Royal Society of Chemistry
The Royal Society of Chemistry is a learned society in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences". It was formed in 1980 from the amalgamation of the Chemical Society, the Royal Institute of Chemistry, the Faraday Society, the Society for Analytical Chemistry with a new Royal Charter and the dual role of learned society and professional body. At its inception, the Society had a combined membership of 34,000 in the UK and a further 8,000 abroad; the headquarters of the Society are at Burlington House, London. It has offices in Thomas Graham House in Cambridge where RSC Publishing is based; the Society has offices in the United States at the University City Science Center, Philadelphia, in both Beijing and Shanghai and Bangalore, India. The organisation carries out research, publishes journals and databases, as well as hosting conferences and workshops, it is the professional body for chemistry in the UK, with the ability to award the status of Chartered Chemist and, through the Science Council the awards of Chartered Scientist, Registered Scientist and Registered Science Technician to suitably qualified candidates.
The designation FRSC is given to a group of elected Fellows of the society who have made major contributions to chemistry and other interface disciplines such as biological chemistry. The names of Fellows are published each year in The Times. Honorary Fellowship of the Society is awarded for distinguished service in the field of chemistry; the president is elected biennially and wears a badge in the form of a spoked wheel, with the standing figure of Joseph Priestley depicted in enamel in red and blue, on a hexagonal medallion in the centre. The rim of the wheel is gold, the twelve spokes are of non-tarnishable metals; the current president is Dame Carol V. Robinson. Past presidents of the society have been: The following are membership grades with post-nominals: Affiliate: The grade for students and those involved in chemistry who do not meet the requirements for the following grades. AMRSC: Associate Member, Royal Society of Chemistry The entry level for RSC membership, AMRSC is awarded to graduates in the chemical sciences.
MRSC: Member, Royal Society of Chemistry Awarded to graduates with at least 3 years' experience, who have acquired key skills through professional activity FRSC: Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry Fellowship may be awarded to nominees who have made an outstanding contribution to chemistry. HonFRSC: Honorary Fellow of the Society Honorary Fellowship is awarded for distinguished service in the field of chemistry. CChem: Chartered Chemist The award of CChem is considered separately from admission to a category of RSC membership. Candidates need to be MRSC or FRSC and demonstrate development of specific professional attributes and be in a job which requires their chemical knowledge and skills. CSci: Chartered Scientist The RSC is a licensed by the Science Council for the registration of Chartered Scientists. EurChem: European Chemist The RSC is a member of the European Communities Chemistry Council, can award this designation to Chartered Chemists. MChemA: Mastership in Chemical Analysis The RSC awards this postgraduate qualification, the UK statutory qualification for practice as a Public Analyst.
It requires candidates to submit a portfolio of suitable experience and to take theory papers and a one-day laboratory practical examination. The qualification GRSC was awarded from 1981 to 1995 for completion of college courses equivalent to an honours chemistry degree and overseen by the RSC, it replaced the GRIC offered by the Royal Institute of Chemistry. The society is organised around 9 divisions, based on subject areas, local sections, both in the United Kingdom and overseas. Divisions cover broad areas of chemistry but contain many special interest groups for more specific areas. Analytical Division for analytical chemistry and promoting the original aims of the Society for Analytical Chemistry. 12 Subject Groups. Dalton Division, named after John Dalton, for inorganic chemistry. 6 Subject Groups. Education Division for chemical education. 4 Subject Groups. Faraday Division, named after Michael Faraday, for physical chemistry and promoting the original aims of the Faraday Society. 14 Subject Groups.
Organic Division for organic chemistry. 6 Subject Groups. Chemical Biology Interface Division. 2 Subject Groups. Environment and Energy Division. 3 Subject Groups. Materials Chemistry Division. 4 Subject Groups. Industry and Technology Division. 13 Subject Groups. There are 12 subjects groups not attached to a division. There are 35 local sections covering the United Ireland. In countries of the Commonwealth of Nations and many other countries there are Local Representatives of the society and some activities; the society is a not-for-profit publisher: surplus made by its publishing business is invested to support its aim of advancing the chemical sciences. In addition to scientific journals, including its flagship journals Chemical Communications, Chemical Science and Chemical Society Reviews, the society publishes: Education in Chemistry for teachers. A free online journal for chemistry educators, Chemistry Education Research and Practice. A general chemistry magazine Chemistry World, sent monthly to all members of the Society throughout the world.
The editorial board consists of 10 industrial chemists. It was first published in January 2004, it replaced C
The Hickinbottom Award is awarded annually by the Royal Society of Chemistry for contributions in the area of organic chemistry from researchers under the age of 35. The prize winner receives a monetary award and will complete a lecture tour within the UK; the winner is chosen by the awards committee of the Royal Society of Chemistry's organic division. The award was established by the Royal Society of Chemistry in 1979 following Wilfrid Hickinbottom's bequest. Hickinbottom was noted for supporting high standards in experimental chemistry. Part of the monetary award is the Briggs scholarship, funded following a bequest from Lady Alice Lilian Thorpe, William Briggs' daughter; the award was first granted in 1981 to Jeremy Sanders. Subsequent recipients include
Robert Boyle Prize for Analytical Science
Robert Boyle Prize for Analytical Science called Boyle Medal, is a prize of the Royal Society of Chemistry for Analytical Chemistry. Not to be confused with the Irish Times Boyle Medal awarded in chemistry, or Boyle Higgins Gold Medal of the Institute of Chemistry of Ireland, it is awarded every two years and is worth £5,000. The prize is named after Robert Boyle and awarded since 1982. Source: Royal Society of Chemistry 2016: Richard Peter Evershed 2014: Eric Bakker 2012: Norman Dovichi 2010: Gary M. Hieftje 2008: R. Graham Cooks 2006: not awarded 2004: Miguel Valcárcel 2002: Michael Thompson 2000: William Horwitz 1998: William H. Pirkle 1996: James D. Winefordner 1994: Taitiro Fujinaga 1992: Fred W. McLafferty 1990: Hanns Malissa, Ivan Alimarin 1988: Egon Stahl 1986: Ernö Pungor 1984: Izaak Kolthoff 1982: Alan Walsh Official Website Award Winners Event data as RDF
Outline of academic disciplines
An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge and researched as part of higher education. A scholar's discipline is defined by the university faculties and learned societies to which she or he belongs and the academic journals in which she or he publishes research. Disciplines vary between well-established ones that exist in all universities and have well-defined rosters of journals and conferences and nascent ones supported by only a few universities and publications. A discipline may have branches, these are called sub-disciplines. There is no consensus on how some academic disciplines should be classified, for example whether anthropology and linguistics are disciplines of the social sciences or of the humanities; the following outline is provided as topical guide to academic disciplines. Biblical studies Religious studies Biblical Hebrew, Biblical Greek, Aramaic Buddhist theology Christian theology Anglican theology Baptist theology Catholic theology Eastern Orthodox theology Protestant theology Hindu theology Jewish theology Muslim theology Biological anthropology Linguistic anthropology Cultural anthropology Social anthropology Archaeology Accounting Business management Finance Marketing Operations management Edaphology Environmental chemistry Environmental science Gemology Geochemistry Geodesy Physical geography Atmospheric science / Meteorology Biogeography / Phytogeography Climatology / Paleoclimatology / Palaeogeography Coastal geography / Oceanography Edaphology / Pedology or Soil science Geobiology Geology Geostatistics Glaciology Hydrology / Limnology / Hydrogeology Landscape ecology Quaternary science Geophysics Paleontology Paleobiology Paleoecology Astrobiology Astronomy Observational astronomy Gamma ray astronomy Infrared astronomy Microwave astronomy Optical astronomy Radio astronomy UV astronomy X-ray astronomy Astrophysics Gravitational astronomy Black holes Interstellar medium Numerical simulations Astrophysical plasma Galaxy formation and evolution High-energy astrophysics Hydrodynamics Magnetohydrodynamics Star formation Physical cosmology Stellar astrophysics Helioseismology Stellar evolution Stellar nucleosynthesis Planetary science Also a branch of electrical engineering Pure mathematics Applied mathematics Astrostatistics Biostatistics Academia Academic genealogy Curriculum Multidisciplinary approach Interdisciplinarity Transdisciplinarity Professions Classification of Instructional Programs Joint Academic Coding System List of fields of doctoral studies in the United States List of academic fields Abbott, Andrew.
Chaos of Disciplines. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-00101-2. Oleson, Alexandra; the Organization of knowledge in modern America, 1860-1920. ISBN 0-8018-2108-8. US Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences. Classification of Instructional Programs. National Center for Education Statistics. Classification of Instructional Programs: Developed by the U. S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics to provide a taxonomic scheme that will support the accurate tracking and reporting of fields of study and program completions activity. Complete JACS from Higher Education Statistics Agency in the United Kingdom Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification Chapter 3 and Appendix 1: Fields of research classification. Fields of Knowledge, a zoomable map allowing the academic disciplines and sub-disciplines in this article be visualised. Sandoz, R. Interactive Historical Atlas of the Disciplines, University of Geneva
Faraday Lectureship Prize
The Faraday Lectureship Prize known as the Faraday Lectureship is awarded once every three years by the Royal Society of Chemistry for "exceptional contributions to physical or theoretical chemistry". Named after Michael Faraday, the first Faraday Lecture was given in 1869, two years after Faraday's death, by Jean-Baptiste Dumas; as of 2009, the prize was worth £5000, with the recipient receiving a medal and a certificate. As the name suggests, the recipient gives a public lecture describing his or her work. Source: RSC Event data as RDF
Electronics comprises the physics, engineering and applications that deal with the emission and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. The identification of the electron in 1897, along with the invention of the vacuum tube, which could amplify and rectify small electrical signals, inaugurated the field of electronics and the electron age. Electronics deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, diodes, integrated circuits and sensors, associated passive electrical components, interconnection technologies. Electronic devices contain circuitry consisting or of active semiconductors supplemented with passive elements; the nonlinear behaviour of active components and their ability to control electron flows makes amplification of weak signals possible. Electronics is used in information processing, telecommunication, signal processing; the ability of electronic devices to act as switches makes digital information-processing possible. Interconnection technologies such as circuit boards, electronics packaging technology, other varied forms of communication infrastructure complete circuit functionality and transform the mixed electronic components into a regular working system, called an electronic system.
An electronic system may be a component of a standalone device. Electrical and electromechanical science and technology deals with the generation, switching and conversion of electrical energy to and from other energy forms; this distinction started around 1906 with the invention by Lee De Forest of the triode, which made electrical amplification of weak radio signals and audio signals possible with a non-mechanical device. Until 1950 this field was called "radio technology" because its principal application was the design and theory of radio transmitters and vacuum tubes; as of 2018 most electronic devices use semiconductor components to perform electron control. The study of semiconductor devices and related technology is considered a branch of solid-state physics, whereas the design and construction of electronic circuits to solve practical problems come under electronics engineering; this article focuses on engineering aspects of electronics. Digital electronics Analogue electronics Microelectronics Circuit design Integrated circuits Power electronics Optoelectronics Semiconductor devices Embedded systems An electronic component is any physical entity in an electronic system used to affect the electrons or their associated fields in a manner consistent with the intended function of the electronic system.
Components are intended to be connected together by being soldered to a printed circuit board, to create an electronic circuit with a particular function. Components may be packaged singly, or in more complex groups as integrated circuits; some common electronic components are capacitors, resistors, transistors, etc. Components are categorized as active or passive. Vacuum tubes were among the earliest electronic components, they were solely responsible for the electronics revolution of the first half of the twentieth century. They allowed for vastly more complicated systems and gave us radio, phonographs, long-distance telephony and much more, they played a leading role in the field of microwave and high power transmission as well as television receivers until the middle of the 1980s. Since that time, solid-state devices have all but taken over. Vacuum tubes are still used in some specialist applications such as high power RF amplifiers, cathode ray tubes, specialist audio equipment, guitar amplifiers and some microwave devices.
In April 1955, the IBM 608 was the first IBM product to use transistor circuits without any vacuum tubes and is believed to be the first all-transistorized calculator to be manufactured for the commercial market. The 608 contained more than 3,000 germanium transistors. Thomas J. Watson Jr. ordered all future IBM products to use transistors in their design. From that time on transistors were exclusively used for computer logic and peripherals. Circuits and components can be divided into two groups: digital. A particular device may consist of circuitry that has a mix of the two types. Most analog electronic appliances, such as radio receivers, are constructed from combinations of a few types of basic circuits. Analog circuits use a continuous range of voltage or current as opposed to discrete levels as in digital circuits; the number of different analog circuits so far devised is huge because a'circuit' can be defined as anything from a single component, to systems containing thousands of components.
Analog circuits are sometimes called linear circuits although many non-linear effects are used in analog circuits such as mixers, etc. Good examples of analog circuits include vacuum tube and transistor amplifiers, operational amplifiers and oscillators. One finds modern circuits that are analog; these days analog circuitry may use digital or microprocessor techniques to improve performance. This type of circuit is called "mixed signal" rather than analog or digital. Sometimes it may be difficult to differentiate between analog and digital circuits as they have elements of both linear and non-linear
The interdisciplinary field of materials science commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials solids. The intellectual origins of materials science stem from the Enlightenment, when researchers began to use analytical thinking from chemistry and engineering to understand ancient, phenomenological observations in metallurgy and mineralogy. Materials science still incorporates elements of physics and engineering; as such, the field was long considered by academic institutions as a sub-field of these related fields. Beginning in the 1940s, materials science began to be more recognized as a specific and distinct field of science and engineering, major technical universities around the world created dedicated schools of the study, within either the Science or Engineering schools, hence the naming. Materials science is a syncretic discipline hybridizing metallurgy, solid-state physics, chemistry, it is the first example of a new academic discipline emerging by fusion rather than fission.
Many of the most pressing scientific problems humans face are due to the limits of the materials that are available and how they are used. Thus, breakthroughs in materials science are to affect the future of technology significantly. Materials scientists emphasize understanding how the history of a material influences its structure, thus the material's properties and performance; the understanding of processing-structure-properties relationships is called the § materials paradigm. This paradigm is used to advance understanding in a variety of research areas, including nanotechnology and metallurgy. Materials science is an important part of forensic engineering and failure analysis – investigating materials, structures or components which fail or do not function as intended, causing personal injury or damage to property; such investigations are key to understanding, for example, the causes of various aviation accidents and incidents. The material of choice of a given era is a defining point. Phrases such as Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Steel Age are historic, if arbitrary examples.
Deriving from the manufacture of ceramics and its putative derivative metallurgy, materials science is one of the oldest forms of engineering and applied science. Modern materials science evolved directly from metallurgy, which itself evolved from mining and ceramics and earlier from the use of fire. A major breakthrough in the understanding of materials occurred in the late 19th century, when the American scientist Josiah Willard Gibbs demonstrated that the thermodynamic properties related to atomic structure in various phases are related to the physical properties of a material. Important elements of modern materials science are a product of the space race: the understanding and engineering of the metallic alloys, silica and carbon materials, used in building space vehicles enabling the exploration of space. Materials science has driven, been driven by, the development of revolutionary technologies such as rubbers, plastics and biomaterials. Before the 1960s, many eventual materials science departments were metallurgy or ceramics engineering departments, reflecting the 19th and early 20th century emphasis on metals and ceramics.
The growth of materials science in the United States was catalyzed in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency, which funded a series of university-hosted laboratories in the early 1960s "to expand the national program of basic research and training in the materials sciences." The field has since broadened to include every class of materials, including ceramics, semiconductors, magnetic materials and nanomaterials classified into three distinct groups: ceramics and polymers. The prominent change in materials science during the recent decades is active usage of computer simulations to find new materials, predict properties, understand phenomena. A material is defined as a substance, intended to be used for certain applications. There are a myriad of materials around us—they can be found in anything from buildings to spacecraft. Materials can be further divided into two classes: crystalline and non-crystalline; the traditional examples of materials are metals, semiconductors and polymers.
New and advanced materials that are being developed include nanomaterials and energy materials to name a few. The basis of materials science involves studying the structure of materials, relating them to their properties. Once a materials scientist knows about this structure-property correlation, they can go on to study the relative performance of a material in a given application; the major determinants of the structure of a material and thus of its properties are its constituent chemical elements and the way in which it has been processed into its final form. These characteristics, taken together and related through the laws of thermodynamics and kinetics, govern a material's microstructure, thus its properties; as mentioned above, structure is one of the most important components of the field of materials science. Materials science examines the structure of materials from the atomic scale, all the way up to the macro scale. Characterization is the way; this involves methods such as diffraction with X-rays, electrons, or neutrons, various forms of spectroscopy and chemical analysis such as Raman spectroscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, thermal analysis, electron microscope analysis, etc.