The American Express Company known as Amex, is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in Three World Financial Center in New York City. The company is one of the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average; the company is best known for its charge card, credit card, traveler's cheque businesses. In 2016, credit cards using the American Express network accounted for 22.9% of the total dollar volume of credit card transactions in the US. As of December 31, 2017, the company had 112.8 million cards in force, including 50 million cards in force in the United States, each with an average annual spending of $18,519. In 2017, Forbes named American Express as the 23rd most valuable brand in the world, estimating the brand to be worth US$24.5 billion. In 2018, Fortune ranked American Express as the 14th most admired company worldwide, the 23rd best company to work for; the company's logo, adopted in 1958, is a gladiator or centurion whose image appears on the company's traveler's cheques, charge cards and credit cards.
In 1850, American Express was started as an express mail business in New York. It was founded as a joint stock corporation by the merger of the express companies owned by Henry Wells, William G. Fargo, John Warren Butterfield. Wells and Fargo started Wells Fargo & Co. in 1852 when Butterfield and other directors objected to the proposal that American Express extend its operations to California. American Express established its headquarters in a building at the intersection of Jay Street and Hudson Street in what was called the Tribeca section of Manhattan. For years it enjoyed a virtual monopoly on the movement of express shipments throughout New York State. In 1874, American Express moved its headquarters to 65 Broadway in what was becoming the Financial District of Manhattan, a location it was to retain through two buildings. In 1854, the American Express Co. purchased a lot on Vesey Street in New York City as the site for its stables. The company's first New York headquarters was an 1858 marble Italianate palazzo at 55–61 Hudson Street, which had a busy freight depot on the ground story with a spur line from the Hudson River Railroad.
A stable was constructed in 1867, five blocks north at 4–8 Hubert Street. The company prospered sufficiently that headquarters were moved in 1874 from the wholesale shipping district to the budding Financial District, into rented offices in two five-story brownstone commercial buildings at 63 and 65 Broadway that were owned by the Harmony family. In 1880, American Express built a new warehouse behind the Broadway Building at 46 Trinity Place; the designer is unknown, but it has a façade of brick arches that are reminiscent of pre-skyscraper New York. American Express has long been out of this building, but it still bears a terracotta seal with the American Express Eagle. In 1890–91 the company constructed a new ten-story building by Edward H. Kendall on the site of its former headquarters on Hudson Street. By 1903, the company had assets of some $28 million, second only to the National City Bank of New York among financial institutions in the city. To reflect this, the company purchased the Broadway buildings and site.
At the end of the Wells-Fargo reign in 1914, an aggressive new president, George Chadbourne Taylor, who had worked his way up through the company over the previous thirty years, decided to build a new headquarters. The old buildings, dubbed by the New York Times as "among the ancient landmarks" of lower Broadway, were inadequate for such a expanding concern. After some delays due to the First World War, the 21-story neo-classical American Express Co. Building was constructed in 1916–17 to the design of James L. Aspinwall, of the firm of Renwick, Aspinwall & Tucker, the successor to the architectural practice of the eminent James Renwick, Jr.. The building consolidated the two lots of the former buildings with a single address: 65 Broadway; this building was part of the "Express Row" section of lower Broadway at the time. The building completed the continuous masonry wall of its block-front and assisted in transforming Broadway into the "canyon" of neo-classical masonry office towers familiar to this dayAmerican Express sold this building in 1975, but retained travel services there.
The building was the headquarters over the years of other prominent firms, including investment bankers J.& W. Seligman & Co. the American Bureau of Shipping, a maritime concern, J. J. Kenny, Standard & Poor's, who has renamed the building for itself. American Express extended its reach nationwide by arranging affiliations with other express companies and steamship companies. In 1857, American Express started its expansion in the area of financial services by launching a money order business to compete with the United States Post Office's money orders. Sometime between 1888 and 1890, J. C. Fargo returned frustrated and infuriated. Despite the fact that he was president of American Express and that he carried with him traditional letters of credit, he found it difficult to obtain cash anywhere except in major cities. Fargo went to Marcellus Flemming Berry and asked him to create a better solution than the letter of credit. Berry introduced the American Express Traveler's Cheque, launched in 1891 in denominations of $10, $20, $50, $100.
Traveler's cheques established American Express as a international compa
A housing cooperative, co-op, or housing company, is a legal entity a cooperative or a corporation, which owns real estate, consisting of one or more residential buildings. Housing cooperatives are a distinctive form of home ownership that have many characteristics that differ from other residential arrangements such as single family home ownership and renting; the corporation is membership-based, with membership granted by way of a share purchase in the cooperative. Each shareholder in the legal entity is granted the right to occupy one housing unit. A primary advantage of the housing cooperative is the pooling of the members' resources so that their buying power is leveraged, thus lowering the cost per member in all the services and products associated with home ownership. Another key element in some forms of housing cooperatives is that the members, through their elected representatives and select who may live in the cooperative, unlike any other form of home ownership. Housing cooperatives fall into two general tenure categories: ownership.
In non-equity cooperatives, occupancy rights are sometimes granted subject to an occupancy agreement, similar to a lease. In equity cooperatives, occupancy rights are sometimes granted by way of the purchase agreements and legal instruments registered on the title; the corporation's articles of incorporation and bylaws as well as occupancy agreement specifies the cooperative's rules. The word cooperative is used to describe a non-share capital co-op model in which fee-paying members obtain the right to occupy a bedroom and share the communal resources of a house, owned by a cooperative organization; such is the case with student cooperatives in some college and university communities across the United States. As a legal entity, a co-op can contract with other companies or hire individuals to provide it with services, such as a maintenance contractor or a building manager, it can hire employees, such as a manager or a caretaker, to deal with specific things that volunteers may prefer not to do or may not be good at doing, such as electrical maintenance.
However, as many housing cooperatives strive to run self-sufficiently, as much work as possible is completed by its members. In non-equity cooperatives and in limited equity cooperatives, a shareholder in a co-op does not own real estate, but a share of the legal entity that does own real estate. Co-operative ownership is quite distinct from condominiums where people own individual units and have little say in who moves into the other units; because of this, most jurisdictions have developed separate legislation, similar to laws that regulate companies, to regulate how co-ops are operated and the rights and obligations of shareholders. Each resident or resident household has membership in the co-operative association. In non-equity cooperatives, members have occupancy rights to a specific suite within the housing co-operative as outlined in their "occupancy agreement", or "proprietary lease", a lease. In ownership cooperatives, occupancy rights are transferred to the purchaser by way of the title transfer.
Since the housing cooperative holds title to all the property and housing structures, it bears the cost of maintaining and replacing them. This relieves the member from the burden of such work. In that sense, the housing cooperative is like the landlord in a rental setting. However, another hallmark of cooperative living is that it is nonprofit, so that the work is done at cost, with no profit motive involved. In some cases, the co-op follows Rochdale Principles. Most cooperatives are incorporated as limited stock companies where the number of votes an owner has is tied to the number of shares owned by the person. Whichever form of voting is employed it is necessary to conduct an election among shareholders to determine who will represent them on the board of directors, the governing body of the co-operative; the board of directors is responsible for the business decisions including the financial requirements and sustainability of the co-operative. Although politics vary from co-op to co-op and depend on the wishes of its members, it is a general rule that a majority vote of the board is necessary to make business decisions.
In larger co-ops, members of a co-op elect a board of directors from amongst the shareholders at a general meeting the annual general meeting. In smaller co-ops, all members sit on the board. A housing cooperative's board of directors is elected by the membership, providing a voice and representation in the governance of the property. Rules are determined by the board, providing a flexible means of addressing the issues that arise in a community to assure the members' peaceful possession of their homes. A housing cooperative is de facto non-profit, since most of its income comes from the rents paid by its residents, who are invariably its members. There is no point in creating a deliberate surplus—except for operational requirements such as setting aside funds for replacement of assets—since that means that the rents paid by members are set higher than the expenses. In the lifecycle of buildings, the replacement of assets requires si
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Brown University is a private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Island. Founded in 1764 as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, it is the seventh-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. At its foundation, Brown was the first college in the U. S. to accept students regardless of their religious affiliation. Its engineering program was established in 1847, it was one of the early doctoral-granting U. S. institutions in the late 19th century, adding masters and doctoral studies in 1887. In 1969, Brown adopted a New Curriculum sometimes referred to as the Brown Curriculum after a period of student lobbying; the New Curriculum eliminated mandatory "general education" distribution requirements, made students "the architects of their own syllabus" and allowed them to take any course for a grade of satisfactory or unrecorded no-credit. In 1971, Brown's coordinate women's institution, Pembroke College, was merged into the university.
Undergraduate admissions is selective, with an acceptance rate of 6.6% for the class of 2023. The university comprises the College, the Graduate School, Alpert Medical School, the School of Engineering, the School of Public Health and the School of Professional Studies. Brown's international programs are organized through the Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs, the university is academically affiliated with the Marine Biological Laboratory and the Rhode Island School of Design; the Brown/RISD Dual Degree Program, offered in conjunction with the Rhode Island School of Design, is a five-year course that awards degrees from both institutions. Brown's main campus is located in the College Hill Historic District in the city of Providence, Rhode Island; the University's neighborhood is a federally listed architectural district with a dense concentration of Colonial-era buildings. Benefit Street, on the western edge of the campus, contains "one of the finest cohesive collections of restored seventeenth- and eighteenth-century architecture in the United States".
As of August 2018, 8 Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with Brown University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Brown's faculty and alumni include five National Humanities Medalists and ten National Medal of Science laureates. Other notable alumni include eight billionaire graduates, a U. S. Supreme Court Chief Justice, four U. S. Secretaries of State and other Cabinet officials, 54 members of the United States Congress, 56 Rhodes Scholars, 52 Gates Cambridge Scholars 49 Marshall Scholars, 14 MacArthur Genius Fellows, 21 Pulitzer Prize winners, various royals and nobles, as well as leaders and founders of Fortune 500 companies; the origin of Brown University can be dated to 1761, when three residents of Newport, Rhode Island drafted a petition to the General Assembly of the colony: Your Petitioners propose to open a literary institution or School for instructing young Gentlemen in the Languages, Geography & History, & such other branches of Knowledge as shall be desired.
That for this End... it will be necessary... to erect a public Building or Buildings for the boarding of the youth & the Residence of the Professors. The three petitioners were Ezra Stiles, pastor of Newport's Second Congregational Church and future president of Yale. Stiles and Ellery were co-authors of the Charter of the College two years later; the editor of Stiles's papers observes, "This draft of a petition connects itself with other evidence of Dr. Stiles's project for a Collegiate Institution in Rhode Island, before the charter of what became Brown University."There is further documentary evidence that Stiles was making plans for a college in 1762. On January 20, Chauncey Whittelsey, pastor of the First Church of New Haven, answered a letter from Stiles: The week before last I sent you the Copy of Yale College Charter... Should you make any Progress in the Affair of a Colledge, I should be glad to hear of it; the Philadelphia Association of Baptist Churches had an eye on Rhode Island, home of the mother church of their denomination: the First Baptist Church in America, founded in Providence in 1638 by Roger Williams.
The Baptists were as yet unrepresented among colonial colleges. Isaac Backus was the historian of the New England Baptists and an inaugural Trustee of Brown, writing in 1784, he described the October 1762 resolution taken at Philadelphia: The Philadelphia Association obtained such an acquaintance with our affairs, as to bring them to an apprehension that it was practicable and expedient to erect a college in the Colony of Rhode-Island, under the chief direction of the Baptists. Mr. James Manning, who took his first degree in New-Jersey college in September, 1762, was esteemed a suitable leader in this important work. Manning arrived at Newport in July 1763 and was introduced to Stiles, who agreed to write the Charter for the College. Stiles's first draft was read to the General Assembly in August 1763 and rejected by Baptist members who worried that the College Board of Fellows would under-represent the Baptists. A revised Charter written by Stiles and Ellery was adopted by the Assembly on March 3, 1764.
In September 1764, the inaugural meeting of the College Corporation was held at Newport. Go
Ig Nobel Prize
The Ig Nobel Prize is a parody of the Nobel Prize awarded every autumn to celebrate ten unusual or trivial achievements in scientific research. Since 1991, the Ig Nobel Prizes have been awarded to "honor achievements that first make people laugh, make them think." The name of the award is a pun on the word ignoble, which means "characterized by baseness, lowness, or meanness", is satirical social criticism that identifies "absurd" research, although such research has succeeded in yielding useful knowledge. Organized by the scientific humor magazine Annals of Improbable Research, the Ig Nobel Prizes are presented by Nobel laureates in a ceremony at the Sanders Theater, Harvard University, are followed by the winners’ public lectures at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Ig Nobels were created in 1991 by Marc Abrahams, editor and co-founder of the Annals of Improbable Research, editor-in-chief of the Journal of Irreproducible Results and master of ceremonies at all subsequent awards ceremonies.
Awards were presented at that time for discoveries "that cannot, or should not, be reproduced". Ten prizes are awarded each year in many categories, including the Nobel Prize categories of physics, physiology/medicine and peace, but other categories such as public health, engineering and interdisciplinary research; the Ig Nobel Prizes recognize genuine achievements, with the exception of three prizes awarded in the first year to fictitious scientists Josiah S. Carberry, Paul DeFanti, Thomas Kyle; the awards are sometimes criticism via satire, as in the two awards given for homeopathy research, prizes in "science education" to the Kansas State Department of Education and Colorado State Board of Education for their stance regarding the teaching of evolution, the prize awarded to Social Text after the Sokal affair. Most however, they draw attention to scientific articles that have some humorous or unexpected aspect. Examples range from the discovery that the presence of humans tends to sexually arouse ostriches, to the statement that black holes fulfill all the technical requirements to be the location of Hell, to research on the "five-second rule", a tongue-in-cheek belief that food dropped on the floor will not become contaminated if it is picked up within five seconds.
Sir Andre Geim, awarded an Ig Nobel Prize in 2000 for levitating a frog by magnetism, was awarded a Nobel Prize in physics in 2010 for his work with graphene. He thereby became the only individual, as of 2019, to have received both an Ig Nobel; the prizes are presented by Nobel laureates at a ceremony in a lecture hall at MIT, but now in the Sanders Theater at Harvard University. It contains a number of running jokes, including Miss Sweetie Poo, a little girl who cries out, "Please stop: I'm bored", in a high-pitched voice if speakers go on too long; the awards ceremony is traditionally closed with the words: "If you didn't win a prize — and if you did — better luck next year!" The ceremony is co-sponsored by the Harvard Computer Society, the Harvard–Radcliffe Science Fiction Association and the Harvard–Radcliffe Society of Physics Students. Throwing paper planes onto the stage is a long-standing tradition. Professor Roy J. Glauber swept the stage clean of the airplanes as the official "Keeper of the Broom."
Glauber could not attend the 2005 awards because he was traveling to Stockholm to claim a genuine Nobel Prize in Physics. The "Parade of Ignitaries" into the hall includes supporting groups. At the 1997 ceremonies, a team of "cryogenic sex researchers" distributed a pamphlet titled "Safe Sex at Four Kelvin." Delegates from the Museum of Bad Art are on hand to display some pieces from their collection. The ceremony is shown live over the Internet; the recording is broadcast every year, on the Friday after U. S. Thanksgiving, on the public radio program Science Friday. In recognition of this, the audience chants the name of Ira Flatow. Two books have been published with write-ups on some of the winners: The Ig Nobel Prize, The Ig Nobel Prize 2, retitled The Man Who Tried to Clone Himself. An Ig Nobel Tour has been an annual part of National Science week in the United Kingdom since 2003; the tour has traveled to Australia several times, Aarhus University in Denmark in April 2009, Italy and The Netherlands.
A September 2009 article in The National titled "A noble side to Ig Nobels" says that, although the Ig Nobel Awards are veiled criticism of trivial research, history shows that trivial research sometimes leads to important breakthroughs. For instance, in 2006, a study showing that one of the malaria mosquitoes is attracted to the smell of Limburger cheese and the smell of human feet earned the Ig Nobel Prize in the area of biology; as a direct result of these findings, traps baited with this cheese have been placed in strategic locations in some parts of Africa to combat the epidemic of malaria. List of Ig Nobel Prize winners Darwin Awards – an award for enriching the human gene pool by idiotic self-destruction Golden Raspberry Awards – awards for bad movies Bookseller/Diagram Prize for Oddest Title of the Year, a book prize Pigasus Award – exposing parapsychological, paranormal, or psychic frauds Golden Fleece Award - award for waste of government funds.
Middletown is a city located in Middlesex County, along the Connecticut River, in the central part of the state, 16 miles south of Hartford. In 1650, it was incorporated as a town under Mattabeseck, it received its present name in 1653. Middletown was included within Hartford County upon its creation on May 10, 1666. In 1784, the central settlement was incorporated as a city distinct from the town. Both were included within newly formed Middlesex County in May 1785. In 1923, the City of Middletown was consolidated with the Town. A busy sailing port and an industrial center, it is now residential with its downtown—mainly Main Street—serving as a popular retail and bar district somewhat close to Wesleyan University. Middletown was the county seat of Middlesex County from its creation in 1785 until the elimination of county government in 1960; as of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 47,648. Middletown, Connecticut is considered the southernmost city in the Hartford-Springfield Knowledge Corridor Metropolitan Region, which features a combined metro population of 1.9 million.
The land on the western bank of the Connecticut River where Middletown now lies was home to the Mattabesett Native Americans. At the time the first European settlers arrived in the region, the Mattabesetts were a part of the group of tribes in the Connecticut Valley, under a single chief named Sowheag. Plans for the colonial settlement were drawn up by the General Court in 1646. On September 11, 1651, the General Court of Connecticut established the town of "Mattabesett". A couple of years in November of 1653, the settlement was renamed Middletown, it was chosen because the site was approximate halfway between Windsor and Saybrook on the Great River. Life was not easy among these early colonial Puritans. Law, was harsh among the Puritans; the Mattabesett and other tribes referred to the Mohegan as "destroyers of men." Sowheag hoped. They did not. Smallpox, afflicted the Mattabesett lessening their ability to resist and their cohesion as a tribe. Records show that, over time, Sowheag was forced to sell off most of the Mattabesett property to the local colonists.
Similar milieus of tragic interaction between Native Americans and colonists were common in 17th century New England. During the 18th century, Middletown became the largest and most prosperous settlement in Connecticut. By the time of the American Revolution, Middletown was a thriving port with one-third of its citizens involved in merchant and maritime activities. Slavery was part of the early economy of Middletown. Middletown merchant traders pushed for the clearance of the Saybrook Bar at the mouth of the Connecticut River, sought the creation of Middlesex County in 1785; the name'Middlesex' was chosen because the intention was to make Middletown the head of a long river port, much as London was at the head of its long river port in Middlesex County, England. The same persons established the Middlesex Turnpike to link all the settlements on the western side of the Connecticut, again with the intent of creating one long port; the port's decline began in the early 19th century with strained American-British relations and resulting trade restrictions, which led to the War of 1812.
The port never recovered. During this period, Middletown became a major center for firearms manufacturing. Numerous gun manufacturers in the area supplied the majority of pistols to the United States government during the War of 1812. After that war, the center of this business passed to Springfield, Hartford and New Haven, Connecticut. 1831 saw the establishment of Wesleyan University, to become one of the United States' leading liberal arts institutions. The institution replaced an earlier institution on the same site, Partridge's American Literary and Military Academy, which had moved to Norwich and became Norwich University; the two main buildings of the original campus were built by the people of Middletown with the intent of attracting an academic institution to the city. In 1841, Middletown established the state's first public high school, which at first enrolled all students from age nine through age sixteen who had previous attended district schools; the mid-19th century saw manufacturing replace trade as Middletown's economic mainstay.
In library science, authority control is a process that organizes bibliographic information, for example in library catalogs by using a single, distinct spelling of a name or a numeric identifier for each topic. The word authority in authority control derives from the idea that the names of people, places and concepts are authorized, i.e. they are established in one particular form. These one-of-a-kind headings or identifiers are applied throughout catalogs which make use of the respective authority file, are applied for other methods of organizing data such as linkages and cross references; each controlled entry is described in an authority record in terms of its scope and usage, this organization helps the library staff maintain the catalog and make it user-friendly for researchers. Catalogers assign each subject—such as author, series, or corporation—a particular unique identifier or heading term, used uniquely, unambiguously for all references to that same subject, which obviates variations from different spellings, pen names, or aliases.
The unique header can guide users to all relevant information including related or collocated subjects. Authority records can be combined into a database and called an authority file, maintaining and updating these files as well as "logical linkages" to other files within them is the work of librarians and other information cataloguers. Accordingly, authority control is an example of controlled vocabulary and of bibliographic control. While in theory any piece of information is amenable to authority control such as personal and corporate names, uniform titles, series names, subjects, library cataloguers focus on author names and titles of works. Subject headings from the Library of Congress fulfill a function similar to authority records, although they are considered separately; as time passes, information changes, prompting needs for reorganization. According to one view, authority control is not about creating a perfect seamless system but rather it is an ongoing effort to keep up with these changes and try to bring "structure and order" to the task of helping users find information.
Better researching. Authority control helps researchers get a handle on a specific subject with less wasted effort. A well-designed digital catalog/database enables a researcher to query a few words of an entry to bring up the established term or phrase, thus improving accuracy and saving time. Makes searching more predictable, it can be used in conjunction with keyword searching using "and" or "not" or "or" or other Boolean operators on a web browser. It increases chances. Consistency of records. Organization and structure of information. Efficiency for cataloguers; the process of authority control is not only of great help to researchers searching for a particular subject to study, but it can help cataloguers organize information as well. Cataloguers can use authority records when trying to categorize new items, since they can see which records have been catalogued and can therefore avoid unnecessary work. Maximises library resources. Easier to maintain the catalog, it enables cataloguers to correct errors.
In some instances, software programs support workers tasked with maintaining the catalog to do ongoing tasks such as automated clean-up. It helps users of metadata. Fewer errors, it can help catch errors caused by typos or misspellings which can sometimes accumulate over time, sometimes known as quality drift. For example, machines can catch misspellings such as "Elementary school techers" and "Pumpkilns" which can be corrected by library staff. Sometimes within a catalog there are different spellings for only one person or subject; this can bring confusion. Authority control is used by cataloguers to collocate materials that logically belong together but which present themselves differently. Records are used to establish uniform titles which collocate all versions of a given work under one unique heading when such versions are issued under different titles. With authority control, one unique preferred name represents all variations and will include different variations and misspellings, uppercase versus lowercase variants, differing dates, so forth.
For example, in Wikipedia, the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales is described by an article Diana, Princess of Wales as well as numerous other descriptors, e.g. Princess Diana, but both Princess Diana and Diana, Princess of Wales describe the same person. In an online library catalog, various entries might look like the following: Diana. Diana, Princess of Wales. Diana, Princess of Wales, 1961–1997 Diana, Princess of Wales 1961–1997 Diana, Princess of Wales, 1961–1997 DIANA, PRINCESS OF WALES, 1961–1997; these different terms describe the same person. Accordingly, authority control reduces these entries to one unique entry or official authorized heading, sometimes termed an access point: Diana, Princess of Wales, 1961–1997 Generally there are different authority file headings and identifiers used by different libraries in different countries inviting confusion, but there are different approaches internationally to try to lessen the confusion. One international effort to prevent such confusion is the Virtual International Authority File, a collaborative attempt to provide a single heading for a particular subject.
It is a way to standardize information from different authority files around the world such as the Integrated Authority File maintained and used cooperatively by many libraries in German-speaki