Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge
The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge is the oldest Anglican mission organisation. It was founded in 1698 by Thomas Bray, and a group of friends. The most important early leaders were Anton Wilhelm Boehm and court preacher Friedrich Michael Ziegenhagen, the emphasis was on setting up schools, and the SPCK was a major factor in setting up church schools across Britain. Today, the SPCK is most widely known for its publishing of Christian books, a Scottish branch was founded in 1709. It sent missions to Scotlands Highlands, and a handful to Indians in the American colonies, the Society was founded to encourage Christian education and the production and distribution of Christian literature. SPCK has always sought to find ways to communicate the principles of the Christian faith to a wider audience. In its first two hundred years, the Society founded many charity schools for students in the 7 to 11 age group. It is from these schools that the concept of primary and secondary education has grown.
It was a provider of teacher training. The SSPCK had 5 schools by 1711,25 by 1715,176 by 1758 and 189 by 1808, at first the SSPCK avoided using the Gaelic language with the result that pupils ended up learning by rote without understanding what they were reading. In the early 19th century their activity declined and the work was taken over by the Gaelic Societies of Edinburgh and Inverness. Thomas Bray believed passionately in the power of the word and from its earliest days SPCK commissioned tracts and pamphlets. Throughout the eighteenth century SPCK was by far the largest producer of Christian literature in Britain, more substantial books were published, both on Christian subjects and, from the 1830s onwards, on general educational topics as well. SPCKs publishing team currently produces around 80 titles per year, for audiences from a range of Christian traditions. Books range from the academic to the popular, from literature and works on spirituality to books addressing contemporary issues in the Church.
SPCKs early publications were distributed through a network of supporters who received books, large quantities of Christian literature were provided for the Navy, and the Society actively encouraged the formation of parish libraries, to help both clergy and laity. In 1899 the addresses of their depositories were given in the 256th edition of their The Dawn of Day publication as London, Northumberland Avenue, Charing Cross, W. C. and 43 Queen Victoria Street, E. C. Six years in edition 331 they no longer used Charing Cross, in the 1930s a centrally co-ordinated network of SPCK Bookshops was established, offering a wide range of books from many different publishers
John William North
John William North ARA RWS was an English landscape painter and illustrator, a member of the Idyllists. North was born in Walham Green in London and his father Charles North was a draper who together with his wife Fanny kept a shop in the area. They had three children apart from John - Charles and Alfred, little is known of Johns early schooling, although he claimed to have been an avid reader from the age of 6 years. He left school at the age of 12, due to a downturn in business, Johns father was forced to shut up shop and relocate the business to Worthing. After the business failed again, Johns parents decided to emigrate with the youngest son Alfred to Canada and he showed artistic ability at a young age and received some training at art school as well as instruction from a local artist called Hackman. At the age of 10 he completed his first watercolour, The Thames from Wandsworth, a number of other watercolours and sketches were completed in his teens. At the age of 16, he was apprenticed to produce illustrations for the notable London-based wood engraver Josiah Whymper, there North became friends with Frederick Walker, Arthur Boyd Houghton and George John Pinwell, who would become associated with the Idyllic school.
He worked - using a brush and pencil - on black and white illustrations for various publications, in 1868 he moved to Somerset, renting a room at Halsway Manor near Crowcombe - his friend and fellow artist Frederick Walker lived there. Norths watercolour of Halsway Manor is in the British Museum, London, in 1866 Norths parents returned from Canada and he became the main provider for the whole family. North moved to the village of Woolston in 1869, the period 1860–67 brought both artistic success as an illustrator and financial security. North was developing his skill as a watercolourist, so much so that in 1867 he decided to pursue his painting full-time, in the subsequent years up to 1887, he divided his time painting between Somerset, a studio in London, and a house in Algeria. North exhibited at the Grosvenor Gallery and the New Gallery and was a member of Arts Club and he was eventually accepted as a member of the Royal Watercolour Society and an associate of the Royal Academy. In 1884 North married the 21-year-old Selina Weetch at Bicknoller Church in Somerset and they went on to have six children.
North became friends with the essayist Richard Jefferies in 1883 until the death in 1887. Subsequently North was involved in setting up a fund for Jefferies widow and family, in 1895, North started the O. W. Paper & Arts Co. featuring fine papers for art printing, in personality and politics North was a liberal, publicly championing the cause of social justice for the agricultural labouring class. He opposed the enclosure of lands, campaigned for decent rural sanitation. North died at Stamborough, Somerset in 1924, and is buried in the New Cemetery at Nettlecombe, the term idyllist is more properly applied to Norths earlier black and white landscapes, which were driven by the necessity to illustrate a particular literary narrative
Joseph Wolf was a German artist who specialized in natural history illustration. He moved to the British Museum in 1848 and became the illustrator for explorers and naturalists including David Livingstone, Alfred Russel Wallace. Wolf depicted animals accurately in lifelike postures and is considered one of the pioneers of wildlife art. Sir Edwin Landseer thought him. without exception, the best all-round animal artist who ever lived. Joseph was the first son of a farmer, Anton Wolf and he was originally called Mathias but went by the name of Joseph. In his boyhood he assiduously studied bird and animal life, and he showed an early talent for art by cutting paper silhouettes of birds and animals which he pasted onto windows. The village folk termed him a bird fool and he took an interest in hunting. He made himself brushes from the fur of a stone marten and he took a special interest in birds of prey, and considered art as a career but realized at the age of sixteen that he needed more training to be professional.
With support from his father he was apprenticed to a firm of lithographers and he returned home after three years of apprenticeship, and for a while took up a temporary job with the village headman in searching homes for illegally concealed liquor. Wolf travelled to Frankfurt and introduced himself as a lithographer to the ornithologist Eduard Rüppell, Wolf moved to Darmstadt but went on working on Rüppells The Birds of North-East Africa. Kaup was impressed by his abilities and took one of Wolfs sketchbooks to a meeting in Leyden to show to Hermann Schlegel at the Natural History Museum, Schlegel immediately commissioned Wolf to work on some plates for Traité de Fauconnerie. The result was a set of magnificent paintings of birds of prey in life size which established Wolfs reputation in Europe, at the age of 20, Wolf was to appear at Maien to join the Army. As a fit young man with sharp-shooting abilities he could not be rejected, but it was peacetime and the surgeon, who knew him, helped him avoid recruitment under the pretext of a weak chest.
Back in Darmstadt, Wolf went on working on bird plates and he was a keen observer of wild birds and once had a pit dug in which he sat all day to watch the courtship of Black Grouse. In 1847, he left Darmstadt to join the Antwerp Academy to learn the Dutch oil painting techniques, while at work in the insect room of the British Museum, he met other naturalists including J O Westwood with whom he could converse in French. He was a friend of William Russell, an accountant and a Campbell related to the Duke of Argyll, Russell brought Sir Edwin Landseer and the Duke of Argyll to see the works of Wolf. The Duke soon became a patron and he was introduced to the Duke of Westminster. Wolfs paintings were appreciated by the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood of London
Edward Whymper was an English mountaineer, explorer and author best known for the first ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865. Four members of his party were killed during the descent. Whymper made important first ascents on the Mont Blanc massif and in the Pennine Alps, Chimborazo in South America, and his exploration of Greenland contributed an important advance to Arctic exploration. Whymper wrote several books on mountaineering, including Scrambles Amongst the Alps, Edward Whymper was born in London, England, on 27 April 1840 to the artist and wood engraver Josiah Wood Whymper and Elizabeth Claridge. He was the second of eleven children, his brother being the artist. He was trained to be a wood-engraver at an early age, in 1860, he made extensive forays into the central and western Alps to produce a series of commissioned alpine scenery drawings. In 1861, Whymper successfully completed the ascent of Mont Pelvoux, Whymper climbed the Barre des Écrins in 1864 with Horace Walker, A. W. Moore and guides Christian Almer senior and junior.
That year he made the first crossing of the Moming Pass. According to his own words, his failure was on the west ridge of the Dent dHérens in 1863. In 1865, who had failed eight times already and this party of four was joined by Hudson and Croz, and the inexperienced Douglas Hadow. Their attempt by what is now the route, the Hörnli ridge, met with success on 14 July 1865. On the descent, Hadow slipped and fell onto Croz, dislodging him and dragging Douglas and Hudson to their deaths, a controversy ensued as to whether the rope had actually been cut, but a formal investigation could not find any proof. It can be deduced that Taugwalder had no choice but to use a weaker rope as the stronger rope was not long enough to connect Traugwalder to Douglas. The account of Whympers attempts on the Matterhorn occupies the part of his book, Scrambles amongst the Alps. Yes, I shall always see them, Whympers 1865 campaign had been planned to test his route-finding skills in preparation for an expedition to Greenland in 1867.
The exploration in Greenland resulted in an important collection of fossil plants, Whympers report was published in the report of the British Association of 1869. Another expedition in 1872 was devoted to a survey of the coastline, Whymper next organized an expedition to Ecuador, designed primarily to collect data for the study of altitude sickness and the effect of reduced pressure on the human body. His chief guide was Jean-Antoine Carrel, who died from exhaustion on the Matterhorn after bringing his employers into safety through a snowstorm
Picturesque Europe was a lavishly illustrated set of books published by D. Appleton & Co. in the mid-1870s based on their phenomenally successful Picturesque America. An edited form was reprinted in Europe by Cassell & Co, the books depicted nature and tourist haunts in Europe, with text descriptions and numerous steel and wood engravings. J. W. Whymper was among the engravers and directed the artists on the project. These sections were illustrated with engravings of the drawings and paintings of W. H. J. Emery, Harry Fenn, Towneley Green, J. Harmsworth and these sections were illustrated with wood engravings of the drawings and paintings of W. H. J. Emery, Harry Fenn, Cyrus Johnson, R. P. Leitch, may, T. Macquoid, T. L. Rowbotham, E. Senior, P. Skelton, J. D. Woodward, C. Whymper, and J. Wolf and with a few steel engravings of the drawings and paintings of S. Cook, Harry Fenn, Birket Foster, Louis Haghe, kilburne, T. L. Rowbotham, J. B. Smith, C. Werner, E. M. Wimperis, and L. J. Wood and these sections were illustrated with wood engravings of the drawings and paintings of W. H. J.
Kilburne, W. Simpson, Carl Werner, L. J. Wood, illustrated on Steel and Wood by European and American Artists, Vol. I, New York, D. Appleton & Co.1875. Picturesque Europe, A Delineation by Pen and Pencil of the Natural Features and the Picturesque and Historical Places of Great Britain, illustrated on Steel and Wood by European and American Artists, Vol. II, New York, D. Appleton & Co.1878. Picturesque Europe, A Delineation by Pen and Pencil of the Natural Features and the Picturesque and Historical Places of Great Britain, illustrated on Steel and Wood by European and American Artists, Vol. III, New York, D. Appleton & Co.1879. With Illustrations on Steel and Wood by the Most Eminent Artists, the British Isles, Cassell, Galpin, & Co.1876. With Illustrations on Steel and Wood by the Most Eminent Artists, the British Isles, Cassell, Galpin, & Co.1877. With Illustrations on Steel and Wood by the Most Eminent Artists, with Illustrations on Steel and Wood by the Most Eminent Artists, Cassell & Co.1884.
With Illustrations on Steel and Wood by the Most Eminent Artists, john Douglas Woodward, Shaping the Landscape Image, 1865–1910, U. of Virginias Bayly Art Museum
Ipswich is the county town of Suffolk, located on the estuary of the River Orwell, about 60 miles north east of London. The town has been occupied since the Saxon period. It has known as Gyppewicus and Yppswyche. Ipswich is one of Englands oldest towns, if not the oldest, the claim has been made of the Essex town of Colchester, but that town was abandoned for some time, leaving Ipswich to claim to be the oldest continuously inhabited town in England. Under the Roman empire, the area around Ipswich formed an important route inland to towns and settlements via the rivers Orwell. A large Roman fort, part of the defences of Britain, stood at Walton near Felixstowe. The modern town took shape in Anglo-Saxon times around Ipswich dock, gipeswic ) arose as the equivalent to these, serving the Kingdom of East Anglia, its early imported wares dating to the time of King Rædwald, supreme ruler of the English. The famous ship-burial and treasure at Sutton Hoo nearby is probably his grave, the Ipswich Museum houses replicas of the Roman Mildenhall and Sutton Hoo treasures.
A gallery devoted to the towns origins includes Anglo-Saxon weapons, the 7th-century town was centred near the quay. Towards 700 AD, Frisian potters from the Netherlands area settled in Ipswich and their wares were traded far across England, and the industry was unique to Ipswich for 200 years. With growing prosperity, in about 720 AD a large new part of the town was out in the Buttermarket area. Ipswich was becoming a place of national and international importance, parts of the ancient road plan still survive in its modern streets. After the invasion of 869 Ipswich fell under Viking rule, the earth ramparts circling the town centre were probably raised by Vikings in Ipswich around 900 to prevent its recapture by the English. The town operated a mint under royal licence from King Edgar in the 970s, the abbreviation Gipes appears on the coins. King John granted the town its first charter in 1200, laying the foundations of its modern civil government. In the next four centuries it made the most of its wealth, Five large religious houses, including two Augustinian Priories, and those of the Greyfriars, Ipswich Whitefriars and Ipswich Blackfriars, stood in medieval Ipswich.
The last Carmelite Prior of Ipswich was the celebrated John Bale, there were several hospitals, including the leper hospital of St Mary Magdalene, founded before 1199. During the Middle Ages the Marian Shrine of Our Lady of Grace was a pilgrimage destination
The Matterhorn is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the main watershed and border between Switzerland and Italy. It is a huge and near-symmetrical pyramidal peak in the extended Monte Rosa area of the Pennine Alps, whose summit is 4,478 metres high, making it one of the highest summits in the Alps and Europe. The four steep faces, rising above the glaciers, face the four compass points and are split by the Hörnli, Leone. The mountain overlooks the Swiss town of Zermatt in the canton of Valais to the north-east, just east of the Matterhorn is Theodul Pass, the main passage between the two valleys on its north and south sides and a trade route since the Roman Era. The Matterhorn was studied by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure in the eighteenth century. It remained unclimbed after most of the other great Alpine peaks had been attained, the first ascent of the Matterhorn was finally made in 1865 from Zermatt by a party led by Edward Whymper but ended disastrously when four of its members fell to their deaths on the descent.
That climb and disaster, portrayed in films, marked the end of the golden age of alpinism. The north face was not climbed until 1931, and is amongst the three biggest north faces of the Alps, known as the ‘The Trilogy’, the west face, which is the highest of the four, was completely climbed only in 1962. It is estimated that over 500 alpinists have died on the Matterhorn since the first climb in 1865, making it one of the deadliest peaks in the world. The current shape of the mountain is the result of erosion due to multiple glaciers diverging from the peak, such as the Matterhorn Glacier at the base of the north face. Sometimes referred to as the Mountain of Mountains, the Matterhorn has become an emblem of the Swiss Alps. Since the end of the 19th century, when railways were built in the area, each year a large number of mountaineers try to climb the Matterhorn from the Hörnli Hut via the northeast Hörnli ridge, the most popular route to the summit. Many trekkers undertake the 10-day-long circuit around the mountain, the Matterhorn is part of the Swiss Federal Inventory of Natural Monuments since 1983.
Decomposing Matterhorn yields Matter and Horn, here Matter is Matte in the case. Commonly, prepositions related to Zermatt are dropped as in Matterhorn, Mattertal, in Sebastian Münsters Cosmography, published in 1543, the name Matter is given to the Theodul Pass, which seems to be the origin of the present German name of the mountain. On Münsters topographical map this group is marked under the names of Augstalberg, the French name Cervin, from which the Italian term Cervino derives, stems from the Latin Mons Silvanus where silva, means forest which was corrupted to Selvin and Servin. The change of the first letter s to c is attributed to Horace Bénédict de Saussure, servius Galba, in order to carry out Caesars orders, came with his legions from Allobroges to Octodurum in the Valais, and pitched his camp there. It is unknown when the new name of Servin, or Cervin, replaced the old, the Matterhorn is named Gran Becca by the Valdôtains and Horu by the local Walliser German speaking people
Charles Keene (artist)
Charles Samuel Keene was an English artist and illustrator, who worked in black and white. The son of Samuel Browne Keene, a solicitor, he was born at Hornsey, educated at the Ipswich School until his sixteenth year, he early showed artistic leanings. Two years after the death of his father he was articled to a London solicitor and his spare time was now spent in drawing historical and nautical subjects in watercolor. For these trifles his mother, to energy and common sense he was greatly indebted, soon found a purchaser, through whom he was brought to the notice of the Whympers. This led to his being bound to them as apprentice for five years and his earliest known design is the frontispiece, signed Chas. Keene, to The Adventures of Dick Boldhero in Search of his Uncle, at this time he was a member of the Artists Society in Clipstone Street, afterwards removed to the Langham studios. In December 1851 he made his first appearance in Pencil and and it was during this period of probation that he first gave evidence of those transcendent qualities which make his work at once the joy and despair of his brother craftsmen.
There is a quality of conventionality in the earlier of these which completely disappears in the later, in 1858, who was endowed with a fine voice and was an enthusiastic admirer of old-fashioned music, joined the Jermyn Band, afterwards better known as the Moray Minstrels. He was for years a member of Leslies Choir, the Sacred Harmonic Society, the Catch and Canon Club. He was a performer on the bagpipes, of which instrument he brought together a considerable collection of specimens. About 1863 the Arts Club in Hanover Square was started, with Keene as one of the original members, in 1864 John Leech died, and Keenes work in Punch thenceforward found wider opportunities. These were placed unreservedly at Keenes disposal, and to their inspiration we owe at least 250 of his most successful drawings in the last twenty years of his connection with Punch. A list of more than 200 of these subjects is given at the end of The Life, in 1879 Keene removed to 239 Kings Road, which he occupied until his last illness, walking daily to and from his house,112 Hammersmith Road.
In 1881 a volume of his Punch drawings was published by Messrs Bradbury & Agnew, in 1883, who had hitherto been a strong man, developed symptoms of dyspepsia and rheumatism. By 1889 these had increased to a degree, and the last two years of his life were passed in acute suffering borne with the greatest courage. He died unmarried, after an uneventful life, and his body lies in Hammersmith cemetery. Keene, who never had any regular art training, was essentially an artists artist and he holds the foremost place amongst English craftsmen in black and white, though his work has never been appreciated at its real value by the general public. No doubt the reason for this lack of public recognition was his unconventionality
Victoria and Albert Museum
The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, is the worlds largest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4.5 million objects. It was founded in 1852 and named after Queen Victoria and Prince Albert and these include the Natural History Museum, the Science Museum and the Royal Albert Hall. The museum is a public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media. Like other national British museums, entrance to the museum has been free since 2001, the V&A covers 12.5 acres and 145 galleries. Its collection spans 5,000 years of art, from ancient times to the present day, from the cultures of Europe, North America and North Africa. The museum owns the worlds largest collection of sculpture, with the holdings of Italian Renaissance items being the largest outside Italy. The departments of Asia include art from South Asia, Japan, the East Asian collections are among the best in Europe, with particular strengths in ceramics and metalwork, while the Islamic collection is amongst the largest in the Western world.
Overall, it is one of the largest museums in the world, New 17th- and 18th-century European galleries were opened on 9 December 2015. These restored the original Aston Webb interiors and host the European collections 1600–1815, at this stage the collections covered both applied art and science. Several of the exhibits from the Exhibition were purchased to form the nucleus of the collection, by February 1854 discussions were underway to transfer the museum to the current site and it was renamed South Kensington Museum. In 1855 the German architect Gottfried Semper, at the request of Cole, produced a design for the museum, but it was rejected by the Board of Trade as too expensive. The site was occupied by Brompton Park House, this was extended including the first refreshment rooms opened in 1857, the official opening by Queen Victoria was on 22 June 1857. In the following year, late night openings were introduced, made possible by the use of gas lighting, in these early years the practical use of the collection was very much emphasised as opposed to that of High Art at the National Gallery and scholarship at the British Museum.
George Wallis, the first Keeper of Fine Art Collection, passionately promoted the idea of art education through the museum collections. From the 1860s to the 1880s the scientific collections had been moved from the museum site to various improvised galleries to the west of Exhibition Road. In 1893 the Science Museum had effectively come into existence when a director was appointed. The laying of the stone of the Aston Webb building on 17 May 1899 was the last official public appearance by Queen Victoria. It was during this ceremony that the change of name from the South Kensington Museum to the Victoria, the exhibition which the museum organised to celebrate the centennial of the 1899 renaming, A Grand Design, first toured in North America from 1997, returning to London in 1999
Brewing is the production of beer by steeping a starch source in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast. It may be done in a brewery by a brewer, at home by a homebrewer. Brewing has taken place since around the 6th millennium BC, and archaeological evidence suggests that emerging civilizations including ancient Egypt, since the nineteenth century the brewing industry has been part of most western economies. The basic ingredients of beer are water and a starch source such as malted barley. Most beer is fermented with a brewers yeast and flavoured with hops, less widely used starch sources include millet and cassava. Secondary sources, such as maize, rice, or sugar, may be used, sometimes to reduce cost, or to add a feature, the proportion of each starch source in a beer recipe is collectively called the grain bill. Steps in the process include malting, mashing, boiling, conditioning, filtering. There are three main methods, warm and spontaneous. Fermentation may take place in an open or closed fermenting vessel, there are several additional brewing methods, such as barrel aging, double dropping, and Yorkshire Square.
Brewing has taken place since around the 6th millennium BC, and archaeological evidence suggests emerging civilizations including ancient Egypt, descriptions of various beer recipes can be found in cuneiform from ancient Mesopotamia. Ethnographic studies and archaeological records indicate that brewing alcohol was primary an activity engaged in by women, chemical tests of ancient pottery jars reveal that beer was produced as far back as about 7,000 years ago in what is today Iran. This discovery reveals one of the earliest known uses of fermentation and is the earliest evidence of brewing to date, in Mesopotamia, the oldest evidence of beer is believed to be a 6, 000-year-old Sumerian tablet depicting people drinking a beverage through reed straws from a communal bowl. A 3900-year-old Sumerian poem honouring Ninkasi, the goddess of brewing, contains the oldest surviving beer recipe. The invention of bread and beer has been argued to be responsible for humanitys ability to develop technology, Beer may have been known in Neolithic Europe as far back as 5,000 years ago, and was mainly brewed on a domestic scale.
Ale produced before the Industrial Revolution continued to be made and sold on a scale, although by the 7th century AD beer was being produced. During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, the development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process, and greater knowledge of the results. Today, the industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies. More than 133 billion litres are sold per year—producing total global revenues of $294.5 billion in 2006
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times, all of this is open to the public, and much of it has been digitized and is available on their website. The main goal of the bureau is to collect, via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries. The library owns approximately 450,000 titles, of which ca.150,000 are auction catalogs, there are ca.3,000 magazines, of which 600 are currently running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works. The RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, the original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles, California. Their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, which is now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek.
Though not all of the holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online. The website itself is available in both a Dutch and an English user interface, in the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, for example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number, to reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, https, //rkd. nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artworks record number. For example, the record number for The Night Watch is 3063. The Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called The Night Watch is a militia painting, the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is mostly filled with biblical references.
To see all images that depict Miriams dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
London Bridge refers to several historical bridges that have spanned the River Thames between the City of London and Southwark, in central London. The current crossing, which opened to traffic in 1973, is a box girder bridge built from concrete and this replaced a 19th-century stone-arched bridge, which in turn superseded a 600-year-old medieval structure. This was preceded by a succession of bridges, the first built by the Roman founders of London. The current bridge stands at the end of the Pool of London but is positioned 30 metres upstream from previous alignments. The traditional ends of the bridge were marked by St Magnus-the-Martyr on the northern bank. Until Putney Bridge opened in 1729, London Bridge was the only road-crossing of the Thames downstream of Kingston-upon-Thames and its importance has been the subject of popular culture throughout the ages such as in the nursery rhyme London Bridge Is Falling Down and its inclusion within art and literature. The modern bridge is owned and maintained by Bridge House Estates and it carries the A3 road, which is maintained by the Greater London Authority.
The crossing delineates an area along the bank of the River Thames. The abutments of modern London Bridge rest several metres above natural embankments of gravel, between the embankments, the River Thames could have been crossed by ford when the tide was low, or ferry when it was high. There is archaeological evidence for scattered Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age settlement nearby, two ancient fords were in use a few miles upstream, beyond the rivers upper tidal reach. They were aligned with the course of Watling Street and led into the heartlands of the Catuvellauni, some time before Claudius conquest of AD43, power shifted to the Trinovantes, who held the region northeast of the Thames estuary from a capital at Camulodunum. Claudius imposed a major colonia on Camulodunum, and made it the city of the new Roman province of Britannia. The first London Bridge was built by the Roman military as part of their road-building programme, around AD55, the temporary bridge over the Thames was replaced by a permanent timber piled bridge and guarded by a small garrison.
On the relatively high, dry ground at the end of the bridge, a small, opportunistic trading and shipping settlement took root. A smaller settlement developed at the end of the bridge. The bridge was destroyed along with the town in the Boudican revolt. Just downstream of the bridge were substantial quays and depots, convenient to seagoing trade between Britain and the rest of the Roman Empire, with the end of Roman rule in Britain in the early 5th century, Londinium was gradually abandoned and the bridge fell into disrepair. In the Saxon period, the became a boundary between the emergent, mutually hostile kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex