Sir Walter Barttelot, 3rd Baronet
Sir Walter Balfour Barttelot, 3rd Baronet, DSO was of the Barttelot Baronetcy and grandson of Sir Walter Barttelot, 1st Baronet. The Barttelots are said to have come into England with William the Conqueror, Barttelot was born at The Manor, Sidmouth on 22 March 1880. He was educated at Fonthill, East Grinstead and Eton College and he attended Royal Military Academy Sandhurst and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 2nd Battalion, Dorsetshire Regiment on 6 December 1899. He succeeded to the title of 3rd Baronet Barttelot, on 23 July 1900, after his father, Sir Walter George Barttelot and he transferred to the 1st Battalion, Coldstream Guards on 12 February 1901, returning to the United Kingdom with them in October 1902. The 3rd baronet received the Queens South Africa Medal with six clasps and he married Gladys St. Aubyn Angove, daughter of William Collier Angove, on 17 November 1903. He was promoted to lieutenant on 9 November 1903, and to captain on 18 May 1910. He served in Egypt from 1906 to 1908, and from 27 June 1911 he was Aide de camp and he was appointed a Brigade Major on 11 January 1916, for the Mesopotamian campaign.
He was awarded a promotion to lieutenant-colonel for his service in Mesopotamia on 3 June 1918. In addition to his DSO, he had been Mentioned in Despatches four times and he had come to know Gertrude Bell during his time in Tehran, and in a letter to her mother on 25 October 1918, she wrote, A terrible tragedy has happened at Tehran. I think I must have written to you about the Military Attach‚, Sir Walter Barttelot and he was our host on the night expedition into the hills which I described to you. He has been murdered in his bed by a jealous husband - I know no details but I profoundly believe that there was nothing in the whole business, the wife in question, Mrs Maclaren, left Tehran a month ago and passed through here on her way to England. Also she had quarrelled with the Marlings, the wrong quite on her side, as far as I could see, Sir Walter had a wife in England and a boy at Eton, about both of whom he used to talk to me continuously. He was a nice, not particularly brilliant British landowner, we made rather friends and he was not well suited in his Tehran job and was longing to get away. I told the C. G. S.
this when I came back, a successor was found for him, oh dear, Im so sorry for his wife and boy. Maclaren I thought a dreadful man - class W, if not Z, Barttelot was survived by his wife and two sons. The eldest son, Sir Walter de Stopham Barttelot, 4th Baronet, was killed in action as a brigadier on 16 August 1944, Barttelot was commemorated with memorial services in Stopham Parish Church on 9 November 1918, and at Holy Trinity Brompton on 11 November. His widow remarried, to Commander N. W. Diggle CMG, Naval Attaché in Rome, Barttelot Road, in Horsham West Sussex, takes its name from the family
He was the first federal politician to be given responsibility for the Northern Territory after it was ceded to the Government of Australia by South Australia. Lee Batchelor was born in Adelaide, South Australia in 1865 and after the death of his photographer father he. He was educated at the North Adelaide Model School and worked there as a pupil-teacher when he was 12 and he worked at the North Adelaide Church of Christ secondary school, but became an apprentice engine-fitter in the government engineering plant in the Adelaide suburb of Islington at 17. Batchelor soon became active in the movement and joined the Amalgamated Society of Engineers in 1882 and was its president four times between 1889 and 1898. He was president of the Railway Service Mutual Association and he was elected treasurer of the Trades and Labor Council in 1892 and secretary in 1893. In 1890 he married Rosina Mooney, in 1891, Batchelor was a prominent founding member of the United Labor Party. He was the ULP secretary from 1892 to 1896, and was president in 1898, Batchelor was nominated for election to the South Australian House of Assembly on behalf of the ULP in 1893.
Batchelor defeated a sitting minister in his seat, and outpolled Charles Kingston, when McPherson died in 1897, Batchelor became Labor leader, with the party continuing to support the Kingston liberal government. Thomas Price succeeded Batchelor as Labor leader after the 1899 election, john Verran led Labor to form the states first of many majority governments at the 1910 election. As the Minister, Batchelor legislated for a new training scheme coupled with university education. Batchelor resigned from caucus and from the leadership and became the first Labor member in Australia to join a non-Labor ministry and he retired from the South Australian parliament in 1901, and stood for election to the Parliament of Australia in the first Australian election. Batchelor, along with Holder, was elected to the Australian House of Representatives in the single statewide Division of South Australia, Batchelor was the only Labor member of the seven MPs. Labor candidate Thomas Price finished eighth, after South Australia was divided into electoral divisions for the 1903 election to which Batchelor was assigned the Division of Hindmarsh.
Batchelor however unselfishly gave up this seat for one of his state MPs, the voters of Boothby rewarded this selflessness with his election. In 1904, Batchelor was the Minister for Home Affairs in the government of Chris Watson and he was a certain inclusion in Watsons ministry, and along with Billy Hughes had been counselled Watson in selecting the remainder of the Watson ministry. One of his main responsibilities in the ministry was for the passage of the Seat of Government Act as to the founding of the new national capital. He was nominated in the leadership contest when Watson retired as inaugural Labor leader in 1907, from 1908 to 1909, and again from 1910 to 1911, Batchelor was the Minister for External Affairs under the governments of Andrew Fisher. Batchelor attended the 1911 Imperial Conference along with Fisher, as the spokesperson on trade
Patrick McMahon Glynn KC was an Australian politician. In federal politics, he served variously as Attorney-General, Minister for External Affairs and Minister for Home and Territories. He had previously been a member of the South Australian House of Assembly from 1887 to 1890, representing Light and this had included a brief stint as Attorney-General of South Australia in the Solomon Ministry of 1899. Glynn was born in Gort, County Galway and educated at the French College and Trinity College, Glynn graduated with a BA and LLB, and was the medallist for Oratory at the Law Students Debating Society of Ireland in 1880. The same year saw Glynn immigrate to Australia, Glynn was admitted to the Victorian bar. His time in Victoria was not a success and in 1882 he moved to Kapunda and his success in Kapunda allowed him to open his own law firm in Adelaide and involve himself in the political sphere. He edited for some time the Kapunda Herald, Glynn served as president of the South Australian branch of the Irish National League and helped found the South Australian Land Nationalisation Society.
His community profile assisted him in his election to the South Australian House of Assembly as the member for Light in 1887. As an advocate of trade, Glynn was considered a conservative but his support of progressive issues like female suffrage. Glynn was defeated at the 1890 election and stood unsuccessfully for Light again at the 1893 election, with this victory, he became the first person in Australia to be elected under adult suffrage. He was defeated a year at the 1896 election, however, he won the 1897 North Adelaide by-election and he briefly served as Attorney-General of South Australia in 1899. Glynn was a member of the Convention that framed the Australian Commonwealth constitution in 1897–98 and he was regarded as one of the ablest authorities in Australia on constitutional law. He made major contributions to Murray River water rights, free trade, standardising rail gauges and he contributed a reference to God in the preamble to the Australian Constitution, and helped found the Free Trade Party, one of the major parties in early twentieth-century Australian politics.
At the 1903 election, Glynn was returned unopposed in the Division of Angas and was unopposed in 1910,1913 and 1914 before losing his seat at the 1919 election. While in parliament, Glynn served variously as Attorney-General, Minister for External Affairs and Minister for Home, Glynn retired from politics in 1919, and died at North Adelaide in 1931. He married Abigail Dynon, who predeceased him, and was survived by two sons and four daughters and he was a fine Shakespearian scholar, several of his literary papers were published, as were various legal and political pamphlets. Simms, M.1901, The forgotton election, Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 9
Federation of Australia
Fiji and New Zealand were originally part of this process, but they decided not to join the federation. When the Constitution of Australia came into force, on 1 January 1901, the efforts to bring about federation in the mid-19th century were dogged by the lack of popular support for the movement. A number of conventions were held during the 1890s to develop a constitution for the Commonwealth, Sir Henry Parkes, Premier of New South Wales, was instrumental in this process. The election returned Barton as prime minister, though without a majority and this period has lent its name to an architectural style prevalent in Australia at that time, known as Federation architecture, or Federation style. A serious movement for Federation of the colonies arose in the late 1880s, a time there was increasing nationalism amongst Australians. The idea of being Australian began to be celebrated in songs and this was fostered by improvements in transport and communications, such as the establishment of a telegraph system between the colonies in 1872.
The Australian colonies were influenced by other federations which had emerged around the world, notably in Argentina, Switzerland. Sir Henry Parkes, Colonial Secretary of New South Wales, the Federation had the potential to ensure that throughout the continent and interstate commerce would be unaffected by protectionism and measurement and transport would be standardised. The final push for the Federal Council came at a conference in 1883, called to debate the strategies needed to counter the activities of the German and French in New Guinea, Sir Samuel Griffith, the Premier of Queensland, drafted a bill to constitute the Federal Council. The conference successfully petitioned the Imperial Parliament to enact the bill as the Federal Council of Australasia Act 1885, as a result, a Federal Council of Australasia was formed, to represent the affairs of the colonies in their relations with the South Pacific islands. New South Wales and New Zealand did not join, the self-governing colonies of Queensland and Victoria, as well as the Crown Colonies of Western Australia and Fiji, became involved.
South Australia was briefly a member between 1888 and 1890, the absence of the powerful colony of New South Wales weakened its representative value. Nevertheless, it was the first major form of inter-colonial co-operation and it provided an opportunity for Federalists from around the country to meet and exchange ideas. The means by which the Council was established endorsed the continuing role that the Imperial Parliament would have in the development of Australias constitutional structure, the individual colonies, Victoria excepted, were somewhat wary of Federation. Queensland, for its part, worried that the advent of national legislation would restrict the importing of kanaka labourers and these were not the only concerns of those resistant to federation. Smaller colonies worried about the abolition of tariffs, which would deprive them of a proportion of their revenue. New South Wales, traditionally free-trade in its outlook, wanted to be satisfied that the federations tariff policy would not be protectionist, Victorian Premier James Service described fiscal union as the lion in the way of federation. A further fundamental issue was how to distribute the excess customs duties from the government to the states
Western Front (World War I)
The Western Front or Western Theater was the main theatre of war during World War I. Following the outbreak of war in August 1914, the German Army opened the Western Front by invading Luxembourg and Belgium, the tide of the advance was dramatically turned with the Battle of the Marne. Following the Race to the Sea, both sides dug in along a line of fortified trenches, stretching from the North Sea to the Swiss frontier with France. This line remained unchanged for most of the war. Between 1915 and 1917 there were several major offensives along this front, the attacks employed massive artillery bombardments and massed infantry advances. However, a combination of entrenchments, machine gun emplacements, barbed wire, as a result, no significant advances were made. In an effort to break the deadlock, this front saw the introduction of new technology, including poison gas, aircraft. But it was only after the adoption of improved tactics that some degree of mobility was restored, the German Armys Spring Offensive of 1918 was made possible by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk that marked the end of the conflict on the Eastern Front.
In spite of the stagnant nature of this front, this theatre would prove decisive. The terms of peace were agreed upon with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, belgiums neutrality was guaranteed by Britain under the 1839 Treaty of London, this caused Britain to join the war at the expiration of its ultimatum at 11 pm GMT on 4 August. Armies under German generals Alexander von Kluck and Karl von Bülow attacked Belgium on 4 August 1914, Luxembourg had been occupied without opposition on 2 August. The first battle in Belgium was the Siege of Liège, which lasted from 5–16 August, Liège was well fortified and surprised the German Army under von Bülow with its level of resistance. German heavy artillery was able to demolish the main forts within a few days. Following the fall of Liège, most of the Belgian field army retreated to Antwerp, leaving the garrison of Namur isolated, with the Belgian capital, although the German army bypassed Antwerp, it remained a threat to their flank. Another siege followed at Namur, lasting from about 20–23 August, for their part, the French had five armies deployed on their borders.
The pre-war French offensive plan, Plan XVII, was intended to capture Alsace-Lorraine following the outbreak of hostilities, on 7 August the VII Corps attacked Alsace with its objectives being to capture Mulhouse and Colmar. The main offensive was launched on 14 August with 1st and 2nd Armies attacking toward Sarrebourg-Morhange in Lorraine, in keeping with the Schlieffen Plan, the Germans withdrew slowly while inflicting severe losses upon the French. The French advanced the 3rd and 4th Armies toward the Saar River and attempted to capture Saarburg, attacking Briey and Neufchateau, before being driven back
Methodism, or the Methodist movement, is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley. George Whitefield and Johns brother Charles Wesley were significant leaders in the movement and it originated as a revival within the 18th century Church of England and became a separate Church after Wesleys death. Because of vigorous missionary work, the movement spread throughout the British Empire, Wesleys theology focused on sanctification and the effect of faith on the character of a Christian. Distinguishing Methodist doctrines include an assurance of salvation, imparted righteousness, the possibility of perfection in love, the works of piety and the primacy of Scripture. Most Methodists teach that Jesus Christ, the Son of God, died for all of humanity and that salvation is available for all, in theology and this teaching rejects the Calvinist position that God has pre-ordained the salvation of a select group of people.
However and several others were considered Calvinistic Methodists and held to the latter position, Methodism emphasises charity and support for the sick, the poor and the afflicted through the works of mercy. These ideals are put into practice by the establishment of hospitals, soup kitchens and schools to follow Christs command to spread the gospel, the movement has a wide variety of forms of worship, ranging from high church to low church in liturgical usage. Denominations that descend from the British Methodist tradition are generally less ritualistic, Methodism is known for its rich musical tradition and Charles Wesley was instrumental in writing much of the hymnody of the Methodist Church. In Britain, the Methodist Church had an effect in the early decades of the making of the working class. In the United States, it became the religion of many slaves who formed black churches in the Methodist tradition. The Methodist revival began with a group of men, including John Wesley and his younger brother Charles, the Wesley brothers founded the Holy Club at the University of Oxford, where John was a fellow and a lecturer at Lincoln College.
The club met weekly and they set about living a holy life. They were accustomed to receiving Communion every week, fasting regularly, abstaining from most forms of amusement and luxury and frequently visited the sick, the fellowship were branded as Methodist by their fellow students because of the way they used rule and method to go about their religious affairs. John, who was leader of the club, took the attempted mockery, unsuccessful in their work, the brothers returned to England conscious of their lack of genuine Christian faith. They looked for help to Peter Boehler and other members of the Moravian Church, at a Moravian service in Aldersgate on 24 May 1738, John experienced what has come to be called his evangelical conversion, when he felt his heart strangely warmed. Charles had reported an experience an few days previously. Considered a pivotal moment, Daniel L. John Wesley came under the influence of the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius, Arminius had rejected the Calvinist teaching that God had pre-ordained an elect number of people to eternal bliss while others perished eternally.
Conversely, George Whitefield, Howell Harris, and Selina Hastings, George Whitefield, returning from his own mission in Georgia, joined the Wesley brothers in what was rapidly to become a national crusade
The earliest records of prohibition of alcohol date to the Xia Dynasty in China. Yu the Great, the first ruler of the Xia Dynasty and it was legalized again after his death, during the reign of his son Qi. Another record was in the Code of Hammurabi specifically banning the selling of beer for money, in the early twentieth century, much of the impetus for the prohibition movement in the Nordic countries and North America came from moralistic convictions of pietistic Protestants. Rum-running became widespread and organized crime control of the distribution of alcohol. Distilleries and breweries in Canada and the Caribbean flourished as their products were consumed by visiting Americans or illegally exported to the United States. Chicago became notorious as a haven for prohibition dodgers during the known as the Roaring Twenties. Prohibition generally came to an end in the late 1920s or early 1930s in most of North America and Europe, in some countries where the dominant religion forbids the use of alcohol, the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages is prohibited or restricted today.
For example, in Saudi Arabia and Libya alcohol is banned, Sale of alcohol is banned in Afghanistan. In Bangladesh, alcohol is prohibited due to its proscription in the Islamic faith. However, the purchase and consumption is allowed in the country, the Garo tribe consume a type of rice beer, and Christians in this country drink and purchase wine for their holy communion. In Brunei, alcohol consumption and sale is banned in public, in India alcohol is a state subject and individual states can legislate prohibition, but currently most states do not have prohibition. Prohibition is in force in the states of Gujarat and Nagaland, parts of Manipur, the state of Kerala has placed some limitations on sale of alcohol. All other States and union territories of India permit the sale of alcohol, election days and certain national holidays such as Gandhi Jayanti are meant to be dry days when liquor sale is not permitted. The state of Andhra Pradesh had imposed Prohibition under the Chief Ministership of N. T.
Rama Rao, Prohibition was observed from 1996 to 1998 in Haryana. Some Indian states observe dry days on major religious festivals/occasions depending on the popularity of the festival in that region, since the 1979 Islamic Revolution, the sale and consumption of alcohol is banned in Iran. Alcohol is banned for people who use small shops and convenience stores, the consumption and brewing of, and trafficking in liquor is strictly against the law. Alcohol is banned for Muslims in Malaysia due to its Islamic faith, the Maldives ban the import of alcohol, x-raying all baggage on arrival. Alcoholic beverages are available only to tourists on resort islands
John Quick (politician)
Sir John Quick, Australian politician and author, was the federal Member of Parliament for Bendigo from 1901 to 1913 and a leading delegate to the constitutional conventions of the 1890s. Sir John Quick was born on 22 April 1852 near St Ives in Cornwall, the family migrated to Australia in 1854, where John Sr, a farmer, began prospecting at the Bendigo goldfields. However John Quicks father died a few months later, Quick was educated at a state school in Bendigo and at the age of 10 went to work in an iron foundry at Long Gully. Quick worked as an assistant at the Bendigo Evening News, here he gained skills in shorthand writing, and improved his general education. In 1873, Quick moved to Melbourne and passed the examination at the University of Melbourne. There he studied law, and with the help of scholarships, completed his course in 1877, Quick was called to the bar in June 1878, but instead continued as a journalist. Soon later, he became the parliamentary reporter at The Age newspaper. In 1889 Quick stood for election to the Parliament of Victoria and he was a supporter of the radical liberal leader Sir Graham Berry.
At this time, he resigned from The Age and returned to live in Bendigo, in 1882, Quick received a Doctor of Laws degree after an examination. In 1883, he married Catherine Harris, the couple did not have any children together. Quick was successful in parliament, and in 1886 was offered a portfolio by the Premier of Victoria Duncan Gillies. However, after a redistribution, Quick lost his seat at the 1889 election. The proposal was agreed on, and November 1893 Quick drafted a bill which formed the basis of the deliberation at formal convention held in 1897, Quick was elected to the Adelaide convention as second on the list of ten Victorian representatives. When Federation was inaugurated on 1 January 1901, John Quick was knighted in recognition of his services to the federation movement, at the federal election of 1901, Quick was elected to the Australian House of Representatives as Member for the Division of Bendigo. He was considered a member of the Protectionist Party and he was chairman of the first federal tariff commission, and was Postmaster-General in the third cabinet under [[Alfred in 1909, until 1910.
Quick was defeated in the 1913 election by the Australian Labor Party candidate, in 1922, he was appointed deputy president of the federal Arbitration Court, a position he held until his retirement on 25 March 1930. Quick continued to be a prolific author, in 1904, along with Littleton Groom, Quick published The Judicial Power of the Commonwealth, and in 1919 published The Legislative Powers of the Commonwealth and the States of Australia. After retiring in 1930, he worked on a book which he intended to call The Book of Australian Authors, however, he died before he could complete the work
Australian Labor Party
The Australian Labor Party is a political party in Australia. The party has been in opposition at federal level since the 2013 election, Bill Shorten has been the partys federal parliamentary leader since 13 October 2013. The party is a party with branches in each state. Labor is in government in the states of Victoria, Western Australia, South Australia, the party competes against the Liberal/National Coalition for political office at the federal and state levels. Labors current National Platform describes the party as a social democratic party, the party of opportunity and security for working people. The ALP was not founded as a party until after the first sitting of the Australian Parliament in 1901. Nevertheless, it is regarded as descended from labour parties founded in the various Australian colonies by the labour movement in Australia. Labor is thus the countrys oldest political party, colonial labour parties contested seats from 1891, and federal seats following Federation at the 1901 federal election.
Labor was the first party in Australia to win a majority in either house of the Australian Parliament, the ALP is a member of the Progressive Alliance network of social-democratic parties, having previously been a member of the Socialist International. The Australian Labor Party has its origins in the Labour parties founded in the 1890s in the Australian colonies prior to federation, Labor tradition ascribes the founding of Queensland Labour to a meeting of striking pastoral workers under a ghost gum tree in Barcaldine, Queensland in 1891. The Balmain, New South Wales branch of the party claims to be the oldest in Australia, Labour as a parliamentary party dates from 1891 in New South Wales and South Australia,1893 in Queensland, and in the other colonies. The first election contested by Labour candidates was the 1891 New South Wales election, the major parties were the Protectionist and Free Trade parties and Labour held the balance of power. It offered parliamentary support in exchange for policy concessions, the United Labor Party of South Australia was founded in 1891, and three candidates were that year elected to the South Australian Legislative Council.
The first successful South Australian House of Assembly candidate was John McPherson at the 1892 East Adelaide by-election, at the 1893 South Australian elections the ULP was immediately elevated to balance of power status with 10 of 54 lower house seats. The liberal government of Charles Kingston was formed with the support of the ULP, so successful, less than a decade at the 1905 election, Thomas Price would form the worlds first stable Labor government. John Verran led Labor to form the states first of many majority governments at the 1910 election, in 1899, Anderson Dawson formed a minority Labour government in Queensland, the first in the world, which lasted one week while the conservatives regrouped after a split. The colonial Labour parties and the unions were mixed in their support for the Federation of Australia. They feared that federation would further entrench the power of the conservative forces, the first Labour leader and Prime Minister, Chris Watson, was a supporter of federation