Tian Feng, courtesy name Yuanhao, was an advisor to the warlord Yuan Shao in the late Eastern Han Dynasty. After defeating Gongsun Zan and absorbing many of his forces, Yuan Shao intended to invade the capital, Tian, along with Ju Shou objected to Yuans plan. However Shen Pei and Guo Tu objected to Tian and Ju, Yuan refused to heed Tians advice and imprisoned him on pretext of lowering the troops morale. Tian is proven to have analyzed the situation correctly, in the field, Yuan failed to do anything due to his indecisiveness while his commanders were too busy with the hostilities among themselves. After hearing that Cao Cao diverted his troops to invade Liu Bei, Yuan did not want to raise the troops since his son was sick. Disappointed, Tian exclaimed It is such a pity, just as a unique opportunity presents itself, everything is spoiled by the illness of a child. When Liu Bei was defeated, Yuan Shao wanted to attack Cao Cao for the second time, Tian tried to stop Yuan, reasoning that the golden opportunity had passed.
For his advice, he was imprisoned again, the resulting battle between Yuan and Cao was known as the Battle of Guandu. This decisive battle resulted in Yuans disastrous defeat, upon hearing Yuan Shaos defeat, the warden on the prison thought that Yuan will come to his senses and free Tian because his wise words proved to be correct. However, Tian said The Imperial Protector appears liberal on the outside but is small-minded and insecure on the inside, he is jealous, had he been victorious, he might have pardoned me. Now that he has defeated and put to shame, I do not hope to live. When Yuan returned, he was told by another advisor Pang Ji that Tian had been laughing at Yuans defeat, Yuan was furious and ordered Tian to be executed. Tian was told of his fate and chose to commit suicide, before Tian committed suicide, he said An able person born into this world who does not recognize and serve the right lord is ignorant. Today I die, but I am not deserving of pity, list of people of the Three Kingdoms Luo Guanzhong, tr.
Xuchang is a prefecture-level city in central Henan province in Central China. It borders the capital of Zhengzhou to the northwest, Kaifeng to the northeast, Zhoukou to the east, Luohe to the southeast. Its population was 4,307,488 inhabitants at the final 2010 census, of whom 1,952,666 lived in the area made up of Weidu district, Xuchang county. In 2007, the city was named as one of Chinas top ten cities by Chinese Cities Brand Value Report. The prefecture-level city of Xuchang administers 2 district,2 county-level cities and 2 counties, in ancient times, the city occupied a strategic location in central China. Xuchang served as the warlord Cao Caos de facto capital during the late Eastern Han Dynasty, after finding the old capital Luoyang ravaged by war, Cao moved the imperial court and Emperor Xian to what is now Xuchang in 196. In 220, Cao Caos son and successor Cao Pi officially declared the city as the capital of the established state of Cao Wei. The city was renamed Xuchang, meaning Xu Rising, the Wei emperors held court at Xuchang until the capital was moved to Luoyang in the 220s.
Xuchang ranges in latitude from 33°16 to 34°24 N and in longitude from 113°03 to 114°190 E. Xuchang has a humid subtropical climate. Winters are cool and dry, summers hot and humid, spring begins early and is warm, rain mainly falls from May to September, as more than 70% of the annual precipitation occurs then. The city has a mean temperature of at 14.5 °C, and its highest average monthly temperature is 27.1 °C in July. Just over 700 millimetres of precipitation each year, and there is on average 217 frost-free days and 2280 hours of sunshine per year. Xuchang is an important center of the Chinese tobacco industry, due to economic reasons many farmers have chosen not to plant tobacco anymore. The city is famous for its man-made human hair exports. Xuchang University is in the city, famous tourist attractions include Baling Bridge and Chunqiu Tower. On 18 December 2006, the Oromia Region government in Ethiopia signed an agreement with Henan Province to establish a city program with Ambo. Bolingbrook, Illinois is a city of Xuchang
Youzhou or You Prefecture is a place name for an ancient zhou or prefecture in northern China. A prefecture as a subdivision in Chinese history was at various times either the size of a province or sub-provincial unit known as commandery. The prefectural capital was the City of Ji in modern Beijing and this prefecture continued to be centered in northern Hebei through the Three Kingdoms and Western Jin Dynasty. In the Sixteen Kingdoms period, several of the kingdoms that ruled northern China used Youzhou to name commandery-sized prefectures in their domain, when northern China was unified under a single sovereign during the Northern Dynasties, Youzhou became a commandery-sized prefecture based in modern Beijing. During the Sui Dynasty, prefecture as a level of administration was not used, Youzhou was revived during the Tang Dynasty as a smaller, commandery prefecture and became synonymous with the city that was Beijing during that era. In the Five Dynasties period, Youzhou was one of Sixteen Prefectures ceded to the Khitans of Manchuria, the name Youzhou was no longer used.
According to several ancient texts from the Warring States period, Youzhou was one of the Nine Provinces of ancient China, Ancient Chinese histories use the Nine Provinces to describe the geographic division of China during the two earliest Chinese dynasties, the Xia and the Shang. Subsequent texts describe as Youzhou as one of the Twelve Provinces of Ancient China, the Book of Han, completed in 111 AD, lists Youzhou as one of the Twelve Ancient Provinces. Youzhou as a unit, was first instituted in 106 BC during the Han Dynasty. Until then, the described as Youzhou in the ancient texts correspond to the State of Yan. In 106 BC, Emperor Wu of Han organized the Western Han Dynasty into 13 province-sized prefectures, Youzhou comprised the Shanggu, Guangyang, Bohai, Right Beiping, Liaodong and Lelang Commanderies. Altogether the eleven commanderies contained 173 counties, the prefectural seat was the City of Ji in Guangyang Commandery, which is part of modern Beijing Municipality. Youzhou was bordered by Bingzhou in the west and Qingzhou in the south, Korea in the east and the steppes in the north.
In the Eastern Han Dynasty, Youzhou had ten commanderies—Zhuo, Shangu, Right Beiping, Liaoning, Xuantu and Guangyang, the City of Ji in Yan Principality, continued to serve as prefectural capital. Toward the end of the Han Dynasty, Yellow Turban Rebellion erupted in Hebei in 184 AD, the court relied on regional militaries to put down the rebellion and Youzhou was controlled successively by warlords Liu Yu, Gongsun Zan, Yuan Shao, Yuan Xi and Cao Cao. In 192, Liu Yu was overthrown by his subordinate Gongsun Zan, two years later, Gongsun Zan was driven out of Ji by Yuan Shao with the help of Wuhuan and Xianbei allies from the steppes. After Yuan Shao lost supremacy of North China to Cao Cao in the Battle of Guandu in 200 AD, Cao Cao eventually defeated the Wuhuan in 207 AD and pacified North China. During the Three Kingdoms, the Kingdom of Wei founded by Cao Cao’s son, controlled ten of the Han Dynastys prefectures including Youzhou, in 238, Sima Yis Liaodong campaign against Gongsun Yuan extended the eastern reach of Youzhou to Liaodong
Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in Central China. It is a city in western Henan province. It borders the capital of Zhengzhou to the east, Pingdingshan to the southeast, Nanyang to the south, Sanmenxia to the west, Jiyuan to the north. Situated on the plain of China, Luoyang is one of the cradles of Chinese civilization. The name Luoyang originates from the location on the north or sunny side of the Luo River. Since the river flows from west to east and the sun is to the south of the river, Luoyang has had several names over the centuries, including Luoyi and Luozhou, though Luoyang has been its primary name. It has been called, during various periods, Xijing, during the rule of Wu Zetian, the city was known as Shendu The greater Luoyang area has been sacred ground since the late Neolithic period. This area at the intersection of the Luo river and Yi River was considered to be the center of China. Because of this aspect, several cities – all of which are generally referred to as Luoyang – have been built in this area.
In 2070 BC, the Xia Dynasty king Tai Kang moved the Xia capital to the intersection of the Luo and Yi, in 1600 BC, Tang of Shang defeated Jie, the final Xia Dynasty king, and built Western Bo, a new capital on the Luo River. The ruins of Western Bo are located in Luoyang Prefecture, in the 1136 BC a settlement named Chengzhou was constructed by the Duke of Zhou for the remnants of the captured Shang nobility. The Duke moved the Nine Tripod Cauldrons to Chengzhou from the Zhou Dynasty capital at Haojing, a second Western Zhou capital, Wangcheng was built 15 km west of Chengzhou. Wangcheng became the capital of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty in 771 BC, the Eastern Zhou Dynasty capital was moved to Chengzhou in 510 BC. Later, the Eastern Han Dynasty capital of Luoyang would be built over Chengzhou, modern Luoyang is built over the ruins of Wangcheng, which are still visible today at Wangcheng Park. In 25 AD, Luoyang was declared the capital of the Eastern Han Dynasty on November 27 by Emperor Guangwu of Han, for several centuries, Luoyang was the focal point of China.
In AD68, the White Horse Temple, the first Buddhist temple in China, was founded in Luoyang, the temple still exists, though the architecture is of origin, mainly from the 16th century. An Shigao was one of the first monks to popularize Buddhism in Luoyang, in 190 AD, Chancellor Dong Zhuo ordered his soldiers to ransack and raze the city as he retreated from the coalition set up against him by regional lords from across China. The court was moved to the more defensible western city of Changan
Romance of the Three Kingdoms
The story – part historical, part legend, and part mythical – romanticises and dramatises the lives of feudal lords and their retainers, who tried to replace the dwindling Han dynasty or restore it. The novel deals with the plots and military battles, Romance of the Three Kingdoms is acclaimed as one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature, it has a total of 800,000 words and nearly a thousand dramatic characters in 120 chapters. The novel is among the most beloved works of literature in East Asia and it is arguably the most widely read historical novel in late imperial and modern China. Myths from the Three Kingdoms era existed as oral traditions before written compilations, with their focus on the history of Han Chinese, the stories grew in popularity during the reign of the Mongol emperors of the Yuan dynasty. During the succeeding Ming dynasty an interest in plays and novels resulted in further expansions, the earliest written work to combine these stories was a pinghua, Sanguozhi Pinghua, published sometime between 1321 and 1323.
This version combined themes of legend and morality to appeal to the common people, elements of reincarnation and karma were woven into this version of the story. It was first printed in 1522 as Sanguozhi Tongsu Yanyi in an edition which bore a perhaps spurious preface date 1494, the text may well have circulated before either date in handwritten manuscripts. The novel includes material from Tang dynasty poetic works, Yuan dynasty operas and his own interpretation of elements such as virtue. The author combined this knowledge with a gift for storytelling to create a rich tapestry of personalities. Several versions of the expanded Sanguozhi are extant today, luo Guanzhongs version in 24 volumes, known as the Sanguozhi Tongsu Yanyi, is now held in the Shanghai Library in China, Tenri Central Library in Japan, and several other major libraries. Various 10-volume, 12-volume and 20-volume recensions of Luos text, made between 1522 and 1690, are held at libraries around the world. However, the standard text familiar to readers is a recension by Mao Lun.
Scholars have long debated whether the Maos viewpoint was anti-Qing or pro-Qing, the famous opening lines of the novel, The empire, long divided, must unite, long united, must divide. Thus it has ever been, long understood to be Luos introduction, none of the earlier editions contained this phrase. In addition, Mao added Yang Shens The Immortals by the River as the introductory poem. One of the greatest achievements of Romance of the Three Kingdoms is the complexity of its stories. The novel contains numerous secondary stories, the following consists of a summary of the central plot and some well-known highlights in the story. In the final years of the Eastern Han dynasty, treacherous eunuchs and villainous officials deceived the emperor, the government gradually became extremely corrupt on all levels, leading to widespread deterioration of the Han Empire
Huangdis cult became prominent in the late Warring States and early Han period, when he was portrayed as the originator of the centralized state, as a cosmic ruler, and as a patron of esoteric arts. A large number of texts – such as the Huangdi Neijing, a classic, and the Huangdi Sijing. To this day the Yellow Emperor remains a powerful nationalist symbol, in the Warring States period, the term di on its own could refer to the deities associated with the five sacred mountains and colors. Huangdi, the di, was one of the latter. The correlation of the colors in association with different dynasties was mentioned in the Lüshi Chunqiu, the character huang 黄 was often used in place of the homophonous huang 皇, which means august or radiant, giving Huangdi attributes close to those of Shangdi, the Shang supreme god. The Records of the Grand Historian, compiled by Sima Qian in the first century BCE, gives the Yellow Emperors name as Xuanyuan. Third-century scholar Huangfu Mi, who wrote a work on the sovereigns of antiquity, commented that Xuanyuan was the name of a hill where Huangdi had lived, qing-dynasty scholar Liang Yusheng argued instead that the hill was named after the Yellow Emperor.
Xuanyuan is the name of the star Regulus in Chinese and he is associated to the broader constellations Leo and Lynx, of which the latter is said to represent the body of the Yellow Dragon, Huangdis animal form. Huangdi was referred to as Youxiong and this name has been interpreted as either a place name or a clan name. According to British sinologist Herbert Allen Giles, that name was taken from that of hereditary principality. William Nienhauser, a translator of the Records of the Grand Historian, states that Huangdi was originally the head of the Youxiong clan. Rémi Mathieu, a French historian of Chinese myths and religion, translates Youxiong as possessor of bears, ye Shuxian has associated the Yellow Emperor with bear legends common across northeast Asia people as well as the Dangun legend. In Han-dynasty texts the Yellow Emperor is called upon as the Yellow God, certain accounts interpret him as the incarnation of the Yellow God of the Northern Dipper, another name of the universal god.
According to a definition in apocryphal texts related to the Hétú 河圖, as a cosmological deity, the Yellow Emperor is known as the Great Emperor of the Central Peak, and in the Shizi as the Yellow Emperor with Four Faces. His Records of the Grand Historian begins with the Yellow Emperor, throughout most of Chinese history, the Yellow Emperor and the other ancient sages were considered to be real historical figures. Their historicity started to be questioned in the 1920s by historians like Gu Jiegang, Yang Kuan, a member of the same historiographical current, noted that only in the Warring States period had the Yellow Emperor started to be described as the first ruler of China. Yang thus argued that Huangdi was a transformation of Shangdi. Also in the 1920s, French scholars Henri Maspero and Marcel Granet published critical studies of Chinas accounts of high antiquity, most scholars now agree that the Yellow Emperor originated as a god who was represented as a historical person
Hebei is a province of China in the North China region. Its one-character abbreviation is 冀, named after Ji Province, a Han Dynasty province that included what is now southern Hebei, the name Hebei literally means north of the river, referring to its location entirely to the north of the Huang He 黄河. Hebei was formed in 1928 after the government dissolved the province of Chihli. Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities, which each other, were carved out of Hebei. The province borders Liaoning to the northeast, Inner Mongolia to the north, Shanxi to the west, Henan to the south, Bohai Bay of the Yellow Sea is to the east. A common alternate name for Hebei is Yānzhào, after the state of Yan, plains in Hebei were the home of Peking man, a group of Homo erectus that lived in the area around 200,000 to 700,000 years ago. Neolithic findings at the prehistoric Beifudi site date back to 7000 and 8000 BC, during the Spring and Autumn period, Hebei was under the rule of the states of Yan in the north and Jin in the south.
Also during this period, a people known as Dí invaded the plains of northern China. During the Warring States period, Jin was partitioned, and much of its territory within Hebei went to Zhao, the Qin Dynasty unified China in 221 BC. The Han Dynasty ruled the area under two provinces, Youzhou Province in the north and Jizhou Province in the south, Hebei came under the rule of the Kingdom of Wei, established by the descendants of Cao Cao. After the invasions of nomadic peoples at the end of the Western Jin Dynasty, the chaos of the Sixteen Kingdoms. Hebei, firmly in North China and right at the frontier, changed hands many times, being controlled at various points in history by the Later Zhao, Former Yan, Former Qin. The Northern Wei reunified northern China in 440, but split in half in 534, with Hebei coming under the eastern half, the Sui Dynasty again unified China in 589. During the Tang Dynasty, the area was formally designated Hebei for the first time, during the earlier part of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Hebei was fragmented among several regimes, though it was eventually unified by Li Cunxu, who established the Later Tang.
During the Northern Song Dynasty, the sixteen ceded prefectures continued to be an area of hot contention between Song China and the Liao Dynasty. The Southern Song Dynasty that came after abandoned all of North China, including Hebei, the Mongol Yuan Dynasty divided China into provinces but did not establish Hebei as a province. Rather, the area was administrated by the Secretariat at capital Dadu. When the Manchu Qing Dynasty came to power in 1644, they abolished the southern counterpart, during the Qing Dynasty, the northern borders of Zhili extended deep into what is now Inner Mongolia, and overlapped in jurisdiction with the leagues of Inner Mongolia
Henan is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Its one-character abbreviation is 豫, named after Yuzhou, a Han Dynasty state that parts of Henan. Although the name of the province south of the river, approximately a quarter of the province lies north of the Yellow River. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou which literally means central plain land or midland, although the name is applied to the entirety of China proper. Henan is the birthplace of Chinese civilization with over 3,000 years of recorded history, and remained Chinas cultural, numerous heritages have been left behind including the ruins of Shang Dynasty capital city Yin and the Shaolin Temple. Four of the Eight Great Ancient Capitals of China, Anyang, with an area of 167,000 km2, Henan covers a large part of the fertile and densely populated North China Plain. Its neighbouring provinces are Shaanxi, Hebei, Anhui, Henan is Chinas third most populous province with a population of over 94 million.
If it were a country by itself, Henan would be the 12th most populous country in the world, behind Mexico, Henan is the 5th largest provincial economy of China and the largest among inland provinces. However, per capita GDP is low compared to eastern and central provinces. The economy continues to depend on its dwindling aluminum and coal reserves, as well as agriculture, heavy industry, high-tech industry and service sector is underdeveloped and is concentrated around Zhengzhou and Luoyang. Widely regarded as the Cradle of Chinese civilization along with Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces, Henan is known for its historical prosperity, the economic prosperity resulted from its extensive fertile plains and its location at the heart of the country. However, its location means that it has suffered from nearly all of the major wars in China. In addition, the floods of the Yellow River have caused significant damage from time to time. Kaifeng, in particular, has been buried by the Yellow Rivers silt seven times due to flooding, archaeological sites reveal that prehistoric cultures such as the Yangshao Culture and Longshan Culture were active in what is now northern Henan since the Neolithic Era.
The more recent Erlitou culture has been identified with the Xia Dynasty. Virtually the entire kingdom existed within what is now north and central Henan, the Xia Dynasty collapsed around the 16th century BC following the invasion of Shang, a neighboring vassal state centered around todays Shangqiu in eastern Henan. The Shang Dynasty was the first literate dynasty of China and its many capitals are located at the modern cities of Shangqiu and Zhengzhou. Their last and most important capital, located in modern Anyang, is where the first Chinese writing was created, in the 11th century BC, the Zhou Dynasty of Shaanxi arrived from the west and overthrew the Shang Dynasty
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second-longest river in Asia, following the Yangtze River, and the sixth-longest river system in the world at the estimated length of 5,464 km. Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai province of western China, it flows through nine provinces, the Yellow River basin has an east–west extent of about 1,900 kilometers and a north–south extent of about 1,100 km. Its total basin area is about 742,443 square kilometers and its basin was the birthplace of ancient Chinese civilization, and it was the most prosperous region in early Chinese history. Early Chinese literature including the Yu Gong or Tribute of Yu dating to the Warring States period refers to the Yellow River as simply 河, the first appearance of the name 黃河 is in the Book of Han written during the Eastern Han dynasty about the Western Han dynasty. The adjective yellow describes the color of the muddy water in the lower course of the river. One of its older Mongolian names was the Black River, because the river runs clear before it enters the Loess Plateau, in Mongolia itself, it is simply called the Šar Mörön.
In Qinghai, the rivers Tibetan name is River of the Peacock above sea level they are the two largest plateau freshwater lakes nationwide, flowing east at the eastern edge of the Amne Machin Mountains, the Yellow River enters Maqu County in Gansu. Here, the river skirts through the peat bog known as the Zoigê Wetlands. Flowing now along the edge of Amne Machin, the river reenters Qinghai. The valley section stretches from Longyang Gorge in Qinghai to Qingtong Gorge in Gansu, steep cliffs line both sides of the river. The water bed is narrow and the drop is large, so the flow in this section is extremely turbulent. There are 20 gorges in this section, the most famous of these being the Longyang, Liujia, the flow conditions in this section makes it the best location for hydroelectric plants. The Yellow River exits Qinghai for the second and final time in these gorges, downstream from the Yanguo Gorge, the provincial capital of Lanzhou is built upon the Yellow Rivers banks. The Yellow River flows northeasterly out of Gansu and into Ningxia before the Qingtong Gorge, after emerging from the Qingtong Gorge, the river comes into a section of vast alluvial plains, the Yinchuan Plain and Hetao Plain.
In this section, the regions along the river are mostly deserts and grasslands, the Hetao Plain has a length of 900 km and width of 30 to 50 km. It is historically the most important irrigation plain along the Yellow River, the Ordos Loop formed by an enormous twist of the Yellow River, beginning at Zhongning County in Ningxia and ending with a drastic eastward turn at its confluence with the Wei at Tongguan in Shaanxi. However, the division for the middle reaches of the river run from Hekou in Togtoh County, Inner Mongolia, to Zhengzhou. The middle reaches are 1,206 km long, with an area of 344,000 square kilometers,45. 7% of the total, with a total elevation drop of 890 m
Battle of Guandu
The Battle of Guandu was fought between the warlords Cao Cao and Yuan Shao in 200 AD in the late Eastern Han dynasty. The battle, which concluded with a victory for Cao Cao, was a turning point in the war between the two warlords. It marked the beginning of Cao Caos gradual reunification of northern China, from 196 onwards, it became increasingly obvious that an armed confrontation between the warlords Cao Cao and Yuan Shao was inevitable. Yuan Shao was in control of the north of the Yellow River, namely the Hebei region. Cao Cao controlled most of the south of the Yellow River and had the Emperor Xian with him in the new capital city of Xu. The warlords saw each other as the barrier to their ambitions to conquer. Thus, it seemed that a trial of strength between the two warlords was inevitable, some years before the battle, Yuan Shaos advisors Ju Shou and Tian Feng had foreseen that Cao Cao would become a threat to their lord in his ambition to dominate China. They advised Yuan Shao to start a campaign against Cao Cao when the latter was building up his forces.
Tension between Cao Cao and Yuan Shao started to build up after Cao Cao moved Emperor Xian from the old capital Luoyang, the geographical position of Guandu made it a militarily strategic position. It was near Yan Ford on the Yellow River and laid on the leading to the capital city Xu. Cao Cao recognized its importance and in the autumn of 199, he stationed troops there. Other deployments along the frontline included Liu Yan in Boma, Yu Jin in Yan Ford, Cheng Yu in Juancheng, and Xiahou Dun in Meng Ford. At the same time, Cao Cao sent Zang Ba to harass Qing Province, in the first month of 200, Liu Bei rebelled against Cao Cao and seized Xu Province after killing Che Zhou, Cao Caos appointed Inspector of Xu Province. Cao Cao, in a move, left his northern front exposed to Yuan Shao. Yuan Shao tried to use the opportunity to start a campaign south, but was daunted by Yu Jin, when Cao Cao returned to Guandu after his victory over Liu Bei, who sought refuge under Yuan Shao afterwards, Yuan Shao wished to renew the campaign against Cao Cao.
The aide-de-camp Tian Feng, who had urged Yuan Shao to attack Cao Cao while he was away, advised against such a campaign, reasoning that they had lost their chance, Yuan Shao ignored Tian Fengs repeated remonstrations and imprisoned him under charges of demoralizing the army. Shortly after, Yuan Shao had Chen Lin draft a document condemning Cao Cao in what is essentially a declaration of war, at the time, Yuan Shaos army boasted of numbers up to 110,000, including 10,000 cavalry. Yuan Shaos general Yan Liang crossed the Yellow River and attacked Cao Caos fort at Boma, besieging it