The Fairy-Queen is a masque or semi-opera by Henry Purcell. The libretto is an anonymous adaptation of William Shakespeare's wedding comedy A Midsummer Night's Dream. First performed in 1692, The Fairy-Queen was composed three years before Purcell's death at the age of 35. Following his death, the score was lost and only rediscovered early in the twentieth century. Purcell did not set any of Shakespeare's text to music; the play itself was slightly modernised in keeping with seventeenth-century dramatic conventions, but in the main the spoken text is as Shakespeare wrote it. The masques are related to the play metaphorically, rather than literally. Many critics have stated. Recent scholarship has shown that the opera, which ends with a masque featuring Hymen, the God of Marriage, was composed for the fifteenth wedding anniversary of William III and Mary II. Growing interest in Baroque music and the rise of the countertenor contributed to the work's re-entry into the repertoire; the opera received several full-length recordings in the latter part of the 20th century and several of its arias, including "The Plaint", have become popular recital pieces.
In July 2009, in celebration of the 350th anniversary of Purcell's birth, The Fairy-Queen was performed by Glyndebourne Festival Opera using a new edition of the score, prepared for the Purcell Society by Bruce Wood and Andrew Pinnock. The Fairy-Queen was first performed on 2 May 1692 at the Queen's Theatre, Dorset Garden in London by the United Company; the author or at least co-author of the libretto was Thomas Betterton, the manager of Dorset Garden Theatre, with whom Purcell worked regularly. This belief is based on an analysis of Betterton's stage directions. A collaboration between several playwrights is feasible. Choreography for the various dances was provided by Josias Priest, who worked on Dioclesian and King Arthur, and, associated with Dido and Aeneas. A letter describing the original performance shows that the parts of Titania and Oberon were played by children of eight or nine. Other fairies were played by children. Following the huge success of his operas Dioclesian and King Arthur, Purcell composed The Fairy-Queen in 1692.
Purcell's "First" and "Second Music" were played while the audience were taking their seats. The "Act Tunes" are played between acts, as the curtain was raised at the beginning of a performance and not lowered until the end. After act 1, each act commences with a short symphony; the English tradition of semi-opera, to which The Fairy-Queen belongs, demanded that most of the music within the play be introduced through the agency of supernatural beings, the exception being pastoral or drunken characters. All the masques in The Fairy-Queen are presented by Oberon. Act 1 contained no music, but due to the work's enormous success it was revived in 1693, when Purcell added the scene of the Drunken Poet and two further songs on in the work; as noted above, each masque is subtly related to the action in the play during that particular act in a metaphorical way. In this manner we have Night and Sleep in act 2, apt as that act of the play consists of Oberon's plans to use the power of the "love-in-idleness" flower to confuse various loves, it is therefore appropriate for the allegorical figures of Secrecy, Mystery et al. to usher in a night of enchantment.
The masque for Bottom in act 3 includes metamorphoses, songs of both real and feigned love, beings who are not what they seem. The Reconciliation masque between Oberon and Titania at the end of act 4 prefigures the final masque; the scene changes to a Garden of Fountains, denoting King William's hobby, just after Oberon says "bless these Lovers' Nuptial Day". The Four Seasons tell us that the marriage here celebrated is a good one all year round and "All Salute the rising Sun"/... The Birthday of King Oberon"; the kings of England were traditionally likened to the sun. The Chinese scene in the final masque is in homage to Queen Mary's famous collection of china; the garden shown above it and the exotic animals bring King William back into the picture and Hymen's song in praise of their marriage, plus the stage direction bringing china vases containing orange trees to the front of the stage complete the symbolism. Written as he approached the end of his brief career, The Fairy-Queen contains some of Purcell's finest theatre music, as musicologists have agreed for generations.
In particular, Constant Lambert was a great admirer. It shows to excellent effect Purcell's complete mastery of the pungent English style of Baroque counterpoint, as well as displaying his absorption of Italian influences. Several arias such as "The Plaint", "Thrice happy lovers" and "Hark! the echoing air" have entered the discographic repertory of many singers outside their original context. The orchestra for The Fairy-Queen consists of two recorders, two oboes, two trumpets, string instruments and harpsichord continuo. Following Purcell's premature death, his opera Dioclesian remained popular until well into the eighteenth century, but the score of The Fairy-Queen was lost and only rediscovered early in the twentieth century. Other works like. Changing tastes were not the o
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians. Along with the German-language Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, it is one of the largest reference works on western music. Published under the title A Dictionary of Music and Musicians, as Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, it has gone through several editions since the 19th century and is used. In recent years it has been made available as an electronic resource called Grove Music Online, now an important part of Oxford Music Online. A Dictionary of Music and Musicians was first published in four volumes edited by George Grove with an Appendix edited by J. A. Fuller Maitland in the fourth volume. An Index edited by Mrs. E. Wodehouse was issued as a separate volume in 1890. In 1900, minor corrections were made to the plates and the entire series was reissued in four volumes, with the index added to volume 4; the original edition and the reprint are now available online. Grove limited the chronological span of his work to begin at 1450 while continuing up to the present day.
The second edition, in five volumes, was edited by Fuller Maitland and published from 1904 to 1910, this time as Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians. The individual volumes of the second edition were reprinted many times. An American Supplement edited by Waldo Selden Pratt and Charles N. Boyd was added in 1920; this edition removed the first edition's beginning date of 1450, though important earlier composers and theorists are still missing from this edition. These volumes are now available online; the third edition in five volumes, was an extensive revision of the 2nd edition. Colles and published in 1927; the fourth edition edited by Colles, was published in 1940 in five volumes. In addition to the American Supplement, Macmillan published a Supplementary Volume edited by Colles; the fifth edition, in nine volumes, was edited by Eric Blom and published in 1954. This was the most thoroughgoing revision of the work since its inception, with many articles rewritten in a more modern style and a large number of new articles.
Many of the articles were written by Blom or translated by him. An additional Supplementary Volume, prepared for the most part by Eric Blom, followed in 1961. Blom died in 1959, the Supplementary Volume was completed by Denis Stevens; the fifth edition was reprinted in 1966, 1968, 1970, 1973, 1975. The next edition was published in 1980 under the name The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians and was expanded to 20 volumes with 22,500 articles and 16,500 biographies, its senior editor was Stanley Sadie with Nigel Fortune serving as one of the main editors for the publication. It was reprinted with minor corrections each subsequent year until 1995, except 1982 and 1983. In the mid-1990s, the hardback set sold for about $2,300. A paperback edition was reprinted in 1995 which sold for $500. ISBN 0-333-23111-2 – hardback ISBN 1-56159-174-2 – paperback ISBN 0-333-73250-2 – British special edition ISBN 1-56159-229-3 – American special edition Some sections of The New Grove were issued as small sets and individual books on particular topics.
These were enhanced with expanded and updated material and included individual and grouped composer biographies, a four-volume dictionary of American music, a three-volume dictionary of musical instruments, a four-volume dictionary of opera. The second edition under this title was published in 29 volumes, it was made available by subscription on the internet in a service called Grove Music Online. It was again edited by Stanley Sadie, the executive editor was John Tyrrell, it was to be released on CD-ROM as well, but this plan was dropped. As Sadie writes in the preface, "The biggest single expansion in the present edition has been in the coverage of 20th-century composers"; this edition has been subject to negative criticism owing to the significant number of typographical and factual errors that it contains. Two volumes were re-issued in corrected versions, after production errors caused the omission of sections of Igor Stravinsky's worklist and Richard Wagner's bibliography. ISBN 0-333-60800-3 – British ISBN 1-56159-239-0 – American Publication of the second edition of The New Grove was accompanied by a Web-based version, Grove Music Online.
It too, attracted some initial criticism, for example for the way in which images were not incorporated into the text but kept separate. The complete text of The New Grove is available to subscribers to the online service Grove Music Online. Grove Music Online includes a large number of additions of new articles. In addition to the 29 volumes of The New Grove second edition, Grove Music Online incorporates the four-volume New Grove Dictionary of Opera and the three-volume New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, second edition, The Grove Dictionary of American Music and The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments, comprising a total of more than 50,000 articles; the current editor-in-chief of Grove Music, the name given to the complete slate of print and online resources that encompass the Grove brand, is University of Pittsburgh professor Deane Root. He assumed the editorship in 2009; the dictionary published by Macmillan, was sold in 2004 to Oxford University Press. Since 2008 Grove Music Online has served as a cornerstone of Oxford University Press's larger online
Venus and Adonis (opera)
Venus and Adonis is an opera in three acts and a prologue by the English Baroque composer John Blow, composed in about 1683. It was written for the court of King Charles II at either Windsor, it is considered by some to be either a semi-opera or a masque, but The New Grove names it as the earliest known English opera. The author of the libretto was surmised to have been Aphra Behn due to the feminist nature of the text, that she worked with Blow on the play The Lucky Chance. However, according to the musicologist Bruce Wood, in his 2008 critical edition of the work for the Purcell Society, the librettist "has been identified by James Winn as Anne Kingsmill, subsequently married as Anne Finch"; the story is based on the Classical myth of Venus and Adonis, the basis for Shakespeare's poem Venus and Adonis, as well as Ovid's poem of the same name in his Metamorphoses. Venus and Adonis is considered by some to be either a semi-opera or a masque, but The New Grove names it as the earliest surviving English opera.
In fact, an early manuscript source is subtitled "A masque for the entertainment of the king". In overall form the opera owes much to French operas of the period those of Jean-Baptiste Lully; the French elements in the opera are the French overture, the Prologue which refers in scarcely veiled terms to the court for which it was written, includes many dances popular at the time. The piece is a clear model for Henry Purcell's opera Dido and Aeneas, both in structure and the use of the chorus; the piece is remarkable for the period because of its through-composed nature. The traditional myth of Venus and Adonis runs as follows: Venus is with her son Cupid, he accidentally pierces her with one of his arrows; the next person Venus sees is the handsome youth Adonis, with whom she falls in love. He is a hunter, she decides that in order to be with him, she will take on the form of the goddess of the hunt, Artemis, she warns Adonis of the danger of hunting the wild boar, but he does not heed the warning, is gored to death by the boar.
In Blow's version, Venus encourages Adonis to go hunting, despite his protestations: Adonis: Adonis will not hunt today: I have caught the noblest prey. Venus: No, my shepherd haste away: Absence kindles new desire, I would not have my lover tire; this parallels the scene in Purcell's Dido and Aeneas, when Dido rebuffs Aeneas' offer to stay with her. In addition to this major divergence from the myth in Adonis' motivation, Blow's version includes the addition of a number of comic scenes with Cupid, including the spelling lesson he gives to the young cupids and his opinion that no one in the court is faithful—the latter an pungent critique given that it is believed that Cupid was played by Lady Mary Tudor around 10 years old and Charles II's illegitimate daughter, Venus by Mary Davies, the king's former lover. Cupid addresses assorted shepherds and shepherdesses, accusing them of infidelity, invites them to enjoy true pastoral pleasures; this short scena is preceded by a French overture. The couple are resting on a couch, Venus, accompanied by obbligato recorder, is toying with Adonis's sexual anticipation.
Just before she gives in, hunting music is heard, she encourages him to leave her and join the chase. The huntsmen intrude and sing of an enormous boar, causing severe problems. Cupid is learning from his mother how to strike love into human hearts, he in turn teaches this lesson to a group of Little Cupids. Cupid advises his mother that the way to make Adonis love her more is to "use him ill." They call the Graces, the givers of beauty and charm, to give honour to the goddess of love. Venus and Cupid are shown struck by grief. Adonis is brought in, he duets with Venus, dies in her arms. As a lament she begins a funeral march, the refrain is taken up by the pastoral characters; the opera ends with the G minor chorus "Mourn for thy servant", a strong example of elegiac counterpoint. Ritchie, Field-Hyde, Clinton. "Venus and Adonis". Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Grove Music Online. Retrieved 2005-01-15. Libretto of Venus and Adonis at Stanford.edu
A boarding school provides education for pupils who live on the premises, as opposed to a day school. The word "boarding" is used in i.e. lodging and meals. As they have existed for many centuries, now extend across many countries, their function and ethos varies greatly. Traditionally, pupils stayed at the school for the length of the term; some are for either girls while others are co-educational. In the United Kingdom, which has a rich history of such schools, many independent schools offer boarding, but so do a few dozen state schools, many of which serve children from remote areas. In the United States, most boarding schools cover grades seven or nine through grade twelve—the high school years; some American boarding schools offer a post-graduate year of study to help students prepare for college entrance. In some times and places boarding schools are the most elite educational option, whereas in other contexts, they serve as places to segregate children deemed a problem to their parents or wider society.
Notoriously and the United States tried to assimilate indigenous children in the Canadian Indian residential school system and American Indian boarding schools respectively. Some function as orphanages, e.g. the G. I. Rossolimo Boarding School Number 49 in Russia. Tens of millions of rural children are now educated at boarding schools in China. Therapeutic boarding schools offer treatment for psychological difficulties. Military academies provide strict discipline. Education for children with special needs has a long association with boarding; some boarding schools offer an immersion into democratic education, such as Summerhill School. Others are determinedly international, such as the United World Colleges; the term boarding school refers to classic British boarding schools and many boarding schools around the world are modeled on these. A typical boarding school has several separate residential houses, either within the school grounds or in the surrounding area. A number of senior teaching staff are appointed as housemasters, dorm parents, prefects, or residential advisors, each of whom takes quasi-parental responsibility for anywhere from 5 to 50 students resident in their house or dormitory at all times but outside school hours.
Each may be assisted in the domestic management of the house by a housekeeper known in U. K. or Commonwealth countries as matron, by a house tutor for academic matters providing staff of each gender. In the U. S. boarding schools have a resident family that lives in the dorm, known as dorm parents. They have janitorial staff for maintenance and housekeeping, but do not have tutors associated with an individual dorm. Older students are less supervised by staff, a system of monitors or prefects gives limited authority to senior students. Houses develop distinctive characters, a healthy rivalry between houses is encouraged in sport. Houses or dorms include study-bedrooms or dormitories, a dining room or refectory where students take meals at fixed times, a library and study carrels where students can do their homework. Houses may have common rooms for television and relaxation and kitchens for snacks, storage facilities for bicycles or other sports equipment; some facilities may be shared between several dorms.
In some schools, each house has students of all ages, in which case there is a prefect system, which gives older students some privileges and some responsibility for the welfare of the younger ones. In others, separate houses accommodate needs of different classes. In some schools, day students are assigned to a dorm or house for social activities and sports purposes. Most school dormitories have an "in your room by" and a "lights out" time, depending on their age, when the students are required to prepare for bed, after which no talking is permitted; such rules may be difficult to enforce. International students may take advantage of the time difference between countries to contact friends or family. Students sharing study rooms are less to disturb others and may be given more latitude; as well as the usual academic facilities such as classrooms, halls and laboratories, boarding schools provide a wide variety of facilities for extracurricular activities such as music rooms, sports fields and school grounds, squash courts, swimming pools and theatres.
A school chapel is found on site. Day students stay on after school to use these facilities. Many North American boarding schools are located in beautiful rural environments, have a combination of architectural styles that vary from modern to hundreds of years old. Food quality can vary from school to school, but most boarding schools offer diverse menu choices for many kinds of dietary restrictions and preferences; some boarding schools have a Dress Code for specific meals like Dinner or for specific days of the week. Students are free to eat with friends, teammates, as well as with faculty and coaches. Extra curricular activities groups, e.g. the French Club, may have meals together. The Dining Hall serves a central place where lessons and learning can continue between students and teachers or
King Arthur (opera)
King Arthur, or The British Worthy, is a semi-opera in five acts with music by Henry Purcell and a libretto by John Dryden. It was first performed at the Queen's Theatre, Dorset Garden, London, in late May or early June 1691; the plot is based on the battles between King Arthur's Britons and the Saxons, rather than the legends of Camelot. It is a Restoration spectacular, including such supernatural characters as Cupid and Venus plus references to the Germanic gods of the Saxons, Woden and Freya; the tale centres on Arthur's endeavours to recover his fiancée, the blind Cornish Princess Emmeline, abducted by his arch-enemy, the Saxon King Oswald of Kent. King Arthur is a "dramatick opera" or semi-opera: the principal characters do not sing, except if they are supernatural, pastoral or, in the case of Comus and the popular Your hay it is mow'd, drunk. Secondary characters sing to them as diegetic entertainment, but in Act 4 and parts of Act 2, as supernatural beckonings; the singing in Act 1 is religious observance by the Saxons, ending with their heroic afterlife in Valhalla.
The protagonists are actors. This was normal practice in 17th century English opera. King Arthur contains some of Purcell's most lyrical music. Dryden wrote the original libretto for King Arthur in 1684 to mark the 25th anniversary of King Charles II's Restoration the following year; the original text of King Arthur no longer exists but it was to be in three acts with an allegorical prologue. For unknown reasons Dryden abandoned his intention to have the whole work set to music and developed the prologue into another opera and Albanius, a collaboration with the Catalan composer Louis Grabu. However, Charles II died in February 1685 and Albion and Albanius was first inauspiciously performed in June 1685 during the Monmouth Rebellion, it was a failure and Dryden shelved any plans he had for the rest of the King Arthur libretto. In the mean time, England entered a turbulent period in its history. After the Catholic James II took the throne, Dryden too converted to Catholicism; when the Protestant William III overthrew James in the Glorious Revolution in 1688, Dryden refused to renounce his faith and so lost his job as poet laureate to his rival Thomas Shadwell.
Purcell's career had suffered after the death of the music-loving Charles II. With their sources of royal patronage gone, both playwright and composer were looking to make money as freelance professionals and the London stage offered attractive opportunities. In 1690, the theatre manager Thomas Betterton decided to risk putting on another operatic work, the first since the ill-fated Albion and Albanius; this was an adaptation of a play by Beaumont and Fletcher. Purcell's music for the production and the lavish staging made it a triumph and Betterton was eager for another such success, he persuaded Dryden to revise the libretto for King Arthur so Purcell could set it. The two had collaborated on stage works and Dryden was effusive in his praise of Purcell's musical abilities. In his preface to the printed edition, Dryden explained he had had to adapt the libretto to the changed political circumstances of 1691: "But not to offend the present Times, nor a Government which has hitherto protected me, I have been oblig'd so much to alter the first Design, take away so many Beauties from the Writing, that it is now no more what it was formerly..."
He made alterations to suit Purcell's musical needs: "the Numbers of Poetry and Vocal Musick, are sometimes so contrary, that in many places I have been oblig'd to cramp my Verses, make them rugged to the Reader, that they may be harmonious to the Hearer: Of which I have no Reason to repent me, because these sorts of Entertainments are principally design'd for the Ear and the Eye. The exact date of the premiere is unknown but the wordbook was advertised in The London Gazette from 4 to 8 June 1691, suggesting a recent staging. Peter Holman believes; the production was not as spectacular as Dioclesian or the The Fairy Queen but it proved the most financially successful for the theatre. Betterton himself took the role of King Arthur, despite being in his fifties; the contemporary writer Roger North was most impressed by Charlotte Butler's singing of Cupid, describing it as "beyond anything I heard upon the stage" ascribing her success to "the liberty she had of concealing her face, which she could not endure should be so contorted as is necessary to sound well, before her gallants, or at least her envious sex."King Arthur was revived at least twice during Purcell's lifetime and continued to be performed in the 1690s.
The first major revival in the eighteenth century was staged in 1736. This production left the work unaltered, but revivals involved varying degrees of revision, they included a performance in Dublin in 1763. According to Curtis Price, the original 1684–5 version was an allegory of the Exclusion crisis, a major political dispute over who would succeed Charles II: his Catholic brother, Duke of York or the Duke of Monmouth, his illegitimate — but Protestant — son; the faction backing James was nicknamed the "Tories". The latter were led by Anthony Ashley-Cooper, the Earl of Shaftesbu