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Joseph Willard

Joseph Willard was an American Congregational clergyman and academic. He was president of Harvard from 1781 until 1804. Joseph Willard was born December 29, 1738 in Biddeford, York County into one of the most illustrious families in Colonial Massachusetts, his parents were Abigail Willard. One of his great-grandfathers was another Reverend Samuel Willard, his great-great-grandfather was Major Simon Willard. Joseph's father died when he was two years old and one year his mother remarried to a Rev. Richard Elvins. Joseph was educated at the Dummer Academy. Through the generosity of friends he entered Harvard College, where he received a B. A. in 1765, an M. A. in 1768. He was a tutor at Harvard until 1772, when he began serving as pastor at the First Congregational Church in Beverly, Massachusetts. In 1780 he was a charter member and first corresponding secretary of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In 1785, he was awarded a Doctor of Divinity degree from Harvard and in 1791, a Doctor of Laws degree from Yale University.

In 1781, he became president of Harvard. His tenure was marked by his institution of a dress code consisting of blue-gray coats, breeches and waistcoats in four approved colors; when delivering the 1799 commencement address, Willard broke with tradition and delivered it in English, rather than the customary Latin. His great-grandfather Samuel Willard had served as Acting President of Harvard from 1701 until his own death in 1707. Willard was the father of Cambridge Mayor Sidney Willard, he published a few sermons, a Latin address on the death of George Washington, prefixed to David Tappan's Discourse, mathematical and astronomical papers in the Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. He was a sound Greek scholar, left a Greek grammar in manuscript. Gilman, D. C.. "Willard, Joseph". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wilson, J. G.. "Williard, settler".

Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton; this source gives his birth date as January 9, 1738


Schismatrix is a science fiction novel by Bruce Sterling published in 1985. The story was Sterling's only novel-length treatment of the Shaper/Mechanist universe. Five short stories preceded the novel and are published together with it in a 1996 edition entitled Schismatrix Plus. Schismatrix was nominated for the Nebula Award for Best Novel in 1985, the British Science Fiction Award in 1986; the main character, Abelard Lindsay, is born in the ancient lunar colony Mare Serenitatis Circumlunar Corporate Republic, into a family of aristocratic Mechanists, but after being sent to the Shaper's Ring Council, he receives specialized and experimental diplomatic training and gives his loyalty to the Shapers' cause. He, his best friend and fellow Shaper protege Philip Constantine and the beautiful and passionate Preservationist Vera Kelland lead an insurgency against the rulers of the republic, who use Mechanist technology to prolong their lives; the three of them influence the younger generation towards the Shapers' cause in their pursuit of Preservationism, a movement devoted to the preservation of Earth-bound human culture.

Kelland and Lindsay agree to kill themselves as a political statement, but Lindsay reneges on his suicide pact after Kelland is dead. Constantine instead kills a Mechanist, creating a scandal. Constantine is allowed to remain in the Republic because his knowledge is needed to keep the Republic's environment from self-destructing but Lindsay is exiled to the Mare Tranquilitatis Circumlunar People's Zaibatsu; this lunar colony, which collapsed due to an environmental crisis, has become a refuge for "sundogs", criminals and wanderers. There he meets a woman modified by the Shapers to be an ideal prostitute. A servant of the Geisha Bank, a powerful money center, she in fact rules the bank through the remotely operated body of her now brain-dead predecessor. In his months on the Zaibatsu, Lindsay uses his diplomatic talents to organize a complex fraud involving a fictitious theatrical event and befriends an old Mechanist, Fyodor Ryumin; however the fraud takes on a life of its own, the new-formed Kabuki Intrasolar becomes a legitimate artistic and business venture.

Lindsay cannot remain to enjoy the profits, though: Constantine has in the meantime overthrown the Corporate Republic's government. Constantine has abandoned Preservationism to become a Shaper militant, sends an assassin to present a stark choice: become Constantine's pawn or be killed by the assassin. Lindsay manages to escape with a group of Mechanist pirates, in the process aiding Kitsune to take power of the Geisha Bank openly. Lindsay joins a ship called the Red Consensus, which doubles as the nation-state of the Fortuna Miners' Democracy, after the failure of the independent asteroid mining Mechanist cartel; the FMD, financed by more wealthy Mechanists cartels, annexes the asteroid Esairs XII, home to the Mavrides family, a small shaper clan. Lindsay meets a fellow diplomat. Nora informs Abelard that the subjects of the diplomatic training are in disgrace due to the high incidence of treason and defection from their ranks; the two of them work to promote peaceful coexistence between the Shaper militants and the Mechanist pirates, but after several months of conflict, espionage and sabotages, open fighting breaks out.

Mavrides and Lindsay, now lovers murder their companions to save one another. Before the asteroid's life-support systems shut down after the battle, the alien Investors arrive. Peace comes to the Schismatrix after the aliens arrive; the alien Investors are obsessed with trade and wealth, at first encourage humanity to focus on business instead of war. Trade flourishes and the Shapers and Mechanists put their differences aside. Lindsay and Mavrides become powerful Shaper leaders, thanks to their early contact with the Investors; the Investor Peace does not last forever and tensions between Shapers and Mechanists start to rise when the Investors play the factions against one another. Philip Constantine rises to power and takes control of the Ring Council, ousting Mavride's and Lindsay's pro-détente faction. Lindsay runs away from what he sees as a hopeless battle, but Nora decides to stay in the Rings, where they had built their lives and family, to fight Constantine and his militant government.

Lindsay escapes to the Mechanist cartels in the asteroid belt, where Kitsune has again secretly taken power. There Lindsay works ceaselessly for decades to bring about the détente he believes will reunite him with Mavrides. Using a recording of an Investor's ship queen involved in some taboo activities to blackmail the alien, Lindsay contributes to the creation of Czarina-Kluster, neither Shaper nor Mechanist, which becomes one of the richest and most powerful states in the solar system. Lindsay's partner, plans to use the colony to promote his post-humanist ideology, while Lindsay himself seeks to bring Nora to the new colony. However, Constantine forces her to kill herself. Consumed with hatred, Lindsay for the first time confronts his former friend directly, arranging a duel with him using an ancient alien artifact called the Arena. While Lindsay wins, the Arena leaves Constantine catatonic. Years after the duel, now renamed the Neotenic Cultural Republic. Constantine's militant Shaperism has been replaced by a Preservationist government, dedicated to remaining a cultural preserve where normal, unmodified human life is preserved.

As part of the treatment that restored Lindsay's mind, his original Shaper diplomatic training has been removed. Having returned to a Preservationist world, now restored to a hum


Hemistola is a genus of moth in the family Geometridae. Species include: Hemistola aetherea Debauche, 1937 Hemistola chrysoprasaria Esper, 1794 Hemistola ereuthopeza Prout, 1925 Hemistola flavitincta Hemistola hypnopoea Prout, 1926 Hemistola incommoda Prout, 1912 Hemistola kezukai Inoue, 1978 Hemistola liliana Hemistola monotona Inoue, 1983 Hemistola orbiculosa Inoue, 1978 Hemistola semialbida Prout, 1912 Hemistola simplex Warren, 1899 Hemistola tenuilinea Natural History Museum Lepidoptera genus database

History of the Chinese Americans in Metro Detroit

As of 2002 ethnic Chinese and Chinese American people comprise the second-largest Asian-origin ethnic group in the Wayne–Macomb–Oakland tri-county area in Metro Detroit. As of that year there were 16,829 ethnic Chinese, concentrated in Troy, Rochester Hills, Canton Township; as of 2012 Madison Heights hosts a significant Chinese community. Within the city of Detroit, the area north of Downtown Detroit. Few of them have permanent residency after schooling ends; as of 2011 the largest still-operating Chinatown in proximity to Metro Detroit is located in the Chinatown of Windsor, Ontario. Ah Chee, the first known Chinese person in Detroit, arrived in 1872 and established a laundry business; the first Chinese businesses were established in Metro Detroit in 1879, making the Chinese the Asian immigrant group with the longest history in the city. Many Chinese coming to Detroit after Ah Chee established laundry businesses. At one time Detroit had its own Chinatown. In 1892, several immigrants to Detroit were sentenced to hard labor for illegally entering the country but, in Wong Wing v. United States, the U.

S. Supreme Court ruled. During the period of Chinese Exclusion, many Chinese immigrants chose to enter the United States extra-legally; this was done by taking the Canadian Pacific Railroad from Vancouver, British Columbia to Windsor, Ontario. From there immigrants could attempt to cross the Detroit river into the United States after contracting with smuggling organizations in the area; these crossings were perilous, with numerous fatalities being reported during the time. In 1905 the first Chinese restaurant opened in Detroit. In the early 20th century Henry Ford recruited ethnic Chinese living in Hawaii to work at his automobile plants. In the 1920s Detroit had 12 Chinese restaurants. Helen Zia, author of Asian American Dreams: The Emergence of an American People, wrote that the Chinese business community in Detroit had its peak in the 1920s. More Chinese people moved to Detroit in the 1930s, but the Chinese business and the population of Detroit's Chinatown had begun to decline after the 1920s.

Much of the Chinatown was demolished in the 1950s. As a result, Chinatown moved to an area in the southern Cass Corridor focused on the intersection of Cass Avenue and Peterboro Street. In 1951 about 2,000 Chinese lived in the Detroit city limits; the more educated ethnic Chinese who moved to Detroit after the Immigration Act of 1965 moved to Detroit's suburbs, bypassing Detroit itself and its Chinatown. The previous generation of established laundry and restaurant owners had children who, instead of staying in the Chinatown area, tended to move outward to the suburbs of Metro Detroit, or to other cities for work and educational opportunities. Chinese American architect and engineer Marvin Chin opened the landmark tiki-themed restaurant nightclub Chin Tiki in 1967; the 1980 U. S. Census counted 1,213 ethnic Chinese in the City of Detroit. Zia wrote that the figure was "surely an undercount" but that the Chinese population in the City of Detroit "was unquestionably small." The presence of family-owned businesses in the Detroit Chinatown area had declined by the 1980s.

Zia wrote that by that decade, the "shrinking base" in the Detroit Chinatown "reflected the diminished role of the merchants."In 1982, in Metro Detroit autoworkers killed Vincent Chin, a Chinese American mistaken for a Japanese American. An October 27, 2009 article by the Detroit Free Press stated that "It took the slaying of Vincent Chin by a disgruntled autoworker in 1982 to awaken Detroit of the ugliness and danger of anti-Asian racism." Cynthia Lee, a Chinese American from Hawaii who worked as a reporter for The Detroit News, interviewed Metro Detroit Chinese Americans who criticized the verdict given to the two men, who pleaded guilty and received probation and fines. The Chinese Americans interviewed by Lee stated; the Association of Chinese Americans is the Detroit chapter of the OCA - Asian Pacific American Advocates. In the fall of 1971 Dr. Andrew Yang invited a group of Chinese Americans in Metro Detroit to hear K. L. Wang's presentation; the members of the ACA held its first meeting in 1971.

The organization was founded in 1972. The Chinese Community Center of the ACA is located in Madison Heights; the center opened on August 8, 2005. The Chinese Welfare Council and the On Leong Merchants Association served members of Detroit's Chinese community. In Detroit the On Leong had social functions; the Detroit Chinese Welfare Council attended political functions and represented the interests of Chinatown to the city government. The American Chinese School at Greater Detroit, a supplementary Chinese school, is located in Birmingham; the first school year was 1972-1973. Other supplementary Chinese schools in Metro Detroit include the Canton Plymouth Chinese Learning Center in Canton, founded in September 1996; the Association of Chinese Americans operated a Chinatown clinic in the Cass Corridor Chinatown from

Tony Sills

Anthony Irvin Sills is an American professional golfer who played on the PGA Tour and became a golf teaching professional. Sills, Jewish, was born and raised in Los Angeles, California; as a youth, he caddied at the Riviera Country Club, including when the club hosted the Los Angeles Open. Sills attended Palisades High School and the University of Southern California, where was a member of the golf team with future PGA Tour golfer Scott Simpson. Sills turned professional in 1980, he had 22 top-10 finishes in PGA Tour events including a win at the 1990 Independent Insurance Agent Open. In that tournament, he beat Gil Morgan with a par on the first extra hole in a sudden-death playoff, his best finish in a major championship was T15 at the 1985 U. S. Open, his best year was 1990. After his touring days were over, Sills taught putting and the short game with Putting Arc co-founder V. J. Trolio at Old Waverly Golf Club in West Point, Mississippi. Sills has a daughter, who played golf for the University of Tennessee.

PGA Tour playoff record Note: Sills never played in The Open Championship CUT = missed the half-way cut "T" = tied 1994 PGA Tour Qualifying School graduates Tony Sills at the PGA Tour official site Tony Sills at the Official World Golf Ranking official site

Malibu Creek

Malibu Creek is a year-round stream in western Los Angeles County, California. It drains the southern Conejo Valley and Simi Hills, flowing south through the Santa Monica Mountains, enters Santa Monica Bay in Malibu, California; the Malibu Creek watershed drains 109 square miles and its tributary creeks reach as high as 3,000 feet into Ventura County, California. The creek's mainstem begins south of Westlake Village at the confluence of Triunfo Creek and Lobo Canyon Creek, flows 13.4 miles to Malibu Lagoon. Malibu Canyon is a chief pass through the mountains, Malibu Canyon Road is a major north/south route connecting the coast to the inland valley. Malibu Creek starts at Malibou Lake, held back by the Malibu Lake Dam. Further downstream, the creek waterfalls 100 feet over the Rindge Dam carves its final path into Malibu Lagoon; the area around Malibu Creek was for centuries a major area of Native American life, the boundary between the Chumash tribes, who lived to the northwest, the Gabrieliño, to the south and east, was there.

The origin of the creek's name derives from the Chumash term U-mali-wu, which means "it makes a loud noise there". The Spanish recorded this as'Malibu', this spelling appears in the Topanga Malibu Sequit land grant on July 12, 1805. Sections of the creek were dammed in 1903, 1922, 1924, it is estimated that steelhead populations within the Southern California Coast Steelhead Distinct population segment have declined from annual runs totaling 32,000-46,000 adults to less than 500 returning adult fish. This estimate is based on the four major steelhead-bearing watersheds, Santa Ynez River, Ventura River, Santa Clara River, Malibu Creek. Genetic analysis of the steelhead in all four of these watersheds has shown them to be of native and not hatchery stocks. A sand berm across the mouth of the Malibu Creek Lagoon blocks the stream to ocean-based steelhead except during the rainy winter season when high flows breach the berm and opens access to the estuary; the fish reach an impassable barrier presented by the 98 feet high Rindge Dam, restricting them to the lowest 2.0 miles of more than 70 miles of historic steelhead habitat.

The dam built for water storage and flood control in 1926, no longer functions as the reservoir is filled with sediment. Over the past decade several government agencies and non-profit organizations have been trying to remove the dam to restore access to upstream spawning habitat. In 1997, the southern Evolutionarily Significant Unit of steelhead trout was added to the federal list of endangered species, with Malibu Creek as the southernmost boundary. Since 1997, the protected range of this ESU has been extended to the U. S./Mexican border. The National Marine Fisheries Service estimates that only 500 anadromous adults remain within this ESU. In summer, 2006, there was a massive die off of native and exotic fish and invertebrates in Malibu Creek, thought to be due to a combination of pollution, high temperatures and low oxygen; the steelhead trout population fell to zero by November, 2006. Surveys in summer 2008 documented five returning adult steelhead over 20 inches, over 2,200 smolts under 3.9 inches were recorded.

The rare plant Malibu baccharis is endemic to the Malibu Creek drainage. Introduced crayfish are a problem as they devour the native fish, aquatic insects, newts along with eggs and tadpoles of frogs and toads. Malibu Creek has several tributaries draining the Santa Monica Mountains; these include streams draining to Lake Sherwood, thence via Potrero Valley Creek to Westlake Lake down Triunfo Creek to its confluence with Lobo Canyon Creek, the origin of Malibu Creek. Amongst many other tributaries are Las Virgenes Creek and Cold Creek. Medea Creek and Malibu Creek join to form Malibu Lake. Further downstream Las Virgenes Creek joins Malibu Creek at Malibu Creek State Park. In this park, the Rindge Dam becomes a 100-foot waterfall; the creek empties into the 13-acre Malibu Lagoon. Las Virgenes Municipal Water District discharges water into the creek when the flow falls below 2.5 feet per second to maintain the aquatic habitat for steelhead trout and other threatened and endangered species. The National Marine Fisheries Service requires the discharge into the creek by the district to comply with environmental mandates.

The district has supplied water for the large lake within the master-planned community of Westlake Village when the supplies from their wells are insufficient. During the dry summer months, water from the lake must be released into the creek in compliance with an agreement between the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Westlake Lake Management Association; the association is a private entity that oversees the operation of the lake, surrounded by homes and businesses within the watershed of Malibu Creek. All of the Malibu Creek watershed falls within the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area; the section near Century Lake is popular with swimmers and photographers. Malibu Creek State Park Rindge Dam The Rock Store Malibu Creek Watershed Council Heal the Bay: Malibu Creek Stream Team Restoration The River Project: Malibu Creek Watershed