Francisco Tomás Morales
Francisco Tomás Morales, was a Spanish military, the last of that country to hold the post of Captain General of Venezuela, reaching the rank of field marshal during the Venezuelan War of Independence. As recounted in a series of letters distributed by the Philadelphia Gazette, in 1822 General Morales issued a decree interpreted by the American merchants in Caracas, La Guaira and Puerto Cabello as a threat; the Americans solicited the help of Capt. Robert T. Spence, whose frigate, the Cyane was in the area, to delay his departure for Africa to protect them from Morales. Spence complied for several days in October 1822, much to the relief of the Americans, at least briefly. Morales conceded defeat after the Battle of Lake Maracaibo in July 1823. Puerto Cabello, the last Royalist stronghold in Venezuela, fell to the independist forces in November 1823
Juan Crisóstomo Falcón
Juan Crisóstomo Falcón y Zavarce was President of Venezuela from 1863 to 1868. Member of the liberal Venezuelan Federalist Party, he first served as president of Venezuela as the supreme chief of a rebel movement in August 1859, but the rebellion was soon crushed, he served as the recognized president of Venezuela from 1863 to 1868, when a conservative revolution headed by General José Tadeo Monagas ended his term as president. He was overthrown in 1865. At the end of his presidential term, Falcón emigrated to Europe, he died in Martinique in 1870. The state of Falcón is named after him. In 1863 Venezuela, under the presidency of Juan Crisóstomo Falcon, became the first country to abolish capital punishment for all crimes, including serious offenses against the state. Falcón was married to Luisa Isabel Pachano Muñoz, who served as First Lady of Venezuela from 1863–1868. Ezequiel Zamora Federal War Battle of Santa Inés Presidents of Venezuela List of Venezuelans Works by or about Juan Crisóstomo Falcón at Internet Archive Biography
Venezuelan War of Independence
The Venezuelan War of Independence was one of the Spanish American wars of independence of the early nineteenth century, when independence movements in Latin America fought against rule by the Spanish Empire, emboldened by Spain's troubles in the Napoleonic Wars. The establishment of the Supreme Caracas Junta following the forced deposition of Vicente Emparan as Captain General of the Captaincy General of Venezuela on April 19, 1810, marked the beginnings of the war. On July 5, 1811, seven of the ten provinces of the Captaincy General of Venezuela declared their independence in the Venezuelan Declaration of Independence; the First Republic of Venezuela was lost in 1812 following the 1812 Caracas earthquake and the Battle of La Victoria. Simón Bolívar led an "Admirable Campaign" to retake Venezuela, establishing the Second Republic of Venezuela in 1813. Only as part of Bolívar's campaign to liberate New Granada in 1819-20 did Venezuela achieve a lasting independence from Spain. On 17 December 1819, the Congress of Angostura declared Gran Colombia an independent country.
After two more years of war, the country achieved independence from Spain in 1821 under the leadership of its most famous son, Simón Bolívar. Venezuela, along with the present-day countries of Colombia and Ecuador, formed part of the Republic of Gran Colombia until 1830, when Venezuela separated and became a sovereign state; the French invasion of Spain in 1808 led to the collapse of the Spanish Monarchy. Most subjects of Spain did not accept the government of Joseph Bonaparte, placed on the Spanish throne by his brother, Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte of France. At the same time, the process of creating a stable government in Spain, which would be recognized throughout the empire, took two years; this created a power vacuum in the Spanish possessions in America, which created further political uncertainty. On 19 April 1810 the municipal council of Caracas headed a successful movement to depose the Spanish Governor and Captain General, Vicente Emparán. A junta was established in Caracas, soon other Venezuelan provinces followed suit.
The reverberations of this act of independence could be felt throughout Venezuela immediately. Across Venezuela and cities decided to either side with the movement based in Caracas or not, de facto civil war ensued throughout much of Venezuela; the Caracas Junta called for a congress of Venezuelan provinces to establish a government for the region. Both the Junta and Congress upheld the "rights of Ferdinand VII," meaning that they recognized themselves to still be part of the Spanish Monarchy, but had established a separate government due to the French invasion of the Iberian Peninsula; as the Congress deliberated, a faction proposing outright independence won favor. Persons such as Francisco de Miranda, a long-term Venezuelan expatriate, Simón Bolívar, a young, Criollo aristocrat—both influenced by Age of Enlightenment ideas and the example of the French Revolution—led the movement; the Congress declared Venezuela's independence on 5 July 1811, establishing the Republic of Venezuela. Before the Congress began its sessions in November 1810, a civil war started between those who supported the juntas, independence, royalists who wanted to maintain the union with Spain.
Two provinces, Maracaibo Province and Guayana Province, one district, never recognized the Caracas Junta and remained loyal to the governments in Spain. Military expeditions to bring Coro and Guayana under the control of the Republic failed. In 1811 an uprising in Valencia against the Republic was suppressed. By 1812 the situation became aggravated for the young Republic, it was short of funds, Spanish Regency set up a blockade, shortly after, on 26 March 1812, a devastating earthquake affected republican areas. In these desperate moments, Miranda was given dictatorial powers he was unable to stem the royalist advance headed by Captain Domingo de Monteverde. By midyear, after the Battle of San Mateo, the Republic collapsed. Miranda capitulated to Monteverde and signed an armistice on 25 July 1812. Bolívar and other republicans continued the resistance from other parts of the Spanish South America and the Caribbean, or organized guerrilla movements in the interior of the country. In 1813 Bolívar joined the army of United Provinces of New Granada.
After winning a series of battles, Bolívar received the approval of the New Granadan Congress to lead a liberating force into Venezuela in what became known as the Admirable Campaign. At the same time, Santiago Mariño invaded from the northeast in an independently organized campaign. Both forces defeated the royalist troops in various battles, such as Alto de los Godos. Bolívar entered Caracas on 6 August 1813, proclaiming the restoration of the Venezuelan Republic and his supreme leadership of it, something, not recognized by Mariño based in Cumaná, although the two leaders did cooperate militarily. In the viceroyalties of La Plata and New Granada the Creoles displaced the Spanish authorities with relative ease, as Caracas had done at first; the autonomous movement swept through New Granada. Bogotá inherited the role of capital from Spain, but the royalists were entrenched in southern Colombia. Cali was a bastion of the independence movement just north of royalist territory. Cartagena declared independence not only from Spain but from Bogotá.
Bolívar arrived in Cartagena and was well received, as
José Antonio Páez
José Antonio Páez Herrera known as José Antonio Páez, was a Venezuelan leader who fought against the Spanish Crown for Simón Bolívar during the Venezuelan War of Independence. He led Venezuela's independence from Gran Colombia, he dominated the country's politics for most of the next two decades as the president of Venezuela once the country had achieved independence from Gran Colombia. He is considered a prime example of a 19th-century South American caudillo, he lived in Buenos Aires and New York City during his years in exile and died in the latter in 1873. Páez was born in Portuguesa State in Venezuela, his paternal grandmother, Luisa Antonia de Mendoza y Mota, was daughter of Luís Rodríguez de Mendoza, a native of Icod de los Vinos, Tenerife. He was of his father being a low level employee of the colonial government; as a boy he was forced to work like a slave. By the age of 20 Páez was earning a living by trading cattle. Late in 1810, he joined a cavalry squadron, led by a former employer, set up with the purpose of fighting the colonial government.
In 1813, he asked for leave from his squadron with the intent of setting and leading his own, which he did, joining the Western Republican Army with the rank of sergeant. Páez had an ingratiating personality which made him much liked amongst those who knew him, he was looked up to for his skills as a horseman and for his physical capabilities. Páez, a soldier at heart, started moving up the ranks by winning year after year several engagements against the royalists with his band of marauding llaneros, he came to be known by the nicknames of "El Centauro de los Llanos", "El León de Payara" or. Páez had been leading the fighting in the plains while Simón Bolívar was busy with the eastern part of the country. Early in 1818, both men met to discuss better coordination of their efforts, they combined their forces to fight Pablo Morillo. This campaign included an incident wherein Páez and fifty of his men swam on horseback across the alligator-ridden Apure River, seizing fourteen enemy boats in a rare instance of a cavalry attack defeating naval forces.
Páez was soon ordered to go back to the western plains, where he took from the Spanish the city of San Fernando in Apure. Páez won all of six major battles that he led by himself, the most celebrated one being the Battle of Las Queseras del Medio. Late in 1820, an armistice had been signed with the Spanish commander and a temporary suspension of hostilities had taken place. However, ongoing developments were making difficult to maintain the armistice and it was agreed it would lapse on 28 April 1821. All five major fighting groups of the Venezuelan army were to start moving towards a central area; some with the purpose of joining together in one single group and others with the intention of guarding the approach to that region to prevent royalists units from other far away areas from converging and reinforcing the main Spanish army stationed in the same area. In early June 1821, the 6,500 men republican army was organized in three divisions; the 1st division, made up of 2,500 men, was under Páez's command and formed by two battalions: Bravos de Apure and Cazadores Britanicos and seven cavalry regiments.
By 20 June, all three republican divisions converge from different directions in the plain of Carabobo. With the royalists well entrenched in the center and the south, on the morning of 21 June, Páez was given command of an additional cavalry regiment and ordered to take it together with his own division through the hills on the north side and into the plain and to engage the Spanish, while the 2nd division would stay behind Páez and the 3rd would remain in a defensive position waiting to engage the enemy in the center. On seeing Páez's men move, the Spanish commander, Miguel de la Torre, orders one of his elite battalions, the Burgos, to reinforce and defend the north flank; the Spanish so fiercely engage the Bravos de Apure battalion that it had to fall back on two occasions. Páez sent his Cazadores Britanicos to help the Bravos and together they fought back the Spanish, now reinforced themselves by two additional battalions; as the fighting intensified, de la Torre sent more troops to the north.
Páez sent his cavalry further north to outflank the Spanish and come down on the plain from behind. At this moment, the battle is going against the Spanish, who in desperation kept sending reinforcements. In the meantime, Páez's men were closing on falling Spanish from all sides; some of the Spanish battalions supposed to join and reinforce the engagement in the north, on seeing how their comrades are faring, decide to disobey orders and retreat. As it becomes evident that the republicans were winning the battle, the other divisions moved forward, but by now the bulk of the work had been done by Páez and his men. With the Battle of Carabobo, the military fate of the Spanish army in Venezuela was sealed; the victory was carried by Páez. Bolívar promoted him on site to General in Chief of the republican army. In the battle, the Spanish lost over 65% of their men; until it was taken by Páez and his men in 1823, this was the last Spanish stronghold in Venezuela territory. Following the Battle of Carabobo, Páez was named General Commander of the provinces of Caracas and Barinas.
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José Tadeo Monagas
José Tadeo Monagas Burgos was President of Venezuela 1847–1851 and 1855–1858, a hero of the Venezuelan War of Independence. In 1846, to head off the challenge from the Liberal Party, ex-President and kingmaker José Antonio Páez selected Monagas as Conservative candidate. Páez thought Monagas could be controlled but he gravitated toward the Liberals, dispersed the Congress. In 1848 Páez led a rebellion against Monagas but was defeated by General Santiago Mariño in the'Battle of the Araguatos', exiled; as a member of the Liberal Party, he abolished capital punishment for political crimes. The Liberal Party passed laws that abolished slavery, extended suffrage, limited interest rates. José Tadeo Monagas supported his brother José Gregorio for the presidency. José Tadeo Monagas and his brother José Gregorio Monagas combined rule 1847-1858 is referred to as the Monagas Dynasty or "Monagato". During José Tadeo's second term, the Monagas brothers attempted to end term limits and extend presidential terms to six-years, which instead ended with the overthrow of José Tadeo at the hands of Julián Castro and his Liberal and Conservative allies.
Monagas was married to Luisa Oriach Ladrón de Guevara, who served as First Lady of Venezuela from 1847 until 1851. She was First Lady again from 1855 until 1858. Presidents of Venezuela José Gregorio Monagas José Ruperto Monagas José Tadeo Monagas — Official biography. José Tadeo Monagas José Tadeo Monagas Biography
National Pantheon of Venezuela
The National Pantheon of Venezuela is a final resting place for national heroes. The Pantheon was created in the 1870s on the site of a ruined church on the northern edge of the old town of Caracas, Venezuela; the entire central nave is dedicated to Simón Bolívar, with the altar's place taken by the hero's bronze sarcophagus, while lesser luminaries are relegated to the aisles. The national pantheon's vault is covered with 1930s paintings depicting scenes from Bolívar's life, the huge crystal chandelier glittering overhead was installed in 1883 on the centennial of his birth; the Pantheon was reopened in 2013 after a 3 year long process of restoration. Cecilio Acosta. Writer and humanist.. José Ángel de Álamo. Doctor, leader of the Independence movement.. Francisco de Paula Alcántara. General in the War of Independence.. Demetrio Alfaro. Officer in the War of Independence.. Lisandro Alvarado. Doctor.. Raimundo Andueza. Lawyer and politician, father of President Raimundo Andueza Palacio.. Francisco Aranda.
Politician.. Juan Bautista Arismendi. Officer in the War of Independence.. Jesús María Aristeguieta. Military officer and politician in the War of Independence.. Carlos Arvelo. Doctor and politician.. Rafael Arvelo. Journalist.. Francisco de Paula Avendaño. Officer in the War of Independence.. Rafael María Baralt. Writer and historian. José Miguel Barceló. Military of the Federal War.. Pedro Bárcenas. Doctor and officer in the War of Independence.. Víctor Barret de Nazarís. Military and politician of the Federal War.. Renato Beluche. Sailor in the Venezuelan Navy during the War of Independence.. José Francisco Bermúdez. Officer in the War of Independence.. Pedro Bermúdez Cousín. Lawyer and politician.. Andrés Eloy Blanco. Poet and politician.. José Félix Blanco. Priest.. Manuel Blanco. Sailor who fought with both San Martín and Simón Bolívar.. Rufino Blanco Fombona. Writer and politician.. Simón Bolívar. Liberator of Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela.. Justo Bricéño. Officer in the War of Independence.. Mario Briceño Iragorry.
Historian and diplomat.. Domingo Briceño y Briceño. Lawyer and writer.. Luis Brión. Admiral of the Venezuelan Navy in the Independence War.. Blas Bruzual. Military and journalist.. Manuel Ezequiel Bruzual. Military and politician.. Lorenzo Bustillos. Officer in the War of Independence.. Luisa Cáceres de Arismendi. Patriot and Heroine of the Venezuelan War of Independence.. Josefa Venancio de la Encarnación Camejo. Heroine in the War of Independence. Francisco Carabaño Aponte. Officer in the War of Independence.. Teresa Carreño. Pianist and composer.. José de la Cruz Carrillo. Officer in the War of Independence.. Carlos Luis Castelli. Officer in the War of Independence.. Juan Francisco del Castillo. Lawyer and politician.. Pedro Camejo. Known by his nickname Negro Primero, hero of the War of Independence and fought with Simón Bolívar till his untimely death in the Battle of Carabobo. Cipriano Castro. Military and President of Venezuela.. Manuel Cedeño. Officer in the War of Independence.. Lino de Clemente. Official of the Venezuelan navy..
Agostino Codazzi. Military, scientist and cartographer.. Juan Fermín Colmenares. Military and politician at the Federal War.. Juan José Conde. Officer in the War of Independence.. José María Delgado Correa.. Manuel María Echeandía.. Juan Crisóstomo Falcón. Soldier and President of Venezuela.. León de Febres Cordero. Officer in the War of Independence.. Carmelo Fernández. Officer in the War of Independence.. Fernando Figueredo. Officer in the War of Independence.. Alejo Fortique. Politician and diplomat.. Argimiro Gabaldon. Politician, poet and guerillero.. Rómulo Gallegos. Writer and politician, President of Venezuela.. Juan Garcés. Soldier in the war of Independence.. José María García. Navy officer in the War of Independence.. Valentín García. Officer in the War of Independence.. Miguel Gil. Soldier in the War of Independence.. Francisco Esteban Gómez. Officer in the War of Independence.. José de Jesús González. Military leader of the Federal War.. Tomás Green.. Guaicaipuro. Indigenous chief.. Juan Bautista Guerra Carrillo.
Manuel María Guevara.. Antonio Leocadio Guzmán. Politician and journalist.. Antonio Guzmán Blanco. Military and President of Venezuela.. Tomás de Heres. Officer in the War of Independence.. Francisco Hurtado.. Andrés Ibarra. Officer in the War of Independence.. Diego Ibarra. Officer in the War of Independence.. Francisco de Ibarra. Priest.. Juan Domingo del Sacramento Infante. Bricklayer, constructor of the San
Guárico State is one of the 23 states of Venezuela. The state capital is San Juan de Los Morros. Guárico State covers a total surface area of 64,986 km2 and, in 2011, had a census population of 747,739, it is named for the Guárico River. During colonial Venezuela, the territory of Guárico State was part of the Venezuela Province; the province of Guárico was created as a province of Venezuela in 1848 by decree of President José Tadeo Monagas, following the Federal War, Guárico State was created as a state of Venezuela in 1864. In the late nineteenth century it was involved in a series of re-arrangements of Venezuelan states re-emerging as an independent state in 1899, its first capital was Calabozo, its second Ortiz, when the capital was moved to San Juan de los Morros. Camaguán Chaguaramas El Socorro Francisco de Miranda José Félix Ribas José Tadeo Monagas Juan Germán Roscio Julián Mellado Las Mercedes Leonardo Infante Ortiz Pedro Zaraza San Gerónimo de Guayabal San José de Guaribe Santa María de Ipire According to the 2011 Census, the racial composition of the population was: States of Venezuela John the Baptist Monument guarico.com.ve