Best Before 1984
Best Before 1984 is a compilation of Crass' singles and other tracks, released in 1986, including lyrics and a booklet which details the history of the band in their own words. The album was named in reference to the notion that 1984 was the band's "'sell by date", the year that they had publicly stated that they would split up. Indeed, the band ceased recording in that year. According to a blog on the Southern Records website, there are plans to release an expanded edition of Best Before 1984, which will include unavailable material and rarities, in the same vein as the'Crassical Collection' re-releases of the band's albums. "Do They Owe Us a Living?" "Major General Despair" "Angela Rippon" "Reality Asylum" "Shaved Women" "Bloody Revolutions" "Nagasaki Nightmare" "Big A Little A" "Rival Tribal Rebel Revel" "Sheep Farming in The Falklands" "How Does It Feel?" "The Immortal Death" "Don't Tell Me You Care" "Sheep Farming in The Falklands" "Gotcha" "You're Already Dead" "Nagasaki is Yesterday's Dog-End" "Don't Get Caught" "Smash The Mac" "Do They Owe Us a Living?"
Tracks 1-3 are from an early recording session on February 27, 1978. Tracks 4 and 5 are from the "Reality Asylum" single, released in 1979. Track 6 is from the "Bloody Revolutions / Persons Unknown" split single with Poison Girls, released in 1980. Tracks 7 and 8 are from the "Nagasaki Nightmare" single, released 1980. Track 9 is from the "Rival Tribal Rebel Revel" flexi-single, released in 1980. Track 10 is from an anti-war flexi-single released anonymously in 1982. Tracks 11-13 are from the "How Does It Feel?" single, released in 1982. Tracks 14 and 15 are from the "Sheep Farming in The Falklands" single, released in 1983. Tracks 16-18 are from the band's final single, "You're Already Dead", released in 1984. Track 19 is unreleased. Track 20 was recorded live at the band's final gig at Aberdare in 1984
Chipping Ongar is a small market town in the civil parish of Ongar, in the Epping Forest district of the county of Essex, England. It is located 6 miles east of Epping, 7 miles southeast of Harlow and 7 miles northwest of Brentwood. For population details taken at the 2011 Census see under the civil parish of Ongar; the name "Ongar" means "grass land". "Chipping" is from Old English cēping, "a market, a market-place", akin to Danish "købing" and Swedish "köping". Ongar was an important market town in the Medieval era, at the centre of a hundred and has the remains of a Norman castle; the Church of England parish church, St Martin's dates from the 11th century and shows signs of Norman work. A small window in the chancel is believed to indicate the existence of an anchorite's cell in medieval times; the Gothic Revival architect C. C. Rolfe added the south aisle in 1884. David Livingstone lived in Chipping Ongar on the High Street in 1838; the civil parish of Chipping Ongar was abolished in 1965 and a new parish of Ongar was created which incorporated the former area of the Greensted and Shelley civil parishes.
The parish was part of Epping and Ongar Rural District until 1974 when it became part of the Epping Forest District. St. Andrew's Parish Church in Greensted is 2 miles west of Ongar, it is believed to be the oldest wooden church in the world. Several of the small private-sector businesses that operated through to the closing decades of the 20th century have closed down or relocated as the economic focus of the region has been redirected since the opening of the M11 motorway in the 1970s, to larger towns in west Essex Harlow and Brentwood. Local planning policies have focused on residential development, Ongar, like many of the smaller towns in the green belt round London, can be viewed as a dormitory town for commuters to London, Brentwood and Chelmsford. However, the single-track railway branch line that connected Ongar to Epping, operated by the London Underground, was closed down in 1994. Ongar retains a range of retail shops. Jane Taylor, who wrote the words of Twinkle Twinkle Little Star, is buried at the United Reformed Church in Ongar.
There is a memorial window to Father Thomas Byles in St Helens Catholic Church. He was parish priest in Chipping Ongar from 1905 and perished on the Titanic in 1912, refusing to leave in a lifeboat and staying to pray with the remaining passengers. Ongar Grammar School in Chipping Ongar, a private school for boys, was opened as a boarding school in 1811 by William Stokes M. A. By 1845 the school was known as'Ongar Academy', but not connected to an Academy school in the 21st century sense, known as a private grammar school by 1874, Chignell Grammar School by 1882, was closed in 1940, before the introduction of secondary education under the Education Act 1944 and the Tripartite System. Not to be confused with RAF Chipping Ongar, RAF Station Chipping Ongar is a former World War II airfield in Essex, England; the airfield is 2 miles northeast of Chipping Ongar. Opened in 1943, it was used by both United States Army Air Forces. During the war it was used as a bomber airfield. After the war it was closed in 1959 after many years of being a reserve airfield.
Chipping Ongar Infant School located in Victoran school buildings off the High Street was re-located in the mid-1980s, merging with Chipping Ongar Junior School at Greensted Road, at the southern edge of the town, forming Chipping Ongar Primary School. A further primary school, Ongar Primary School, is beyond the northern end of Chipping Ongar in Shelley. Within Shelley is The Ongar Academy which provides secondary education for Ongar. Chipping Ongar is located at the convergence of several old roads, being between Chelmsford and Epping on an east-west axis and between Dunmow and Chigwell on a north-south axis. To the southeast lies Brentwood, on the old road to the former River Thames ferry crossing at Tilbury, though the building in the 1970s of the M11 and M25 motorways means that Ongar is no longer directly on a principal route for petrol tankers travelling from the current Dartford Crossing and the Thames Estuary oil refineries; the civil parish of Ongar, which has a town council, includes from north-to-south Shelley, Chipping Ongar and Marden Ash, with Greensted to the southwest.
The central part of Ongar High Street comprises a widened main street of the type found in many older English towns whose status as market towns is believed to have originated during the Saxon period. This historic thoroughfare is lined with over 70 listed buildings and protected by the Chipping Ongar Conservation Area, one of the first to be designated by Essex County Council nearly 50 years ago; the wide high street is used to permit some'no charge' short term parking that benefits the local shops. The high street does however retain a narrow stretch, with shops and houses either side close to the road due to pavement, adequate for two people to pass each other. Much of the surrounding countryside is occupied by large mechanised farms devoted for the most part, to arable agriculture. During the 20th century the proximity of London encouraged dairy farming, but the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s were characterised by the removal of hedges and an increase in average field sizes as cattle numbers diminished.
N. A. Palmer
Andrew "Andy" Palmer known as N. A. Palmer, is a British musician and artist, he was the rhythm guitarist for anarcho punk band Crass. Palmer plays on all their albums and singles, he played his guitar in an unusual way: his left hand would be sliding over the fretboard while he strummed the strings with his right thumb, using the instrument to produce'drone' or percussive sounds. He hardly played conventional chords and never a solo. Palmer was responsible for the artwork for some of the albums released by Crass Records, such as The Eye by KUKL and The Fucking Cunts Treat Us Like Pricks by Flux Of Pink Indians, he left Crass after a concert in Aberdare, Wales. This catalysed the affirmation of Crass' stated intention to split up in 1984, the band stopped performing and recording. Palmer returned to his art college studies. Between 1985 and 1990, he studied at the Royal College of Art, his paintings are exhibited. He collaborated with former Crass members as part of the 2002'Voices In Opposition To War' event at the Queen Elizabeth Hall on London's South Bank, performing three songs with Eve Libertine and jazz guitarist Phil Robson.
Apart from this he has chosen not to participate in, nor contribute to, any further Crass related activities or projects, including books and documentaries about the band. The Feeding of the 5000 The Feeding of the 5000 - Second Sitting Stations Of The Crass Penis Envy Christ - The Album Yes Sir, I Will Best Before 1984 "Reality Asylum / Shaved Women" "You Can Be You" "Bloody Revolutions / Persons Unknown" "Tribal Rival Rebel Revels" "Nagasaki Nightmare / Big A Little A" "Sheep Farming In The Falklands / Gotcha" "How Does It Feel To Be The Mother Of 1000 Dead? / The Immortal Death" "Whodunnit?", pressed in "shit coloured vinyl") "You're Already Dead / Nagasaki is Yesterday's Dog-End / Don't get caught" Christ: The Bootleg You'll Ruin It For Everyone
Perth is a city in central Scotland, on the banks of the River Tay. It is the administrative centre of Perth and Kinross council area and the historic county town of Perthshire, it has a population of about 47,180. Perth has been known as The Fair City since the publication of the story Fair Maid of Perth by Scottish writer Sir Walter Scott in 1828. During the medieval period the city was called St John's Toun or Saint Johnstoun by its inhabitants in reference to the main church dedicated to St John the Baptist; this name is preserved by the city's football teams, St Johnstone F. C. There has been a settlement at Perth since prehistoric times, on a natural mound raised above the flood plain of the Tay, where the river could be crossed at low tide; the area surrounding the modern city is known to have been occupied since Mesolithic hunter-gatherers arrived more than 8,000 years ago. Nearby Neolithic standing stones and circles exist, dating from about 4000 BC, following the introduction of farming in the area.
The presence of Scone Abbey, home of the Stone of Scone where the King of Scots was crowned, enhanced the early importance of the city. Perth became known as a ` capital' of Scotland. Royal Burgh status was soon given to the city by King William the Lion in the early 12th century; the city became one of the richest burghs in the country, doing trade with France, the Low Countries and Baltic Countries for goods such as Spanish silk and French wine. The Scottish Reformation played a big role in the city with the sacking of the Houses of the Greyfriars and Blackfriars, after a sermon given by John Knox in St John's Kirk in 1559; the Act of Settlement brought about Jacobite uprisings. The city was occupied by Jacobite supporters on three occasions; the founding of Perth Academy in 1760 helped to bring major industries, such as linen, leather and whisky, to the city. Given its location, Perth was placed to become a key transport centre with the coming of the railways, its first station was built in 1848.
Today, Perth serves as a retail centre for the surrounding area. Following the decline of the whisky industry locally, the city's economy has now diversified to include insurance and banking. Due to its location, the city is referred to as the "Gateway to the Highlands". Perth in Australia and Perth in Canada are both named after Perth in Scotland. Perth is twinned with Aschaffenburg in the German state of Bavaria; the name Perth derives from a Pictish word for copse. During much of the medieval period it was known colloquially by its Scots-speaking inhabitants as "St John's Toun" or "Saint Johnstoun" because the church at the centre of the parish was dedicated to St John the Baptist. Perth was referred to as "St Johns ton" up until the mid-1600s with the name "Perthia" being reserved for the wider area. At this time, "Perthia" became. Perth's Pictish name, some archaeological evidence, indicate that there must have been a settlement here from earlier times at a point where a river crossing or crossings coincided with a raised natural mound on the west bank of the Tay, thus giving some protection for settlement from the frequent flooding.
Finds in and around Perth show that it was occupied by the Mesolithic hunter-gatherers who arrived in the area more than 8,000 years ago. Nearby Neolithic standing stones and circles followed the introduction of farming from about 4000 BC, a remarkably well preserved Bronze age log boat dated to around 1000 BC was found in the mudflats of the River Tay at Carpow to the east of Perth; the presence of Scone two miles northeast, the main royal centre of the Kingdom of Alba from at least the reign of Kenneth I mac Ailpín the site of the major Augustinian abbey of the same name founded by Alexander I, enhanced Perth's early importance. Perth was considered the effective'capital' of Scotland, due to the frequent residence of the royal court. Royal Burgh status was soon awarded to the city from King William the Lion in the early 12th century. During the 12th and 13th centuries, Perth was one of the richest trading burghs in the kingdom, residence of numerous craftsmen, organised into guilds. Perth carried out an extensive trade with France, The Low Countries and the Baltic Countries with luxury goods being brought back in return, such as Spanish silk and French pottery and wine.
The royal castle, was destroyed by a flood of the Tay in 1209, one of many that have afflicted Perth over the centuries. It was never rebuilt and Perth was protected at this time only by partial walls and an inventive water system consisting of a Mill lade from the River Almond which divided and flowed to the North on one side and the West and South on the other joining the Tay. King Edward I brought his armies to Perth in 1296 and with only a ditch for defence and little fortification, the city fell quickly. Stronger fortifications were implemented by the English, plans to wall the city took shape in 1304, they remained standing until Robert the Bruce's recapture of Perth in 1312. As part of a plan to make Perth a permanent English base within Scotland, Edward III forced six monasteries in Perthshire and Fife to pay for the construction of stone defensive walls and fortified gates around the city in 1336; these defences were the strongest of any city in Scotland in
Crass were an English art collective and punk rock band formed in 1977 who promoted anarchism as a political ideology, a way of life and a resistance movement. Crass popularised the anarcho-punk movement of the punk subculture, advocating direct action, animal rights, anti-fascism, environmentalism; the band used and advocated a DIY ethic approach to its albums, sound collages and films. Crass spray-painted stencilled graffiti messages in the London Underground system and on advertising billboards, coordinated squats and organised political action; the band expressed its ideals by dressing in black, military-surplus-style clothing and using a stage backdrop amalgamating icons of perceived authority such as the Christian cross, the swastika, the Union Jack and the ouroboros. The band was critical of the punk youth culture in general; the anarchist ideas that they promoted have maintained a presence in punk. Due to their free experimentation and use of tape collages, spoken word releases and improvisation, they have been associated with avant-punk and art punk.
The band was based around Dial House, an open-house community near Epping and formed when Dial House founder Penny Rimbaud began jamming with Steve Ignorant. Ignorant was inspired to form a band after seeing The Clash perform at Colston Hall in Bristol, whilst Rimbaud, a veteran of avant garde performance art groups such as EXIT and Ceres Confusion, was working on his book Reality Asylum, they produced "So What?" and "Do They Owe Us A Living?" as a drum-and-vocal duo. They called themselves Stormtrooper before choosing Crass in reference to a line in the David Bowie song "Ziggy Stardust". Other friends and household members joined, Crass played their first live gig at a squatted street festival in Huntley Street, North London, they planned to play five songs. Guitarist Steve Herman left the band soon afterwards, was replaced by Phil Clancey, aka Phil Free. Joy De Vivre and Eve Libertine joined around this time. Other early Crass performances included a four-date tour of New York City, a festival gig in Covent Garden and regular appearances with the U.
K. Subs at The White Lion and Action Space in central London; the latter performances were poorly attended: "The audience consisted of us when the Subs played and the Subs when we played". Crass played two gigs at the Roxy Club in London. According to Rimbaud, the band were ejected from the stage. After the incident the band took themselves more avoiding alcohol and cannabis before shows and wearing black, military surplus-style clothing on and offstage, they introduced a logo designed by Rimbaud's friend Dave King. This gave the band a militaristic image. Crass countered that their uniform appearance was intended to be a statement against the "cult of personality", so no member would be identified as the "leader". Conceived and intended as cover artwork for a self-published pamphlet version of Rimbaud's Christ's Reality Asylum, the Crass logo was an amalgam of several "icons of authority" including the Christian cross, the swastika, the Union Jack and a two-headed Ouroboros. Using such deliberately mixed messages was part of Crass' strategy of presenting themselves as a "barrage of contradictions", challenging audiences to "make your own fucking minds up".
This included using loud, aggressive music to promote a pacifist message, a reference to their Dadaist, performance-art backgrounds and situationist ideas. The band eschewed elaborate stage lighting during live sets, preferring to play under 40-watt household light bulbs, they pioneered multimedia presentation, using video technology to enhance their performances, distributed leaflets and handouts explaining anarchist ideas to their audiences. Crass' first release was The Feeding of the 5000 in 1978. Workers at the record-pressing plant refused to handle it due to the blasphemous content of the song "Asylum", the record was released without it. In its place were two minutes of silence, entitled "The Sound of Free Speech"; this incident prompted Crass to set up their own independent record label, Crass Records, to prevent Small Wonder from being placed in a compromising position and to retain editorial control over their material. A re-recorded, extended version of "Asylum", renamed "Reality Asylum", was shortly afterwards released on Crass Records as a 7" single and Crass were investigated by the police due to the song's lyrics.
The band were interviewed at their Dial House home by Scotland Yard's vice squad, threatened with prosecution. "Reality Asylum" retailed at 45p, was the first example of Crass' "pay no more than..." policy: issuing records as inexpensively as possible. The band failed to factor value added tax into their expenses, causing them to lose money on every copy sold. A year Crass Records released new pressings of "The Feeding of the 5000", resto
Anarcho-punk is punk rock that promotes anarchism. The term "anarcho-punk" is sometimes applied to bands that were part of the original anarcho-punk movement in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s and early 1980s; some use the term more broadly to refer to any punk music with anarchist lyrical content, which may figure in crust punk, hardcore punk, folk punk, other styles. Some protopunk bands of the late 1960s had anarchist members, such as the German blues rock band Ton Steine Scherben and English bands connected to the UK underground, such as Hawkwind, Pink Fairies, The Deviants and the Edgar Broughton Band; these bands, along with Detroit's MC5, set a precedent for mixing radical politics with rock music, established the idea of rock as agent of social and political change in the public consciousness. Other precursors to anarcho-punk include avant-garde art and political movements such as Fluxus, the Beat generation, England's angry young men, the surrealism-inspired Situationist International, the May 1968 uprising in Paris, the CND.
Jello Biafra of the Dead Kennedys has cited the Yippies as an influence on his activism and thinking. A surge of popular interest in anarchism occurred during the 1970s in the United Kingdom following the birth of punk rock, in particular the Situationist-influenced graphics of Sex Pistols artist Jamie Reid, as well as that band's first single, "Anarchy in the U. K.". However, while the early punk scene appropriated anarchist imagery for its shock or comedy value or at best as a desire for hedonist personal freedom, Crass along with neighbours Poison Girls may have been the first punk bands to expound serious anarchist ideas; the concept of anarcho-punk was picked up on by bands like Flux of Pink Indians, Subhumans and Conflict. While anarcho-punk bands have been ideologically varied, most groups could be categorized as adhering to anarchism without adjectives, in that it embraces the syncretic fusion of many differing ideological strains of anarchism; some anarcho-punks identified with anarcha-feminists.
Many anarcho-punks are supporters of issues such as animal rights, racial equality, gay rights, environmentalism, anti-corporatism, worker's autonomy, the anti-war movement, the anti-globalisation movement. Anarcho-punks have criticized the perceived flaws of the punk movement and the wider youth culture in general. Bands like Crass and Dead Kennedys have written songs that attack corporate co-option of the punk subculture, people who are deemed to have sold out, the violence between punks, skinheads, B-boys and other youth subcultures and within punk itself; some anarcho-punks are straight edge, claiming that alcohol, tobacco and promiscuity are instruments of oppression and are self-destructive because they cloud the mind and wear down a person's resistance to other types of oppression. Some condemn the waste of land and resources necessary to grow crops to make alcohol and drugs, forfeiting the potential to grow and manufacture food; some may be straight edge for religious reasons, such as in the case of Christian, Buddhist anarcho-punks.
Although Crass espoused pacifism, this is not the case for all anarcho-punks. Despite the broader punk subculture's antagonism towards hippies, the ideals of the hippie counterculture were an influence on anarcho-punk. Crass were explicit regarding their associations with the hippie counterculture, this influence has carried over to crust punk. Anarcho-punks universally believe in direct action, although the way in which this manifests itself varies greatly. Despite their differences in strategy, anarcho-punks co-operate with each other. Many anarcho-punks are pacifists and therefore believe in using non-violent means of achieving their aims; these include peaceful protest, refusal of work, economic sabotage, dumpster diving, culture jamming, freeganism, civil disobedience and subvertising. Some anarcho-punks believe that violence or property damage is an acceptable way of achieving social change; this manifests itself as rioting, wire cutting, hunt sabotage, participation in Animal Liberation Front-, Earth Liberation Front, or Black Bloc-style activities, in extreme cases and bombings.
Many anarchists dispute the applicability of the term "violence" to describe destruction of property, since they argue that destruction of property is done not to control an individual or institution but to take its control away. Many anarcho-punk bands subscribe to a do-it-yourself ethic. A popular anarcho-punk slogan is a conscious rejection of a major record company. Many anarcho-punk bands were showcased on the Bullshit Detector series of LPs released by Crass Records and Resistance Productions between 1980 and 1994; some anarcho-punk performers were part of the cassette culture. In this way, an attempt was made to bypass the traditional recording and distribution routes, with recordings being made available in exchange for a blank tape and a self-addressed envelope; the anarcho-punk movement has its own network of fanzines or punk zines which disseminates news and artwork from the scene. These are DIY productions; the zines are printed on photocopiers or duplicator machines, distributed by hand at punk concerts, in radical bookstores and infoshops, through the mail.
Speaking anarcho-punk bands are less focused on particular musical delivery and more on a