Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken in the Indian state of Kerala and the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry by the Malayali people, it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India. Malayalam has official language status in the state of Kerala and in the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry and is spoken by 38 million people worldwide. Malayalam is spoken by linguistic minorities in the neighbouring states. Due to Malayali expatriates in the Persian Gulf, the language is widely spoken in Gulf countries; the origin of Malayalam remains a matter of dispute among scholars. One view holds that Malayalam and modern Tamil are offshoots of Middle Tamil and separated from it sometime after the c. 7th century. A second view argues for the development of the two languages out of "Proto-Dravidian" or "Proto-Tamil-Malayalam" in the prehistoric era. Designated a "Classical Language in India" in 2013, it developed into the current form by the influence of the poet Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan in the 16th century.
The oldest documents written purely in Malayalam and still surviving are the Vazhappalli Copper plates from 832 and Tharisapalli Copper plates from 849. The earliest script used to write Malayalam was the Vatteluttu alphabet, the Kolezhuttu, which derived from it; the current Malayalam script is based on the Vatteluttu script, extended with Grantha script letters to adopt Indo-Aryan loanwords. The oldest literary work in Malayalam, distinct from the Tamil tradition, is dated from between the 9th and 11th centuries; the first travelogue in any Indian language is the Malayalam Varthamanappusthakam, written by Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar in 1785. The word Malayalam originated from the words mala, meaning "mountain", alam, meaning "region" or "-ship"; the term referred to the land of the Chera dynasty Tamil dynasty, only became the name of its language. The language Malayalam is alternatively called Alealum, Malayali, Malean and Mallealle; the earliest extant literary works in the regional language of present-day Kerala date back to as early as the 12th century.
However, the named identity of this language appears to have come into existence only around the 16th century, when it was known as "Malayayma" or "Malayanma". The word "Malayalam" was coined in the period, the local people referred to their language as both "Tamil" and "Malayalam" until the colonial period; the held view is that Malayalam was the western coastal dialect of Tamil and separated from Tamil sometime between the 9th and 13th centuries. Some scholars however believe that both Tamil and Malayalam developed during the prehistoric period from a common ancestor,'Proto-Tamil-Dravidian', that the notion of Malayalam being a'daughter' of Tamil is misplaced; this is based on the fact that Malayalam and several Dravidian languages on the western coast have common features which are not found in the oldest historical forms of Tamil. Robert Caldwell, in his 1856 book "A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian Family of Languages", opined that Malayalam branched from Classical Tamil and over time gained a large amount of Sanskrit vocabulary and lost the personal terminations of verbs.
As the language of scholarship and administration, Old-Tamil, written in Tamil-Brahmi and the Vatteluttu alphabet greatly influenced the early development of Malayalam. The Malayalam script began to diverge from the Tamil-Brahmi script in the 9th centuries, and by the end of the 13th century a written form of the language emerged, unique from the Tamil-Brahmi script, used to write Tamil. Malayalam is similar to some Sri Lankan Tamil dialects, the two are mistaken by native Indian Tamil speakers; the Portuguese called the Kerala variant of Malayalam-Tamil Lingua Malabar Tamul. It was called Malabar Thamozhi; the first book to be printed in Lingua Malabar Tamul was Cartilha in 1554, which used Portuguese letters to write the Malabar Thamozhi. Ravikutty Pilla Por, written in the 17th century, is the shining example of Malayanma literature. Ananthapuri Varnanam, written in the 1800s, was among the last of these Malayalam-Tamil books. Itty Achudan, the famed Ayurvedic physician, used Malayanma and Kolezhuttu to write Hortus Malabaricus in 1678.
In the 17th century, the Malayanma script was extensively used by the Catholics of Kerala. Samkshepa Vedartham, in Malayanma, was printed in Rome in 1772; the Ramban Bible, written in Malayanma, was translated from Syriac by Fr. Phillipose and published in 1811. After this period, the British banned Malayanma and most of the books written in Malayanma disappeared; the British never supported or translated Malayanma books into Grantha Malayalam, which they chose to promote in the 19th century. Iravikutti Pilla Por, Vadakkan Pattu, Thacholi Pattu, Kannassa Ramayanam, Ramacharitham Ananthapuri Varnanam are a few of the Malayanma books which have survived. Malayanma, the indigenous Dravidian tongue, its great literary tradition were lost in history. In the 12th century, Kerala was invaded by the Tulu Bana Kings, with an army from Ahichatra on the Indo-Nepalese border. Keralolpathi mentions a Tulu invader called Banapperumal, the brother of Tulu king Kavi Raja Singhan of the Alupa dynasty, who invaded Kerala with a Large Nair army led by Pada Mala Nair.
Banapperumal established his capital at
A. K. Gopalan
Ayillyath Kuttiari Gopalan, popularly known as A. K. Gopalan or AKG, was an Indian communist leader, serving CPI with 16 members out of 489 since the first Lok Sabha in 1952. Ayillyath Kuttiari Gopalan was born on 1 October 1904 in Peralasseri, Kannur District of Northern Kerala and educated in Tellichery. By the time he became a teacher, India's independence movement was becoming energised by Mahatma Gandhi. Gopalan took part in the Khilafat Movement which prompted a marked change in his outlook, transforming him into a dedicated full-time social and political worker. In 1927 he joined the Indian National Congress and began playing an active role in the Khadi Movement and the upliftment of Harijans, he was arrested for participating in the salt satyagraha in 1930. While in prison he got acquainted with communism and became a member of the Congress Socialist Party and the Communist Party of India when it took shape in Kerala in 1939, he led the hunger march from Malabar region to Madras in 1936 and the Malabar Jatha in support of the movement for responsible government in Travancore.
The outbreak of the Second World War in 1939 prompted an upsurge in activism against British domination, Gopalan was again arrested. But in 1942 he escaped from prison and remained at large till the end of the war in 1945, he was arrested again shortly after the end of the war and was still behind bars when India became independent on 15 August 1947. He was released a few weeks later. Thereafter he was a member of Lok Sabha for 5 consecutive terms till his death on 22 March 1977 and became the one of the leaders of opposition parties in the parliament of India. During the Sino-Indian war in 1962, AKG along with other Indian communists like E. M. S. requested both nations to discuss and settle the matter peacefully. The official leadership of the party at that time supported the India Government. Many leaders of the left group were arrested with the support of the leadership of the party; when the party leadership blocked the publication of an article written by General Secretary EMS condemning government for attacking the left leaders in the party using the cover of the war, he himself quit the post and supported the left group.
AKG was part of the left group and faced disciplinary action by the party leadership dominated by the right. During this time a newspaper published a letter written by rightist leaders S. A Dange to the British during the freedom struggle. In this letter he promised to keep away from the freedom struggle; this was used by the left group to beat the right. When the demand of the left to set up a party-level inquiry about the alleged letter of S. A Dange was rejected in the National Council of CPI, the left group walked away and formed a new Party. AKG joined the new break away faction, which came to be known as Communist Party of India, he wrote extensively. His autobiography In the Cause of the People has been translated into many languages, his other works include For Land, Around the World, Work in Parliament, Collected Speeches, all in Malayalam. AKG was married to Susheela Gopalan, a prominent Marxist and trade union activistSusheela Gopalan, hails from the Cheerappanchira family. Cheerappanchira is an Ezhava tharavad renowned for its Kalari in Alappuzha District.
His daughter, Laila, is married to P. Karunakaran, the Member of Parliament for the Kasargod constituency. AKG played an important role in the formation of Indian Coffee House, a worker cooperative initiative by organising the thrown out employees of Coffee Houses of Coffee Board to establish ICHs in late 1950s, his contribution is documented in Coffee Housinte Katha, a Malayalam alternative history book by Nadakkal Parameswaran Pillai the founder of ICHs in Kerala with the Communist Leader of Thrissur Advocate T. K. Krishnan. Shaji N. Karun, a prominent film director of Kerala, made a biopic on AKG titled AKG — Athijeevanathinte Kanalvazhikal; the film used a part-fiction format. It was released in theatres across Kerala on August 2008. E. K. Nayanar E. M. S. Namboodiripad People's Democracy. "A K Gopalan: From Satygrahi To Revolutionary". B. T. Ranadive, People's Democracy. "IN MEMORY OF A K GOPALAN". Ganashakti Newsmagazine. "Remembrance: A. K. Gopalan". Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.
K. P. Pushparaj, The Hindu. "Fresh faces make prediction impossible". Chennai, India
The Vimochana Samaram was an anti-Communist backlash against the first elected state-government in Kerala, led by E. M. S. Namboodiripad of the Communist Party of India. Organised opposition to the state government was spearheaded by the Catholic Church in Kerala, the Nair Service Society and the Indian Union Muslim League, backed by elements of India's ruling Indian National Congress Party. In June 1959, Kerala was rocked by mass protests calling for the resignation of the communist ministry; the Indian government bowed to pressure and dismissed Namboodiripad on July 31, 1959. On 1 November 1956, the state of Kerala was formed by the States Reorganisation Act merging the Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin and the taluk of Kasargod, South Kanara. In 1957, elections for the new Kerala Legislative Assembly were held, a reformist, Communist-led government came to power, under E. M. S. Namboodiripad, it was the first time. It initiated the pioneering land reforms and educational reforms by introducing new bills in the state assembly.
However, some clauses in the new bills became controversial and the government had to face severe opposition from influential interest groups, such as the Catholic Church of Kerala, Muslim League and NSS. A revolt was against the Communist government's educational policies. At Angamaly, the prime centre of Christians, the intensity of fury was broke into open violence. On 13 June, Saturday, 1959 police was forced to open fire against a violent mob which attempted to attack the police station. But, the version of "rallyists" was different, saying that the police was mindlessly opening fire on an innocent mob without any provocation. 7 people were killed in the firing. The police firing and killing of 7 people instigated a mass movement against the EMS Government The immediate cause of the outbreak of the Liberation Struggle was the introduction of the Education Bill by the minister of education Joseph Mundassery; the bill had revolutionary content that could have affected the administration of educational institutions, which were financially aided by the government.
Many of these institutions, at that time, were under the control of various Christian congregations and a few under the Nair Service Society. The Education Bill claimed to regulate appointments and working conditions of the teachers in the government-aided schools; the remuneration of the teachers were to be paid directly from the government treasury. It mandated to takeover any government-aided educational institution, if they fail to meet the conditions set by the newly promulgated bill. With the introduction of agrarian relations bill, the government sought to confer ownership rights on tenant cultivators, to grant permanent ownership of land for the agricultural labourers, who reside in their premises at the mercy of landlords, to attain an equal distribution of land by putting a ceiling on the individual land holdings so as to distribute the surplus land among the landless. With the introduction of the bill, government tried to address the social imbalance that prevailed in the state. In those days, the agricultural labourers, called as kudikidappukar, were considered as slaves.
Though they were allowed to stay in a piece of land allotted by the landlord, they were denied any payments for their labour and permanent rights in the land. However, many radical proposals of this bill raised panic among the landowning communities of Kerala Nairs and Syrian Christians. Political parties: Besides the socio-religious organizations, all the major opposition parties including Indian National Congress, Praja Socialist Party, Muslim League, Revolutionary Socialist Party, Kerala Socialist Party rallied together demanding the dismissal of the EMS ministry, they formed a joint steering committee with R. Sankar as the president and P. T. Chacko, Kumbalathu Sanku Pillai, Mathai Manjooran, Fr. Joseph Vadakkan, B. Wellington, N. Sreekantan Nair, C. H. Muhammed Koya, Bafaqi Thangal among its members. Syrian Christians: A significant proportion of the schools in Kerala were owned by Syrian Christian churches, they found many reformist policies of government as infringements over their rights and hence used newspapers and other publications, such as Deepika and Malayala Manorama to propagate panicking messages against the controversial policies.
Christians used their political influence in the central government in order to derail the educational reforms. However, government got the presidential assent on 19 February 1959 after revising the bill; the disagreement got widened and the Church representatives sought the help of NSS to fight against the government. Following the Angamaly police firing, in which seven of its members were killed, the Catholic Church and other Syrian Christian Churches participated in the struggle, mobilizing massive support. Nair Service Society: NSS, a community welfare organization of Nairs, was a major opponent of land reform policies of the government, which they considered as radical and ill-disposed towards the Nair community of Kerala. In December 1958, NSS joined up with the Catholic church to form an anti-communist front; the government retracted on sensing trouble, that could be created by the alliance of NSS and the Syrian Christians, indicated its readiness to make c
Kerala, locally known as Keralam, is a state on the southwestern, Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2, Kerala is the twenty-second largest Indian state by area, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, the Lakshadweep Sea and Arabian Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population, it is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala. The Ay kingdom in the deep south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north formed the other kingdoms in the early years of the Common Era; the region had been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. The region's prominence in trade was noted in the works of Pliny as well as the Periplus around 100 CE.
In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, paved the way for European colonisation of India. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and the Kingdom of Cochin, they united to form the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949. The Malabar region, in the northern part of Kerala had been a part of the Madras province of British India, which became a part of the Madras State post-independence. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State, the state of Thiru-Kochi, the taluk of Kasaragod in South Canara, a part of Madras State; the economy of Kerala is the 12th-largest state economy in India with ₹7.73 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹163,000. Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%. The state has witnessed significant emigration to Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, its economy depends on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community.
Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan, Dravidian and European cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India and abroad; the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, tea, coffee and spices are important; the state's coastline extends for 595 kilometres, around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state's income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages English and Malayalam. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions; the name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. One popular theory derives Kerala from alam; the word Kerala is first recorded as Keralaputra in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, one of his edicts pertaining to welfare.
The inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra. This contradicts the theory that Kera is from "coconut tree". At that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil: Chera and Kera are variants of the same word; the word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for "lake". The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. Kerala is mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics; the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal, referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil chera alam; the Greco-Roman trade map. According to Tamil classic Purananuru, Chera king Senkuttuvan conquered the lands between Kanyakumari and the Himalayas. Lacking worthy enemies, he besieged the sea by throwing his spear into it. According to the 17th century Malayalam work Keralolpathi, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu.
Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, the water receded as far as it reached. According to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari; the land which rose from sea was filled with unsuitable for habitation. Out of respect and all snakes were appo
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Syro-Malabar Catholic Archeparchy of Thrissur
The Syro-Malabar Catholic Archeparchy of Trichur, in Thrissur District of Central Kerala, with nearly half a million Syro-Malabar Catholics now, used to be the largest Catholic diocese in India when it included the Syro-Malabar Catholic Diocese of Irinjalakuda until 1978 and Syro-Malabar Catholic Eparchy of Palghat until 1973. Syro-Malabar Catholic Diocese of Irinjalakuda located in Thrissur District, has over a quarter million Syro-Malabar Catholics now. Syro-Malabar Catholic Diocese of Palghat in Central Kerala extends to some regions in the neighbouring state of Tamil Nadu. In 2010, the parts of Tamil Nadu under the Syro-Malabar Catholic Diocese of Palghat were separated to form another Syro-Malabar Catholic Diocese of Ramanathapuram; the diocese was founded on 20 May 1887 by Pope Pius XI by his papal bull Quod iam pridem. The boundaries of diocese were from Periyar in Aluva to Bharathappuzha, it was extended to Palakkad district and extended to Coimbatore District in Tamil Nadu and was the largest Catholic diocese in India.
The total number of parishes is 205. In addition, there are 52 stations in the archdiocese; the population of Syro-Malabar Catholics in Thrissur Archdiocese is over 475,000. There are 16 foranes under Thrissur Archdiocese, they are: Syro-Malabar Catholic Diocese of Ramanathapuram Syro-Malabar Catholic Diocese of Irinjalakuda Syro-Malabar Catholic Diocese of Palghat Mar Adolph Medlycott Mar John Menachery Mar Francis Vazhapilly Mar George Alapatt Mar Joseph Kundukulam Mar Jacob Thoomkuzhy Mar Andrews Thazhath Archdiocese of Thrissur