University of Sussex
The University of Sussex is a public research university in Falmer, England. Its campus is located in the South Downs National Park and is a short distance away from Central Brighton; the university received its Royal Charter in August 1961, the first of the plate glass university generation, was a founding member of the 1994 Group of research-intensive universities. It has more than a third of its students enrolled in postgraduate programs and around a third of its staff is drawn from outside the United Kingdom. Sussex has a diverse community of over 17,000 students, with around one in three being foreign students, over 2,600 academics, representing over 140 different nationalities; the annual income of the institution for 2016–17 was £286.1 million with an expenditure of £270.4 million. In 2017, over 25,000 students applied to the University of Sussex, with around 5,000 joining the institution; the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2018 placed Sussex 147th in the world overall,39th in the world for Social Sciences and 49th globally for Business and Law studies.
Sussex is known for its Humanities and Social Sciences departments, with its Development studies program being placed at number 1 globally in the QS World University Ranking. Sussex counts 5 Nobel Prize winners, 15 Fellows of the Royal Society, 9 Fellows of the British Academy, 24 fellows of the Academy of Social Sciences and a winner of the Crafoord Prize among its faculty. By 2011, many of its faculty members had received the Royal Society of Literature Prize, the Order of the British Empire and the Bancroft Prize. Alumni include heads of states, politicians, eminent scientists and activists. In an effort to establish a university to serve Sussex, a public meeting was held in December 1911 at the Royal Pavilion in order to discover ways to fund the construction of a university; the idea was revived in the 1950s and, in June 1958, the government approved the corporation's scheme for a university at Brighton, to be the first of a new generation of what came to be known as plate glass universities.
The university was established as a company in 1959, with a Royal Charter being granted on 16 August 1961. This was the first university in the UK since the Second World War; the university's organisation broke new ground in seeing the campus divided into Schools of Study, with students able to benefit from a multidisciplinary teaching environment. Sussex would emphasise cross-disciplinary activity, so that students would emerge from the university with a range of background or'contextual' knowledge to complement their specialist'core' skills in a particular subject area. For example, arts students spent their first year taking sciences; the university grew, starting with 52 students in 1961–62, to having 3200 in 1967–68. After starting at Knoyle Hall in Brighton, the Falmer campus was built with Falmer House opening in 1962, its campus was praised as gorgeously groundbreaking, receiving numerous awards. Its Student Union was quite active, organising concerts. Performers like Pink Floyd, Jimi Hendrix and Chuck Berry performed at the University Common Room, giving the university a reputation for Rock and Roll.
Academically, Sussex was home to figures such as Lord Asa Briggs, Helmut Pappe, Gillian Rose, Jennifer Platt and Tom Bottomore. In its first years, the university attracted a number of renowned academics such as Sir John Cornforth, John Maynard Smith, Martin Wight, David Daiches, Roger Blin-Stoyle and Colin Eaborn. Renowned scholars like Marcus Cunliffe, Gabriel Josipovici, Quentin Bell, Dame Helen Wallace, Stuart Sutherland and Marie Jahoda became central figures at the university and founded many of its current departments. In the late 1960s, the United Nations asked for science policy recommendations from a team of renowned academics at Sussex; the ensuing report became known as the Sussex Manifesto. Sussex came to be identified with student radicalism. In 1973, a mob of students physically prevented United States government adviser Samuel P. Huntington from giving a speech on campus, due to his involvement in the Vietnam War; when the spokesperson for the US embassy, Robert Beers, visited to give a talk to students entitled'Vietnam in depth' three students were waiting outside Falmer House and threw a bucket of red paint over the diplomat as he was leaving.
This came to be known as the Vietnam Bucket of Paint incident. In both 1967 and 1969, Sussex won the UK University Challenge. In 1980, Sussex edged out the University of Oxford to become the university with the highest income from research grants and contracts. In an attempt to appeal to a modern audience, the university chose in 2004 to cease using its coat of arms and to replace it with the "US" logo.2011 marked Sussex's 50th anniversary and saw the production of a number of works including a book on the university's history and an oral history and photography project. The university launched its first major fundraising campaign, Making the Future, gathered over $51.3 million. The university underwent a number of changes with the Sussex Strategic Plan 2009–2015, including the introduction of new academic courses, the opening of new research centres, the renovation and refurbishment of a number of its schools and buildings as well as the ongoing expansion of its student housing facilities.
The university has spent over £100 million on campus redevelopment, ongoing with £500 million set to be spent by the year 2021. Sussex is involved with the larger community across England in East Sussex. There are many regular community projects, such as children's
Kelley Deal is an American musician. She has been lead guitarist and co-vocalist of The Breeders since 1992, has formed her own side-projects with bands such as R. Ring and The Kelley Deal 6000, she is the identical twin sister of The Breeders lead singer Kim Deal. Kelley Deal was born in Dayton, United States, 11 minutes before her twin sister Kim Deal; the Deal twins grew up in a suburb of Dayton, Ohio. The sisters first played together in their late teens, Kim playing guitar and both sisters singing Hank Williams songs in biker bars, they both had an opportunity to join the Pixies in the mid-'80s, with Kim on bass and Kelley on drums. While Kim made her mark as an indie rock musician, Kelley worked in computer programming. In 1989, Kim Deal and Tanya Donelly formed the first incarnation of The Breeders. Kim invited Kelley to join the band for their debut album, but could not get time off from work. In 1992, Kelley joined the band as third guitarist though she did not know how to play; the Safari EP was the first recording.
Guitarist Tanya Donelly left to form Belly a little after the release of Safari. Kim suggested. After Kelley insisted on lead guitar, Kim gave her a crash course on all the songs in the band's set. Kelley picked up and learned all the lead parts on Pod and the new parts on the album they were about to record, Last Splash. A new drummer from Dayton, Jim MacPherson, joined them. After Last Splash was released in 1993, the band toured, opening for Nirvana, got a slot on the Lollapalooza tour in 1994. After Last Splash, Kelley started The Kelley Deal 6000; the band released two albums on Eel’s Nice Records label, Go To The Sugar Altar in 1996 and Boom! Boom! Boom! in 1997, went on hiatus when The Breeders were reunited. Kelley joined The Last Hard Men with Skid Row singer Sebastian Bach, Smashing Pumpkins drummer Jimmy Chamberlin, Jimmy Flemion of The Frogs, she played bass for them and they recorded an eponymous album in 1997, released in a limited edition on Eel’s own label, Nice Records, in 2001 on Spitfire Records.
She began recording new demos for the Breeders. With a new line up, they released Title TK in 2002. Title TK features three songs recorded in 1999. In April 2008, The Breeders released Mountain Battles. All Nerve followed in 2018, she has been knitting in recent years. She specializes in knitted handbags, which she sells on her website, appeared on the DIY Network knitting show Knitty Gritty, in 2008 released a book of her knitting handbag patterns, Bags That Rock: Knitting on the Road with Kelley Deal. One of her patterns is included in the DIY Network's book Knitty Gritty Knits: 25 Fun & Fabulous Projects', she co-wrote and played guitar on Magnetophone's "Kel's Vintage Thought". She has performed duets with Kris Kristofferson and Supersuckers, has been playing in the band R. Ring. In 1994, Kelley was arrested for heroin possession, she went through drug rehabilitation throughout the following year. A February 2018 feature article in the New York Times stated that Kelley was in her eighth year of sobriety.
Safari Last Splash Live in Stockholm 1994 Head to Toe Title TK Mountain Battles Fate to Fatal All Nerve Go to the Sugar Altar Boom! Boom! Boom! The Last Hard Men "Fallout & Fire" b/w "SEE" The Rise EP Ignite Kelley. Bags That Rock: Knitting on the Road with Kelley Deal. Sterling. ISBN 978-1-60059-158-7. Official website
Honey Tongue were an alternative rock band formed by former member of The Perfect Disaster and The Breeders Josephine Wiggs and The Perfect Disaster/Spacemen 3/Spiritualized drummer Jon Mattock. The band recorded as The Josephine Wiggs Experience; the band was intended as a one-off project while Wiggs and Mattock continued with their other bands. Wiggs had met Mattock when she added cello to tracks for Spacemen 3's Playing With Fire album, Mattock had played drums on The Perfect Disaster's Heaven Scent album; the duo began recording demos. Nude Nudes was recorded in December 1991 with Audu Obaje producing, released in 1992, their only album released as Honey Tongue, although the same line-up released the Bon-Bon Lifestyle album as The Josephine Wiggs Experience in 1996. Nude Nudes, Playtime Bon-Bon Lifestyle, Grand Royal - as The Josephine Wiggs Experience Raggett, Ned "Nude Nudes Review", Macrovision Corporation
Slint was an American rock band consisting of Brian McMahan, David Pajo, Britt Walford, Todd Brashear, Ethan Buckler. They formed in Louisville, United States, in 1986. Slint's first album Tweez was recorded by engineer Steve Albini in 1987 and released in obscurity on the Jennifer Hartman Records label in 1989, it was followed two years by the critically acclaimed Spiderland, released on the independent label Touch and Go Records. They have reunited sporadically since 1990. Walford and McMahan met in their pre-teens and attended the Brown School, a Louisville public school founded on a pedagogy of self-directed learning, they began performing music together at an early age, forming the Languid and Flaccid with Ned Oldham while still in middle school. In their teens Walford and McMahan played together in the seminal Louisville punk band Squirrel Bait. Walford left the band following their first recording session while McMahan went on to tour and record Squirrel Bait's two albums before the band's dissolution in 1987.
Pajo and Walford were in the punk/prog-metal band Maurice with future members of Kinghorse. After being influenced by the music of the Minutemen and Walford's musical direction became too obtuse for the other members of Maurice, who parted ways. Maurice's material would form the basis of some of Slint's early compositions. Slint formed in the summer of 1986. Walford and Pajo were joined by the older Buckler for a show for a Unitarian Universalist congregation on November 2, they were soon named themselves Slint after one of Walford's pet fish. Slint's first album Tweez was recorded in the fall of 1987 by Steve Albini, whom the band had chosen because they were fans of Albini's defunct group Big Black. Though Slint's members had composed the album's music during rehearsals in Walford's parents' basement, most of the lyrics were created in-studio, included between-song sound effects and ad-libbed conversations with Albini. During mixdown, Walford requested that Albini "make the bass drum sound like a ham being slapped by a catcher's mitt," and spilled a cup of tea on Albini's mixing board.
Without formal song titles, eight of the album's tracks were named for the band members' parents, a ninth for Walford's dog, Rhoda. Once completed, Buckler was dissatisfied with the recordings and left Slint to form the group King Kong made up of all of Slint's members taking up different instruments. All of Slint's original members recorded the single "Movie Star" as King Kong in Steve Albini's studio while he was away on a trip in 1989. Buckler was soon replaced by bass player Todd Brashear. Slint had hoped that Touch and Go Records would release Tweez, but the band did not hear back from the label. A friend of the group, Jennifer Hartman, paid for the album's release for a tiny run on the imprint Jennifer Hartman Records in 1989. By the group had returned to the studio with Albini to record two instrumental tracks. Original copies of Tweez included a flyer advertising a 12" single of these songs to be released on Jennifer Hartman, but by now the band had succeeded in catching the ear of Touch & Go Records's founder Corey Rusk who agreed to release the group's next album.
The master tapes to the proposed 12" were shelved, making Tweez the sole release on the Jennifer Hartman label. By the time Tweez was released, most of the group had gone off to college and would return to Louisville during breaks to write and practice new material. Returning to the Walfords' basement, the group would spend hours repeating the same guitar riff and adding in layers of nuance on top of it. After rehearsals, McMahan took practice tapes home and worked on vocals with the use of a 4-track tape recorder. Sitting in his parents' car made it possible to record spoken vocals over the band's loud music. After developing these new songs, Slint's members wanted a cleaner sound than that of their first LP, approached Minneapolis producer Brian Paulson who had recorded two albums with McMahan's former bandmates' group Bastro. On a trip to visit Bastro and Paulson during the recording sessions for their final studio album, Sing the Troubled Beast, McMahan was in a near-fatal car accident. While in the ambulance, a paramedic called in "Code 138" and the immobilized McMahan regained consciousness singing the Misfits song "We are 138."
McMahan's brush with death left the young musician feeling depressed, a condition that would affect the recording and aftermath of Slint's next album. Paulson and Slint met over a weekend to record Spiderland in Chicago. All of the music was recorded live, with vocals overdubbed afterward in no more than two takes and with little to no rehearsal on the part of McMahan; the group used two different microphones to record vocals: one for softer, spoken voices, one for louder, sung voices. During mixdown and the group would try adding different effects, but all these were rejected, resulting in a pared-down production sound; the day after Spiderland's recording session ended, McMahan checked himself into a mental hospital where he was diagnosed with depression, subsequently left the band. Longtime friend of the band Will Oldham took numerous photos of the group as potential album covers; some of these were taken in a nearby quarry and one was chosen with Slint's four member's heads bobbing above the surface of the water.
Touch and Go released Spiderland in 1991. The album was unlike anything else. Slint was to have gone on a European tour after it
Cannonball (The Breeders song)
"Cannonball" is a song by The Breeders from their 1993 album Last Splash. It was released as a single on August 9, 1993, on 4AD/Elektra Records, reaching No. 44 on the U. S. Billboard Hot 100, No. 40 in the UK Singles Chart. It was released in France in November 1993, where it remained charted for 30 weeks, peaking at No. 8. The music video for "Cannonball" was directed by Spike Jonze, it features the band in a garage, the Deal sisters in what seems to be a dressing room trashed with clothes, sitting in a chair together. There are shots of a cannonball rolling down suburban streets, as well as a shot of Kim Deal singing underwater. NME, Melody Maker and The Village Voice's Pazz & Jop annual year-end critics' poll all named "Cannonball" their best single of 1993. In May 2007, NME magazine placed "Cannonball" at number 22 in its list of the 50 Greatest Indie Anthems Ever, it ranked No. 83 on VH1's "100 Greatest Songs of the 90s". In September 2010, Pitchfork Media included the song at number 22 on their Top 200 Tracks of the 90s.
"Cannonball" was featured in a preview for South Park: Bigger and Uncut, the film Moonlight and Valentino, the start of A Walk to Remember as well as in the heist scene of Sugar & Spice. It was the original score to a skit on MTV's sketch comedy show The State but, due to music licensing issues, The State recorded a sound-alike song for the DVD of their complete series; the song was featured in the third season in episode 3 in Misfits and in the season six finale of True Blood. "Cannonball" – 3:33 "Cro-Aloha" – 2:15 "Cannonball" – 3:33 "Cro-Aloha" – 2:15 "Lord of the Thighs" – 3:58 "900" – 4:27 "Cannonball" – 3:33 "Lord of the Thighs" – 3:58 "Cro-Aloha" – 2:15"Cro-Aloha" is a demo version of "No Aloha" from Last Splash. Guitars and lead vocals: Kelley Deal and Kim Deal Bass and vocals: Josephine Wiggs Drums: Jim MacPherson Artwork by Paul McMenamin Design by Vaughan Oliver Photography by Jason Love Recorded at Coast Recorders, San Francisco.
The Beastie Boys were an American hip hop group from New York City formed in 1981. The group comprised Adam "MCA" Yauch and Adam "Ad-Rock" Horovitz; the Beastie Boys were formed as a four-piece hardcore punk band, the Young Aborigines, in 1979 by Mike D, MCA, John Berry and Kate Schellenbach. They appeared on the compilation cassette New York Thrash, contributing two songs from their first EP, Polly Wog Stew, in 1982. Berry was replaced by Horovitz. After achieving local success with the 1983 experimental hip hop single "Cooky Puss", the Beastie Boys made a full transition to hip hop, Schellenbach left the group soon after, they toured with Madonna in 1985 and a year released their debut album Licensed to Ill. It was followed by Paul's Boutique, Check Your Head, Ill Communication, Hello Nasty, To the 5 Boroughs, The Mix-Up, Hot Sauce Committee Part Two; the Beastie Boys have sold 26 million records in the United States and 50 million records worldwide, making them the biggest-selling rap group since Billboard began recording sales in 1991.
With seven platinum-selling albums from 1986 to 2004, the Beastie Boys were one of the longest-lived hip hop acts worldwide. In 2012, they became the third rap group to be inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame. In the same year, MCA died of cancer. In 2014, Mike D confirmed. Prior to forming the Beastie Boys, Michael Diamond was part of a number of bands such as the Walden Jazz Band, BAN, The Young Aborigines; the Beastie Boys formed in July 1981 when the Young Aborigines bassist Jeremy Shatan left New York City for the summer and the remaining members Michael Diamond, John Berry and Kate Schellenbach formed a new hardcore punk band with Adam Yauch called Beastie Boys. In an interview on The Tonight Show in October 2018, Mike D stated that the Beastie name is an acronym, it stands for "Boys Entering Anarchistic States Towards Inner Excellence". The band supported Bad Brains, the Dead Kennedys, the Misfits and Reagan Youth at venues such as CBGB, A7, Trudy Hellers Place and Max's Kansas City, playing at the latter venue on its closing night.
In November 1982, the Beastie Boys recorded the 7" EP Polly Wog Stew at 171A studios, an early recorded example of New York hardcore. On November 13, 1982, the Beastie Boys played Philip Pucci's birthday for the purposes of his short concert film of the Beastie Boys, Beastie. Pucci held the concert in Bard College's Preston Drama Dance Department Theatre; this performance marked the Beastie Boys' first on screen appearance in a published motion picture. Pucci's concept for Beastie was to distribute a mixture of both a half dozen 16 mm Bell & Howell Filmo cameras, 16 mm Bolex cameras to audience members and ask that they capture the Beastie Boys performance from the audience's own point of view while a master sync sound camera filmed from the balcony of the abandoned theater where the performance was held; the opening band for that performance was The Young and the Useless, which featured Adam Horovitz as the lead singer. A one-minute clip of Beastie was subsequently excerpted and licensed by the Beastie Boys for use in the "Egg Raid on Mojo" segment of the "Skills to Pay the Bills" long-form home video released by Capitol Records.
"Skills to Pay the Bills" went on to be certified Gold by the Recording Industry Association of America. Berry left the group in 1982 and was replaced by Horovitz, who had become close friends with the Beastie Boys; as of that year, the Beastie Boys band made a full transition to hip hop, was composed of three young Americans of Jewish descent: "Mike D", "MCA", "Ad-Rock". The band recorded and performed its first hip hop track, "Cooky Puss", based on a prank call by the group to a Carvel Ice Cream franchise in 1983, it was a part of the new lineup's first EP called Cooky Puss, the first piece of work that showed their incorporation of the underground rap phenomenon and the use of samples. It became a hit in New York underground dance clubs and night clubs. "Beastie Revolution" was sampled for a British Airways commercial. The Beastie Boys sued them over the use of the song. Due to the success of "Cooky Puss", they began to incorporate rap into their sets, they ended up getting an NYU student named Rick Rubin.
Soon thereafter, Rubin began producing records. He formed Def Jam Recordings with fellow NY University student Russell Simmons, approached the band about producing them for his new label. Around the same time, the band made a more complete switch over from a punk rock outfit to a three-man rap trio with drummer Kate Schellenbach leaving the group and Diamond and Horovitz each adopting their own hip hop monikers—Mike D, MCA and Ad-Rock respectively, they released the 12-inch single "Rock Hard" in 1984, which would be the second record released by Def Jam crediting Rubin as producer. In 1985, the band opened for John Lydon's post-Sex Pistols band Public Image Ltd. as well as supporting Madonna on her North American The Virgin Tour. Headlining with Fishbone and Murphy's Law with DJ Hurricane and in the year, the group was on the Raising Hell tour with Run-DMC, Whodini, LL Cool J, the Timex Social Club. With their exposure on this tour, the track "Hold It Now, Hit It" charted on Billboard's US R&B and dance charts.
The track "She's on It" from the Krush Groove soundtrack continued in a rap/metal vein while a double A-side 12", "Paul Revere/
Atlantic Recording Corporation is an American record label founded in October 1947 by Ahmet Ertegün and Herb Abramson. Over its first 20 years of operation, Atlantic earned a reputation as one of the most important American labels, specializing in jazz, R&B, soul by Aretha Franklin, Ray Charles, Wilson Pickett and Dave, Ruth Brown and Otis Redding, its position was improved by its distribution deal with Stax. In 1967, Atlantic became a wholly owned subsidiary of Warner Bros.-Seven Arts, now the Warner Music Group, expanded into rock and pop music with releases by Led Zeppelin and Yes. In 2004, Atlantic and its sister label. Craig Kallman is the chairman of Atlantic. Ahmet Ertegün served as founding chairman until his death on December 14, 2006, at age 83. In 1944, brothers Nesuhi and Ahmet Ertegun remained in the United States when their mother and sister returned to Turkey after the death of their father Munir Ertegun, Turkey's first ambassador to the U. S; the brothers were fans of jazz and rhythm & blues, amassing a collection of over 15,000 78 RPM records.
Ahmet ostensibly stayed in Washington to undertake post-graduate music studies at Georgetown University but immersed himself in the Washington music scene and entered the record business, enjoying a resurgence after wartime restrictions on the shellac used in manufacture. He convinced the family dentist, Dr. Vahdi Sabit, to invest $10,000 and hired Herb Abramson, a dentistry student. Abramson had worked as a part-time A&R manager/producer for the jazz label National Records, signing Big Joe Turner and Billy Eckstine, he had no interest in its most successful musicians. In September 1947, he sold his share in Jubilee to his partner, Jerry Blaine, invested $2,500 in Atlantic. Atlantic was run by Abramson and Ertegun. Abramson's wife Miriam ran the label's publishing company, Progressive Music, did most office duties until 1949 when Atlantic hired its first employee, bookkeeper Francine Wakschal, who remained with the label for the next 49 years. Miriam gained a reputation for toughness. Staff engineer Tom Dowd recalled, "Tokyo Rose was the kindest name some people had for her" and Doc Pomus described her as "an extraordinarily vitriolic woman".
When interviewed in 2009, she attributed her reputation to the company's chronic cash-flow shortage: "... most of the problems we had with artists were that they wanted advances, and, difficult for us... we were undercapitalized for a long time." The label's office in the Ritz Hotel in Manhattan proved too expensive, so they moved to a room in the Hotel Jefferson. In the early fifties, Atlantic moved from the Hotel Jefferson to offices at 301 West 54th St and to 356 West 56th St. Atlantic's first recordings were issued in late January 1948 and included "That Old Black Magic" by Tiny Grimes and "The Spider" by Joe Morris. In its early years, Atlantic concentrated on modern jazz although it released some country and western and spoken word recordings. Abramson produced "Magic Records", children's records with four grooves on each side, each groove containing a different story, so the story played would be determined by the groove in which the stylus happened to land. In late 1947, James Petrillo, head of the American Federation of Musicians, announced an indefinite ban on all recording activities by union musicians, this came into effect on January 1, 1948.
The union action forced Atlantic to use all its capital to cut and stockpile enough recordings to last through the ban, expected to continue for at least a year. Ertegun and Abramson spent much of the late 1940s and early 1950s scouring nightclubs in search of talent. Ertegun composed songs under the alias "A. Nugetre", including Big Joe Turner's hit "Chains of Love", recording them in booths in Times Square giving them to an arranger or session musician. Early releases included music by Sidney Bechet, Barney Bigard, The Cardinals, The Clovers, Frank Culley, The Delta Rhythm Boys, Erroll Garner, Dizzy Gillespie, Tiny Grimes, Al Hibbler, Earl Hines, Johnny Hodges, Jackie & Roy, Lead Belly, Meade Lux Lewis, Professor Longhair, Shelly Manne, Howard McGhee, Mabel Mercer, James Moody, Joe Morris, Art Pepper, Django Reinhardt, Pete Rugolo, Pee Wee Russell, Bobby Short, Sylvia Syms, Billy Taylor, Sonny Terry, Big Joe Turner, Jimmy Yancey, Sarah Vaughan, Mal Waldron, Mary Lou Williams. In early 1949, a New Orleans distributor phoned Ertegun to obtain Stick McGhee's "Drinking Wine, Spo-Dee-O-Dee", unavailable due to the closing of McGhee's previous label.
Ertegun knew Stick's younger brother Brownie McGhee, with whom Stick happened to be staying, so he contacted the McGhee brothers and re-recorded the song. When released in February 1949, it became Atlantic's first hit, selling 400,000 copies, reached No. 2 after spending six months on the Billboard R&B chart – although McGhee himself earned just $10 for the session. Atlantic's fortunes rose rapidly: recorded 187 songs were recorded in 1949, more than three times the amount from the previous two years, received overtures for a manufacturing and distribution deal with Columbia, which would pay Atlantic a 3% royalty on every copy sold. Ertegun asked about artists' royalties, which he paid, this surprised Columbia executives, who did not, the deal was scuttled. On the recommendation of broadcaster Willis Conover and Abramson visited Ruth Brown at the Crystal Caverns club in Washington and invited her to audition for Atlantic, she was injured in a car accident en route to New York City, but Atlantic supported her for nine months and signed her.