming. By 1894 the Black community was enough to establish the first school in the area. In 1894 William S. Initially, this community was named after Linton, in 1896 Henry Flagler extended his Florida East Coast Railroad south from West Palm Beach to Miami, with a station at Linton. The Linton settlers began to achieve success, with farming of winter vegetables for the northern market. A hard freeze in 1898 was a setback, and many of the settlers left, settlers from The Bahamas, sometimes referred to as Nassaws, began arriving in the early 1900s.
The 1910 census shows Delray as a town of 904 citizens, twenty-four U. S. states and nine other countries are listed as the birthplace of its residents. Although still a town, Delray had a remarkably diverse citizenry. In 1911, the area was chartered by the State of Florida as an incorporated town, in the same year and tomato canning plants were built. Pineapples became the crop of the area. This is reflected in the name of the present day Pineapple Grove neighborhood near downtown Delray Beach, prior to 1909, the Delray settlement land was within Dade County. That year, Palm Beach County was carved out of the portion of the region. By 1920, Delrays population had reached 1,051, the Florida land boom of the 1920s brought renewed prosperity to Delray. Tourism and real estate speculation became important parts of the local economy, Delray issued bonds to raise money to install water and sewer lines, paved streets, and sidewalks. At that time Delray was the largest town on the east coast of Florida between West Palm Beach and Fort Lauderdale, the collapse of the land boom in 1926 left Delray saddled with high bond debts, and greatly reduced income from property taxes.
Delray was separated from the Atlantic Ocean beach by the Florida East Coast Canal, in 1923 the area between the canal and the ocean was incorporated as Delray Beach
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university or college. In modern usage, it is a school or university which an individual has attended, the phrase is variously translated as nourishing mother, nursing mother, or fostering mother, suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Before its modern usage, Alma mater was a title in Latin for various mother goddesses, especially Ceres or Cybele. The source of its current use is the motto, Alma Mater Studiorum, of the oldest university in continuous operation in the Western world and it is related to the term alumnus, denoting a university graduate, which literally means a nursling or one who is nourished. The phrase can denote a song or hymn associated with a school, although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not frequently used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. Alma Redemptoris Mater is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary, the earliest documented English use of the term to refer to a university is in 1600, when University of Cambridge printer John Legate began using an emblem for the universitys press.
In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is often cited in 1710, many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name. The University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the Alma Mater of the Nation because of its ties to the founding of the United States. At Queens University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses, outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
United States Under Secretary of the Air Force
In the absence of the Secretary, the Under Secretary exercises all the powers and duties of the Secretary and serves as Acting Secretary when the position of Secretary is vacant. The Under Secretary of the Air Force is appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent the Senate, the Secretary and Under Secretary, together with two military officers, constitute the senior leadership team of the Department of the Air Force. Leadership of the National Reconnaissance Office HAF MISSION DIRECTIVE 1–2, UNDER SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE,8 SEPTEMBER2008, Department of Defense Key Officials 1947–2004. Historical Office, Office of the Secretary of Defense,2004 Office of the Secretary of the Air Force – Organizational and Functional Charts 1947–1984, Office of Air Force History,1985 Report To The Congress – Use of Missile Procurement Funds To Finance Research And Development Efforts – B-146876. Comptroller General of the United States,1969 Watson, George M. Office of the Secretary of the Air Force 1947–65, center for Air Force History,1993 United States Air Force biography
Canmore is a town in Alberta, located approximately 81 kilometres west from Calgary near the southeast boundary of Banff National Park. It is located in the Bow Valley within Albertas Rockies, the town shares a border with Kananaskis Country to the west and south and the Municipal District of Bighorn No.8 to the north and east. With a population of 12,288 in 2011, Canmore is the ninth-largest town in Alberta, Canmore was officially named in 1884 by Canadian Pacific Railway director Donald A. Smith. It was named after Malcolm III of Scotland who was nicknamed Canmore, Canmore is Gaelic for Big Head In 1886, Queen Victoria granted a coal mining charter to the town, and the No.1 mine was opened in 1887. By the 1890s, a North-West Mounted Police barrack had been instated on Main Street, the building was restored in 1989 and it is under the care of the Canmore Museum and Geoscience Centre. The coal mining industry in Canmore boomed well into the 20th century, in 1965, with a population of 2,000, Canmore was incorporated as a town.
By the 1970s the market for coal was diminished, and in 1979 Canmore Mines Ltd. ceased operations. Canmores economic future seemed dismal until the announcement in the early 1980s that Calgary would be hosting the 1988 Winter Olympics, and this resulted in an increase in tourism, and Canmore began to develop into the recreational tourist destination it is today. The Canmore Hotel sits on the street as it has for over 100 years. The building has changed little in this time making it one of the most distinguishable landmarks in Canmore. The hotel celebrated its 120th anniversary in October 2010, concerns over Canmores urban growth adjacent to provincial and national park land has led to many efforts to place a limit on future development. The town is expected to reach its maximum build out following the completion of the SilverTip, Much of the Canmore area has been designated a wildlife corridor. This corridor allows animals such as bears, cougar and elk to move between patches, where they can find food, escape predators, give birth.
Despite its modest population and environmentally friendly image, Canmore is highly sprawled and segmented and takes over one, Much of the recent development is taking place in Three Sisters Mountain Village, SilverTip Resort, and around the town centre. A series of hiking, mountain biking and paved trails traverse the Canmore area, major trail systems are located on the Benchlands of Mount Lady Macdonald, at the Canmore Nordic Centre, and along the north slope of Mount Lawrence Grassi. Many of these trails, and others around the community, are located within Bow Valley Wildland Provincial Park and Kananaskis Country. Some of these, including the Montaine Traverse Trail and the Highline Trail, have improved by the Town of Canmore, the Government of Alberta. 8, and various stakeholders in order to balance recreational opportunities with environmental sustainability, Much of the upgrading has been accomplished by volunteers organized by the Trail Care Program of The Friends of Kananaskis Country
National Reconnaissance Office
The National Reconnaissance Office is a member of the United States Intelligence Community and an agency of the United States Department of Defense. The NRO is headquartered in unincorporated Fairfax County, Virginia,2 miles south of Washington Dulles International Airport, the Director of the NRO reports to both the Director of National Intelligence and the Secretary of Defense and serves as Assistant Secretary of the Air Force. The NROs federal workforce consists primarily of Air Force, CIA, NGA, NSA, the National Reconnaissance Office develops and operates space reconnaissance systems and conducts intelligence-related activities for U. S. national security. It coordinates collection and analysis of information from airplane and satellite reconnaissance by the military services and it is funded through the National Reconnaissance Program, which is part of the National Intelligence Program. The agency is part of the Department of Defense and it has been proposed that the NRO share imagery of the United States itself with the National Applications Office for domestic law enforcement.
The NRO operates ground stations around the world that collect and distribute intelligence gathered from reconnaissance satellites, according to Asia Times Online, one important mission of NRO satellites is the tracking of non-US submarines on patrol or on training missions in the worlds oceans and seas. The NRO was established on August 25,1960, after management problems, the NROs first photo reconnaissance satellite program was the Corona program, the existence of which was declassified February 24,1995, and which existed from August 1960 to May 1972. The Corona system used film capsules dropped by satellites, which were recovered mid-air by military craft, the first successful recovery from space occurred on August 12,1960, and the first image from space was seen six days later. The first imaging resolution was 8 meters, which was improved to 2 meters, individual images covered, on average, an area of about 10 by 120 miles. The last Corona mission, was launched May 25,1972, from May 1962 to August 1964, the NRO conducted 12 mapping missions as part of the Argon system.
In 1963, the NRO conducted a mission using higher resolution imagery. The Lanyard program flew one successful mission, NRO missions since 1972 are classified, and portions of many earlier programs remain unavailable to the public. The first press reports on NRO started in 1971, the first official acknowledgement of NRO was a Senate committee report in October 1973, which inadvertently exposed the existence of the NRO. In 1985, a New York Times article revealed details on the operations of the NRO, the existence of the NRO was declassified on September 18,1992, by the Deputy Secretary of Defense, as recommended by the Director of Central Intelligence. In total, NRO had accumulated US$3.8 billion in forward funding, as a consequence, NROs three distinct accounting systems were merged. The presence of the new headquarters was revealed by the Federation of American Scientists who obtained unclassified copies of the blueprints filed with the building permit application. After 9/11 those blueprints were apparently classified, the reports of an NRO slush fund were true.
According to former CIA general counsel Jeffrey Smith, who led the investigation, in 1999 the NRO embarked on a $25 billion project with Boeing entitled Future Imagery Architecture to create a new generation of imaging satellites
Sir Huw Pyrs Wheldon, OBE, MC was a BBC broadcaster and executive. Wheldon was born on 7 May 1916 in Prestatyn, Denbighshire and he was educated at Friars School, Bangor, an all-boys grammar school. His father, Sir Wynn Wheldon, was a prominent educationalist and his grandfather, Tomos Jones Wheldon, had been the Moderator of the Calvinist Methodist Church in Wales. His mother, Megan Edwards, was an accomplished pianist, on the outbreak of war in 1939 Wheldon enlisted in the Buffs. He was commissioned into the Royal Welch Fusiliers in 1940, but subsequently volunteered for the forces and joined the Royal Ulster Rifles. He was awarded the Military Cross for an act of bravery on D-Day +1, future Led Zeppelin guitarist Jimmy Page was a guest on his show in 1957. He began to produce and present adult programmes, such as Men in Battle with Sir Brian Horrocks and he was responsible for Orson Welles Sketchbook. It was with the magazine programme Monitor that Wheldon truly made his mark on the cultural scene.
Monitor ranged in subject over all the arts — the hundredth show was Elgar a film directed by Ken Russell and written by Wheldon, Monitor featured specially made films, sometimes just one full-length item, eventually using actors to re-enact the subjects lives. Prior to this, only photos or location shots had been used in programmes, wheldons Monitor lasted until he had interviewed everyone I am interested in interviewing, and he was succeeded by Jonathan Miller for the series last season. In 1967 he was invited to deliver the MacMillan Memorial Lecture to the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland and he chose the subject Perspectives on Television. Wheldon now entered BBC management, becoming by turns Head of Documentaries and Controller, in 1968 he became Managing Director, BBC TV, a position he held until compulsory retirement in 1975. After he retired from management Wheldon co-wrote, with J. H. Plumb, and presented Royal Heritage, produced by Michael Gill, it achieved immense popularity ratings in 1977, the year of the Queens Silver Jubilee.
Two other major documentaries followed, The Library of Congress and Destination D-Day, following his retirement from the BBC he became Chairman of the Court of the Governors of the London School of Economics, where he had read economics before the war. He disarmed potential sponsors of the school by eschewing flattery and opening negotiations with the statement that what he was after was their cash. He was a formidable and active President of the Royal Television Society, an RTS Memorial Lecture in his name by a distinguished broadcaster is televised annually. In 2011 Bettany Hughes gave the lecture, and Brian Cox gave the lecture in 2010, other speakers have included David Attenborough, Jeremy Isaacs and, in 2005, the writer Paul Abbott. In addition to this, the British Academy of Film and Television Arts dispenses a Huw Wheldon Award for Specialist Factual Programme, there are Wheldon bursaries and awards at the LSE and the University of Wales, Bangor
National Academy of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization. NAS is part of the National Academies of Sciences and Medicine, along with the National Academy of Engineering, as a national academy, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. Election to the National Academies is one of the highest honors in the scientific field, members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science and medicine. The group holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code, … to provide scientific advice to the government whenever called upon by any government department. The Academy receives no compensation from the government for its services, as of 2016, the National Academy of Sciences includes about 2,350 members and 450 foreign associates. It employed about 1,100 staff in 2005, the current members annually elect new members for life. Approximately 200 members have won a Nobel Prize, the National Academy of Sciences is a member of the International Council for Science.
Although there is no relationship with state and local academies of science. The National Academies is governed by a 17-member Council, made up of five officers and 12 Councilors, the National Academy of Sciences meets annually in Washington, D. C. which is documented in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, its scholarly journal. The National Academies Press is the publisher for the National Academies, since 2004, the National Academy of Sciences has administered the Marian Koshland Science Museum to provide public exhibits and programming related to its policy work. The museums current exhibits focus on change and infectious disease. The National Academy of Sciences maintains multiple buildings around the United States, the building has a neoclassical architectural style and was built by architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue. The building was dedicated in 1924 and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the building is used for lectures, symposia and concerts, in addition to annual meetings of the NAS, NAE, and NAM.
The 2012 Presidential Award for Math and Science Teaching ceremony was held here on March 5,2014, approximately 150 staff members work at the NAS Building. More than 1,000 National Academies staff members work at The Keck Center of the National Academies at 500 Fifth Street in northwest Washington, the Keck Center provides meeting space and houses the National Academies Press Bookstore. The NAS maintains conference centers in California and Massachusetts, the J. Erik Jonsson Conference Center located at 314 Quissett Avenue in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, is another conference facility. The Act of Incorporation, signed by President Abraham Lincoln on March 3,1863, created the National Academy of Sciences, many of the original NAS members came from the so-called Scientific Lazzaroni, an informal network of mostly physical scientists working in the vicinity of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts was to name Agassiz to the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, Agassiz was to come to Washington at the governments expense to plan the organization with the others