Heraklion or Heraclion is the largest city and the administrative capital of the island of Crete and capital of Heraklion regional unit. It is the fourth largest city in Greece. According to the results of the 2011 census, the municipality's population was 173,993 and according to the results of 2011 census, the metropolitan area has a population of 225,574 and it extends over an area of 684.3 km2. The Bronze Age palace of Knossos known as the Palace of Minos, is located nearby. Heraklion announced as Europe’s fastest growing tourism destination for 2017, according to Euromonitor, showing an 11.2% growth in international arrivals. According to the ranking, Heraklion was ranked as the 20th most visited region in Europe, as the 66th area on the Planet and as the 2nd in Greece for the year 2017, with 3.2 million visitors and the 19th in Europe for 2018, with 3,4 million visitors. The Arab traders from al-Andalus who founded the Emirate of Crete moved the island's capital from Gortyna to a new castle they called rabḍ al-ḫandaq in the 820s.
This was hellenized as Χάνδαξ or Χάνδακας and Latinized as Candia, taken into other European languages: in Italian and Latin as Candia, in French as Candie, in English as Candy, all of which could refer to the island of Crete as a whole as well as to the city alone. After the Byzantine reconquest of Crete, the city was locally known as Megalo Kastro and its inhabitants were called Kastrinoi; the ancient name Ηράκλειον was revived in the 19th century and comes from the nearby Roman port of Heracleum, whose exact location is unknown. English usage preferred the classicizing transliterations "Heraklion" or "Heraclion", but the form "Iraklion" is becoming more common. Heraklion is close to the ruins of the palace of Knossos, which in Minoan times was the largest centre of population on Crete. Knossos had a port at the site of Heraklion from the beginning of Early Minoan period. Around 1500 BC, the port was destroyed by a volcanic tsunami from nearby Santorini, leveling the region and covering it with ash.
After the fall of the Minoans, Heraklion, as well as the rest of Crete in general, fared poorly, with little development in the area. Only with the arrival of the Romans did some construction in the area begin, yet early into Byzantine times the area was abound with pirates and bandits; the present city of Heraklion was founded in 824 by the Arabs under Abu Hafs Umar, expelled from Al-Andalus by Emir Al-Hakam I and had taken over the island from the Eastern Roman Empire. They built a moat around the city for protection, named the city ربض الخندق, rabḍ al-ḫandaq, it became the capital of the Emirate of Crete. The Saracens allowed the port to be used as a safe haven for pirates who operated against Imperial shipping and raided Imperial territory around the Aegean. In 960, Byzantine forces under the command of Nikephoros Phokas to become Emperor, landed in Crete and attacked the city. After a prolonged siege, the city fell in March 961; the Saracen inhabitants were slaughtered, the city burned to the ground.
Soon rebuilt, the town was renamed Χάνδαξ, remained under Byzantine control for the next 243 years. In 1204, the city was bought by the Republic of Venice as part of a complicated political deal which involved, among other things, the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade restoring the deposed Eastern Roman Emperor Isaac II Angelus to his throne; the Venetians improved on the ditch of the city by building enormous fortifications, most of which are still in place, including a giant wall, in places up to 40 m thick, with 7 bastions, a fortress in the harbour. Chandax was renamed Candia and became the seat of the Duke of Candia, the Venetian administrative district of Crete became known as "Regno di Candia"; the city retained the name of Candia for centuries and the same name was used to refer to the whole island of Crete as well. To secure their rule, Venetians began in 1212 to settle families from Venice on Crete; the coexistence of two different cultures and the stimulus of Italian Renaissance led to a flourishing of letters and the arts in Candia and Crete in general, today known as the Cretan Renaissance.
During the Cretan War, the Ottomans besieged the city for 21 years, from 1648 to 1669 the longest siege in history. In its final phase, which lasted for 22 months, 70,000 Turks, 38,000 Cretans and slaves and 29,088 of the city's Christian defenders perished; the Ottoman army under an Albanian grand vizier, Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha conquered the city in 1669. Under the Ottomans, the city was known as Kandiye but informally in Greek as Megalo Castro. During the Ottoman period, the harbour silted up, so most shipping shifted to Chania in the west of the island. In 1898, the autonomous Cretan State was created, under Ottoman suzerainty, with Prince George of Greece as its High Commissioner and under international supervision. During the period of direct occupation of the island by the Great Powers, Candia was part of the British zone. At this time, the city was renamed "Heraklion", after the Roman port of Heracleum, whose exact location is unknown. In 1913, with the rest of Crete, Heraklion was incorporated into the Kingdom of Greece.
Heraklion became again capital of Crete in 1971. At the port of the city dominate
42nd Chess Olympiad
The 42nd Chess Olympiad, organised by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs and comprising an Open and Women's tournament, as well as several events designed to promote the game of chess, was held in Baku, from 1–14 September 2016. It was the first time that the Chess Olympiad had been hosted in Azerbaijan, the birthplace of former world champion Garry Kasparov; the total number of participants was 1,587, with 894 in the 693 in the Women's event. The number of registered teams was 180 from 175 countries in the Open section and 142 from 138 countries in the Women's section. Both sections set team participation records. Eritrea and South Sudan competed in the tournament for the first time; the venue of the Chess Olympiad was the Baku Crystal Hall. The Chief Arbiter of the event was Azerbaijan's International Arbiter Faiq Hasanov; the United States won the gold medal in the Open event for the first time since 1976 and for the sixth time overall, while China won their fifth gold medal in the Women's event and the first since 1994 after winning the silver medal in the last three Olympiads.
Ukrainian player Andrei Volokitin, who played as a reserve player, was the best individual player in the Open event with 81⁄2 out of 9 points, with a performance rating of 2992. Russian Valentina Gunina, playing on board two, was the best individual player in the Women's event with 8 out of 10 points, with a performance rating of 2643; the bidding procedure for the 42nd Chess Olympiad and the FIDE Congress in connection with a possible bid for the Chess World Cup 2015 was opened in December 2011. Each city interested to host the event had to submit their bid to FIDE by 31 May 2012; the bids were to guarantee that all necessary provisions in accordance with the Olympiad Regulations of the FIDE Handbook would be covered by the organiser, including articles 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3 pertaining to the organising committee and provision of amenities and stipends, respectively. Three cities submitted bids to host the event: Albena and Baku; the final decision was made at the 83rd FIDE Congress in September 2012 in Istanbul.
Out of the three bidding cities, the applications of Albena and Tallinn were not accepted as they both failed to make presentations before the voting. Thereafter, discussions started about Baku's nomination and two concerns were raised; the first was the protest by the Armenian representatives against holding the Olympiad in Azerbaijan, who stated that the Armenian chess players would find it difficult to play in Baku, since the two nations were in armed conflict. The second concern was related to the difficulties that the participants may have in obtaining a visa to enter the country. In his speech during the congress, Azerbaijani Minister of Youth and Sports Azad Rahimov said that Armenian sportsmen had visited Azerbaijan and participated in competitions, where they were provided with security guarantees, met, no incident was recorded, he mentioned the victory of Russian Armenian boxer Misha Aloyan in the 2011 AIBA World Boxing Championships held in Baku as an example that Armenians can not only participate but win.
With regard to the visa issue, Rahimov mentioned the positive experience with the Eurovision Song Contest 2012, where all participants received their visas on arrival at the airport without any problem. He added that the Armenian sportsmen will get visas easily; the next speaker was FIDE President Kirsan Ilyumzhinov, who suggested that the 42nd Chess Olympiad should take place in Baku and mentioned that there are four years for the Azerbaijani-Armenian conflict to be resolved before the event. I have visited Azerbaijan. We discussed holding the Olympics in Azerbaijan with the president of Armenia. I met with Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev. Both presidents are my friends, we talk on the phone; the Olympics will be held in four years and during that time the Azerbaijani-Armenian conflict can be resolved. Let's play chess! His proposal was supported by the delegates and the FIDE Congress awarded the Chess Olympiad 2016 to Baku, the Chess World Cup 2015 for the year before; the organising committee of the Chess Olympiad consisted of fourteen prominent Azerbaijani dignitaries.
Head of the committee was the First Deputy Prime Minister of Azerbaijan Yaqub Eyyubov, while the other members include the Minister of Youth and Sport Azad Rahimov, the Minister of Culture and Tourism Abulfas Garayev, the Minister of Healthcare Ogtay Shiraliyev, the Governor of the Central Bank Azerbaijan and President of the Azerbaijan Chess Federation Elman Rustamov, the Mayor of Baku Hajibala Abutalybov, the CEO of SOCAR Rovnag Abdullayev, the Minister of Foreign Affairs Elmar Mammadyarov, the Minister of Internal Affairs Ramil Usubov, the Minister of Finance Samir Sharifov, the Chairman of the State Customs Committee Aydin Aliyev, the Chief of the State Migration Service Firudin Nabiyev, the Vice-President of the Azerbaijan Chess Federation Mahir Mammadov, the Vice-President of the Azerbaijan Chess Federation and Chief Arbiter of the 42nd Chess Olympiad Faiq Hasanov. In addition to the organising committee, there was an operating committee of six members in charge of the preparations whose director was Mahir Mammadov.
In May 2016, the operating committee named three Azerbaijani artists as "Celebrity Ambassadors": the theatre producer Mushivq Abbasov, the theatre actors Joshgun Rahimov and Rafael Isgandarov. In July 2016, the Olympic gold-medal winning wrestler Farid Mansurov became the fourth cel
World Youth Chess Championship
The World Youth Chess Championship is a chess competition for girls and boys under the age of 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18. Twelve world champions are crowned every year; the first predecessor of the youth championship was the Cadet Championship. It started off unofficially in 1974 in France for players under 18; the 1975 and 1976 editions were for U18. The 1976 featured young players such as Garry Kasparov and Julian Hodgson but players older than 18, but younger than 19 such as Louis Roos, it was recognized in 1977 by FIDE as the World Championship for Cadets for players under 17. In 1981 the age limit was reduced to under 16, applicable at the start of the year the championship is played in, it was the year in which the first girls' championship for U16 was played. In 1979, International Year of the Child, the first edition of the World Infant Cup was played for under 14; this cup had four editions, 1979, 1980, 1981 and 1984. In 1985 the U14 event was included in the first edition of the World Youth Chess Festival for Peace.
Subsequently, the age categories U10, U12 and U18 were introduced. In 1987 the festival included the sections U12, U14 and U18, while the U16 was held separately. In 1988, U16 was incorporated, it was not until 1989. The U16 and U18 were sometimes played at separately from the U10, U12 and U14, as was the case in 1990, 1991, 1995 and 1997. In 1997 the name of tournament was changed to the World Youth Chess Championships; the under 8 category was first introduced in 2006. Since 2015, the event has been split into "World Cadets Chess Championship" and "World Youth Chess Championship". In 2015 both events were held in the same venue under the name of "World Youth and Cadets Chess Championships"; the girls tournament was held separately, in England. The main source of reference is indicated beneath each year's entry.1974 – Pont-Sainte-Maxence, France, 2–13 July – The first World Cadet Championship was an Under-18 event, organised by the French chess authorities. Thirty players took part in an 11 round Swiss.
Englishman Jonathan Mestel won by a one-and-a-half point margin, scoring +8−0=3. The silver and bronze medals went to Oskar Orel, respectively. Competing were the Canadian Jean Hebert and the Lebanese Bachar Kouatly. Boys U-18 – 1. Jonathan Mestel 2. Evgeny Vladimirov 3. Oskar Orel --- The Batsford Chess Yearbook, Kevin J O'Connell p. 1281975 – Creil, France, 1–12 July – The second World Cadets was once again a French organised Under-18 event, comprising twenty-five players in an 11 round Swiss. David Goodman of England won the gold medal, with silver going to Terence Wong of Singapore and bronze to Predrag Nikolić of Yugoslavia. With 7 points was Australia's Ian Rogers, taking a share of third place; the West German Eric Lobron and Lebanese Bachar Kouatly were two future grandmasters who took part. Boys U-18 – 1. David Goodman 2. Terence Wong 3. Predrag Nikolić --- The Batsford Chess Yearbook 1975/76, Kevin J O'Connell p. 731978 – Sas-van-Gent, December 1978 – January 1979 – The World Cadets tournament was held over the New Year.
Scotland gained its first world champion in chess, Paul Motwani from the city of Dundee. Following were England's Nigel Short, aged only 13, Jose Huergo of Cuba, who required a tie-break to separate them. Other well known players in the pack included Ivan Morovic of Chile and Jóhann Hjartarson of Iceland. Boys U-17 – 1. Paul Motwani 2. Jose Huergo 3. Nigel Short --- CHESS magazine Vol 44. March p. 1911979 – Belfort, France – – For a second successive year, England's Nigel Short narrowly failed to take the World Cadets title, after losing out to his Argentine rival, Marcelo Tempone on the sum of opponent's scores rule. Third place was taken by Ivan Morovic and further down the field were future grandmasters Gilberto Milos, Joel Benjamin, Jan Ehlvest, Alon Greenfeld and Jóhann Hjartarson. Boys U-17 – 1. Marcelo Tempone 2. Nigel Short 3. Ivan Morovic --- CHESS magazine Vol 44. October p. 3681980 – Le Havre, France – – The World Cadet Championship was played alongside the familiar Le Havre Open chess tournament.
A total of fifty-one'cadets' represented forty-nine different countries. France fielded three players, two by right and a third when immigration officials mysteriously refused entry to the Pakistan entrant; the winner, Valery Salov, displayed the usual Soviet formula of good preparation and technique, with strategically planned draws against his nearest rivals, Alon Greenfeld and Joel Benjamin. Greenfeld might have tied first, but lost his crucial last round game with Benjamin, despite having the white pieces; some of the players and their seconds were unhappy about the conditions the dormitory-style accommodation and food quality. Many felt that the Brazilian, Gilberto Milos, was unfairly treated when his twice adjourned game was concluded on the free day without prior warning, he told that his clock had been started. Understandably upset, he lost, his follow-up protest falling on deaf ears; the list of entries contained future grandmasters Suat Atalık and Dibyendu Barua, among others. Final result.
Valery Salov 2. Alon Greenfeld 3. Joel Benjamin --- CHESS magazine Vol 45. Aug–Sept p. 2371989 – Aguadilla, Puerto Rico – – There were 54 countries and 281 juniors participating. Living conditions were quite stretched as the organisers were
Richárd Rapport is a Hungarian chess grandmaster. As a chess prodigy, he earned his grandmaster title at the age of 11 months and 6 days; this makes him Hungary's youngest grandmaster. He was Hungarian Chess Champion in 2017, he is one of the most original players in the world and surprises with many unusual ideas and experiments early in the opening. Rapport was born to Tamás Rapport and Erzsébet Mórocz, both economists, he learned chess at age four from his father. In 2006 he won the European Championships U10. Rapport achieved the National Master title in 2008, became an International Master the next year. In March 2010, at the Gotth'Art Kupa in Szentgotthárd, he fulfilled the final norm and rating requirements for the Grandmaster title, he came in second on the tournament behind his trainer Alexander Beliavsky, tied with Lajos Portisch. Thus, at the age of 13 years, 11 months and 6 days, he became the youngest Hungarian grandmaster, the fifth youngest chess grandmaster in history at the time.
In May, Rapport tied for first in the Sigeman & Co Chess Tournament, together with Nigel Short and Nils Grandelius, winning on tiebreaks. He scored 4½/7. In December, Rapport won the European Rapid Chess Championship and finished fourth in the European Blitz Chess Championship. From 20 to 23 December, Rapport won a match against 17-year-old Chinese player Wei Yi, held in Yancheng, China. At the time, Rapport was the highest rated junior player at 2717, Wei Yi was the second-highest rated at 2707, they tied a match of four classical games with a win each and two draws tied a tiebreak match of two blitz games, winning one each. The final tiebreak of the match was an Armageddon game, which Rapport won with the black pieces by resignation. At the Tata Steel Chess Tournament in January 2017 he played his first game against Carlsen and won with white in 33 moves, he won the Hungarian Chess Championship in May 2017. He is married to Serbian WGM Jovana Vojinović. Rapport vs. GM Lajos Seres.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid. The game is played by millions of people worldwide. Chess is believed to be derived from the Indian game chaturanga some time before the 7th century. Chaturanga is the ancestor of the Eastern strategy games xiangqi and shogi. Chess reached Europe by the 9th century, due to the Umayyad conquest of Hispania; the pieces assumed their current powers in Spain in the late 15th century with the introduction of "Mad Queen Chess". Play does not involve hidden information; each player begins with 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, eight pawns. Each of the six piece types moves differently, with the most powerful being the queen and the least powerful the pawn; the objective is to checkmate the opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. To this end, a player's pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces, while supporting each other.
During the game, play involves making exchanges of one piece for an opponent's similar piece, but finding and engineering opportunities to trade advantageously, or to get a better position. In addition to checkmate, a player wins the game if the opponent runs out of time. There are several ways that a game can end in a draw; the first recognized World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886. Since 1948, the World Championship has been regulated by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs, the game's international governing body. FIDE awards life-time master titles to skilled players, the highest of, grandmaster. Many national chess organizations have a title system of their own. FIDE organizes the Women's World Championship, the World Junior Championship, the World Senior Championship, the Blitz and Rapid World Championships, the Chess Olympiad, a popular competition among international teams. FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee, which can be considered as a recognition of chess as a sport.
Several national sporting bodies recognize chess as a sport. Chess was included in 2010 Asian Games. There is a Correspondence Chess World Championship and a World Computer Chess Championship. Online chess has opened professional competition to a wide and varied group of players. Since the second half of the 20th century, chess engines have been programmed to play chess with increasing success, to the point where the strongest personal computers play at a higher level than the best human players. Since the 1990s, computer analysis has contributed to chess theory in the endgame; the IBM computer Deep Blue was the first machine to overcome a reigning World Chess Champion in a match when it defeated Garry Kasparov in 1997. The rise of strong chess engines runnable on hand-held devices has led to increasing concerns about cheating during tournaments. There are many variants of chess that utilize pieces, or boards. One of these, Chess960, incorporates standard rules but employs 960 different possible starting positions, thus negating any advantage in opening preparation.
Chess960 has gained widespread popularity as well as some FIDE recognition. The rules of chess are published by chess's international governing body, in its Handbook. Rules published by national governing bodies, or by unaffiliated chess organizations, commercial publishers, etc. may differ. FIDE's rules were most revised in 2017. Chess is played on a square board of eight columns; the 64 squares are referred to as light and dark squares. The chessboard is placed with a light square at the right-hand end of the rank nearest to each player. By convention, the game pieces are divided into white and black sets, the players are referred to as White and Black, respectively; each player begins the game with 16 pieces of the specified color, consisting of one king, one queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights, eight pawns. The pieces are set out as shown in the diagram and photo, with each queen on a square of its own color. In competitive games, the colors are allocated by the organizers; the player with the white pieces moves first.
After the first move, players alternate turns. Pieces are moved to either an unoccupied square or one occupied by an opponent's piece, captured and removed from play. With the sole exception of en passant, all pieces capture by moving to the square that the opponent's piece occupies. A player may not make any move that would leave the player's own king under attack. A player cannot "pass" a turn. If the player to move has no legal move, the game is over; each piece has its own way of moving. In the diagrams, the dots mark the squares to which the piece can move if there are no intervening piece of either color; the king moves one square in any direction. The king has
Istanbul known as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea, its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives in suburbs on the Asian side of the Bosporus. With a total population of around 15 million residents in its metropolitan area, Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities, ranking as the world's fourth largest city proper and the largest European city; the city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Istanbul is viewed as a bridge between the West. Founded under the name of Byzantion on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE, the city grew in size and influence, becoming one of the most important cities in history. After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as an imperial capital for 16 centuries, during the Roman/Byzantine, Palaiologos Byzantine and Ottoman empires.
It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times, before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 CE and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate. The city's strategic position on the historic Silk Road, rail networks to Europe and the Middle East, the only sea route between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean have produced a cosmopolitan populace. While Ankara was chosen instead as the new Turkish capital after the Turkish War of Independence, the city's name was changed to Istanbul, the city has maintained its prominence in geopolitical and cultural affairs; the population of the city has increased tenfold since the 1950s, as migrants from across Anatolia have moved in and city limits have expanded to accommodate them. Arts, music and cultural festivals were established towards the end of the 20th century and continue to be hosted by the city today. Infrastructure improvements have produced a complex transportation network in the city.
12.56 million foreign visitors arrived in Istanbul in 2015, five years after it was named a European Capital of Culture, making the city the world's fifth most popular tourist destination. The city's biggest attraction is its historic center listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, its cultural and entertainment hub is across the city's natural harbor, the Golden Horn, in the Beyoğlu district. Considered a global city, Istanbul has one of the fastest-growing metropolitan economies in the world, it hosts the headquarters of many Turkish companies and media outlets and accounts for more than a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. Hoping to capitalize on its revitalization and rapid expansion, Istanbul has bid for the Summer Olympics five times in twenty years; the first known name of the city is Byzantium, the name given to it at its foundation by Megarean colonists around 660 BCE. The name is thought to be derived from Byzas. Ancient Greek tradition refers to a legendary king of that name as the leader of the Greek colonists.
Modern scholars have hypothesized that the name of Byzas was of local Thracian or Illyrian origin and hence predated the Megarean settlement. After Constantine the Great made it the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire in 330 CE, the city became known as Constantinople, which, as the Latinized form of "Κωνσταντινούπολις", means the "City of Constantine", he attempted to promote the name "Nova Roma" and its Greek version "Νέα Ῥώμη" Nea Romē, but this did not enter widespread usage. Constantinople remained the most common name for the city in the West until the establishment of the Turkish Republic, which urged other countries to use Istanbul. Kostantiniyye and Be Makam-e Qonstantiniyyah al-Mahmiyyah and İstanbul were the names used alternatively by the Ottomans during their rule; the use of Constantinople to refer to the city during the Ottoman period is now considered politically incorrect if not inaccurate, by Turks. By the 19th century, the city had acquired other names used by Turks. Europeans used Constantinople to refer to the whole of the city, but used the name Stamboul—as the Turks did—to describe the walled peninsula between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara.
Pera was used to describe the area between the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, but Turks used the name Beyoğlu. The name İstanbul is held to derive from the Medieval Greek phrase "εἰς τὴν Πόλιν", which means "to the city" and is how Constantinople was referred to by the local Greeks; this reflected its status as the only major city in the vicinity. The importance of Constantinople in the Ottoman world was reflected by its Ottoman name'Der Saadet' meaning the'gate to Prosperity' in Ottoman. An alternative view is that the name evolved directly from the name Constantinople, with the first and third syllables dropped. A Turkish folk etymology traces the name to Islam bol "plenty of Islam" because the city was called Islambol or Islambul as the capital of the Islamic Ottoman Empire, it is first attested shortly after the conquest