Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral
The Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral is the main Catholic church in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It is located in the city center, overlooking Plaza de Mayo, on the corner of San Martín and Rivadavia streets, in the San Nicolás neighbourhood, it is the mother church of the primatial church of Argentina. The Cathedral of Buenos Aires was rebuilt several times since its humble origins in the 16th century; the present building is a mix of architectural styles, with an 18th-century nave and dome and a severe, 19th-century Neoclassical façade without towers. The interior keeps precious 18th-century statues and altarpieces, as well as abundant Neo-Renaissance and Neo-Baroque decoration. During the definitive foundation of Buenos Aires by Juan de Garay in 1580, part of a block facing the main square was reserved for the major church of the town; this is still the location of the current Cathedral, the last building in a series of previous churches that occupied the site. At the time of its foundation, the town depended on the diocese of Asunción.
The first main church of Buenos Aires was a modest building made of wood and adobe, was replaced by a new one in 1605 by Governor Hernandarias. This second building was in danger of collapse by 1616 and had to be rebuilt again, something, done around 1618. In 1620, Buenos Aires was made seat of a bishopric by Pope Paul V, its main church now had the status of a cathedral. After 1662, the cathedral was again rebuilt under bishop Cristóbal de la Mancha y Velazco and governor José Martínez de Salazar, being re-inaugurated in 1671; the cathedral now had three naves covered by a tower. Due to the bad quality of its building materials, the tower and the roof of this church fell down in the early 1680s; the whole church was again rebuilt, under bishop Azcona Imberto. In 1695 the building was finished, with the flanking towers of the façade and the sacristy still to be completed. In the early 18th century the works were slow, the first tower was finished only around 1721; the second tower was begun in 1722 and finished around 1725.
The main façade was redesigned between 1727 by the Italian Jesuit Giovanni Bianchi. The design of the new façade was directly inspired by Italian Mannerist architecture. On the night of May 23, 1752, the nave of the cathedral collapsed; the only portions still standing were the façade and towers, but the rest of the building needed to be rebuilt once again. Italian architect Antonio Masella was put in charge of the project, the works began in 1753. Masella designed a majestic church, much larger than the previous structure, with a three-aisled nave covered with barrel vaulting and lateral chapels. A dome was to sit over the crossing. Upon completion of the dome, fissures in the structure were detected and it had to be rebuilt. Masella was removed from the project and prosecuted by the authorities, although acquitted; the dome was rebuilt by Portuguese architect Manuel Álvarez de Rocha after 1770. The façade by Blanqui and the towers were demolished in 1778, since they were too small in comparison to the scale of the new cathedral.
An elegant project for a new façade with two flanking towers, combining Rococo and Neoclassical elements, was presented by the Portuguese military engineer José Custódio de Sá e Faria, but financial constraints prevented the realisation of the project. The cathedral was consecrated in 1791 without façade. Construction of a façade began in the early 19th century directed by Spanish architect Tomás Toribio, but the project did not advance much, it was only in 1821, under Governor Martín Rodríguez and his Minister Bernardino Rivadavia, that plans to complete the cathedral were taken seriously. Starting in 1826, French architects Prosper Catelin and Pierre Benoit built a new Neoclassical façade for the cathedral inspired by the Palais Bourbon in Paris. Construction was temporarily halted in 1827, when it resumed, progress was slow until its final completion; the façade of the building consists of a tall portico, inspired by Classical architecture, with twelve columns and a triangular pediment on top.
The portico lends the building the appearance of an ancient temple rather than a Catholic church. The original project did not call for towers to be built and though there were plans to build two towers, they were never materialized; the decoration of the facade was only finished between 1860 and 1863, when French sculptor Joseph Dubourdieu created the reliefs of the pediment. The scene represents the reunion of Joseph with his brothers and father Jacob in Egypt, was intended as an allegory of the unity of the Argentine nation after several fratricide wars. Dubourdieu completed the Corinthian capitals of the columns of the portico; the Cathedral of Buenos Aires is a Latin cross building with transept and three-aisles with side chapels connected by corridors. The interior was only decorated with altarpieces, but at the end of the 19th century the walls and ceilings of the church were decorated with frescoes depicting biblical scenes painted the Italian Francesco Paolo Parisi. In 1907, the floor of the cathedral was covered with Venetian-style mosaics designed by the Italian Carlo Morra.
Repair work for the entire floor was started in 2004 and completed in 2010. The cathedral still has some elements dating from colonial times; the most important is the main gilt wood altarpiece in Rococo style, dating from 1785 and executed by Spanish sculptor Isidro Lorea. The altarpiece occupies the main chapel and has a statue of the Virgin Mary and a representation of the Holy Trinity in its canopy. Another notable colonial sculpture is th
Cardinal (Catholic Church)
A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, an ordained bishop of the Catholic Church. The cardinals of the Church are collectively known as the College of Cardinals; the duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and making themselves available individually or in groups to the pope as requested. Most have additional duties, such as leading a diocese or archdiocese or managing a department of the Roman Curia. A cardinal's primary duty is electing the pope. During the sede vacante, the day-to-day governance of the Holy See is in the hands of the College of Cardinals; the right to enter the conclave of cardinals where the pope is elected is limited to those who have not reached the age of 80 years by the day the vacancy occurs. In 1059, the right of electing the pope was reserved to the principal clergy of Rome and the bishops of the seven suburbicarian sees. In the 12th century the practice of appointing ecclesiastics from outside Rome as cardinals began, with each of them assigned a church in Rome as his titular church or linked with one of the suburbicarian dioceses, while still being incardinated in a diocese other than that of Rome.
The term cardinal at one time applied to any priest permanently assigned or incardinated to a church, or to the senior priest of an important church, based on the Latin cardo, meaning "pivotal" as in "principal" or "chief". The term was applied in this sense as early as the ninth century to the priests of the tituli of the diocese of Rome. There is disagreement about the origin of the term, but the consensus that "cardinalis" from the word cardo was first used in late antiquity to designate a bishop or priest, incorporated into a church for which he had not been ordained. In Rome the first persons to be called cardinals were the deacons of the seven regions of the city at the beginning of the 6th century, when the word began to mean "principal," "eminent," or "superior." The name was given to the senior priest in each of the "title" churches of Rome and to the bishops of the seven sees surrounding the city. By the 8th century the Roman cardinals constituted a privileged class among the Roman clergy.
They took part in the papal liturgy. By decree of a synod of 769, only a cardinal was eligible to become bishop of Rome. Cardinals were granted the privilege of wearing the red hat by Pope Innocent IV in 1244. In cities other than Rome, the name cardinal began to be applied to certain church men as a mark of honour; the earliest example of this occurs in a letter sent by Pope Zacharias in 747 to Pippin III, ruler of the Franks, in which Zacharias applied the title to the priests of Paris to distinguish them from country clergy. This meaning of the word spread and from the 9th century various episcopal cities had a special class among the clergy known as cardinals; the use of the title was reserved for the cardinals of Rome in 1567 by Pius V. In the year 1563 the influential Ecumenical Council of Trent, headed by Pope Pius IV, wrote about the importance of selecting good Cardinals. According to this historic council "nothing is more necessary to the Church of God than that the holy Roman pontiff apply that solicitude which by the duty of his office he owes the universal Church in a special way by associating with himself as cardinals the most select persons only, appoint to each church most eminently upright and competent shepherds.
Traditions developed entitling certain monarchs, including those of Austria and France, to nominate one of their trusted clerical subjects to be created cardinal, a so-called crown-cardinal. In early modern times, cardinals had important roles in secular affairs. In some cases, they took on powerful positions in government. In Henry VIII's England, his chief minister was Cardinal Wolsey. Cardinal Richelieu's power was so great that he was for many years the ruler of France. Richelieu's successor was a cardinal, Jules Mazarin. Guillaume Dubois and André-Hercule de Fleury complete the list of the four great cardinals to have ruled France. In Portugal, due to a succession crisis, one cardinal, King of Portugal, was crowned king, the only example of a cardinal-king. While the incumbents of some sees are made cardinals, some countries are entitled to at least one cardinal by concordate, no see carries an actual right to the cardinalate, not if its bishop is a Patriarch. In 1059, Pope Nicholas II gave cardinals the right to elect the bishop of Rome in the papal bull In nomine Domini.
For a time this power was assigned to the cardinal bishops, but in 1179 the Third Lateran Council restored the right to the whole body of cardinals. In 1586 Pope Sixtus V limited the number of cardinals to 70: six cardinal bishops, 50 cardinal priests, 14 cardinal deacons. Pope John XXIII exceeded that limit citing the need to staff Church offices. In November 1970 in Ingravescentem aetatem, Pope Paul VI established that electors would be under t
Style (manner of address)
A style of office, honorific or manner/form of address, is an official or recognized form of address, may be used in conjunction with a title. A style, by tradition or law, precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or political office, is sometimes used to refer to the office itself. An honorific can be awarded to an individual in a personal capacity; such styles are associated with monarchies, where they may be used by a wife of an office holder or of a prince of the blood, for the duration of their marriage. They are almost universally used for presidents in republics and in many countries for members of legislative bodies, higher-ranking judges and senior constitutional office holders. Leading religious figures have styles. Traditional forms of address at German-speaking universities: His/Her Magnificence – rector of a university His/Her Notability – dean of a facultyTraditional forms of address at Dutch-speaking universities: His/Her Great Honour – rector magnificus of a university Highly Learned Sir/Madam – professor or dean of a faculty Well Very Learned Sir/Madam – a doctor Well Learned Sir/Madam – a doctorandus Well Strictly Sir/Madam – a master in laws or a university engineer Traditional forms of address at Italian-speaking universities: Magnificent Rector – rector of a university Amplified Headmaster – dean of a faculty Illustrious/Enlightened Professor – a full professor His Most Reverend Excellency – The Apostolic Nuncio, because his rank is equal to that of an ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary, he is a higher prelate.
His/Her Excellency – most Ambassadors, High Commissioners and Permanent Representatives to International Organizations. The Honorable – US Ambassadors. US Ambassadors are addressed as "Your Excellency" by non-US citizens outside the United States. His/Her Honour Judge X – Circuit judges in England and Wales. My Lord/Your Honour is used to address Judiciary representatives in India; the Honourable Mr./Ms. Justice X – Judges of the High Court of Justice of England and Wales; the Right Honourable Lord/Lady Justice X – Judge of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales. The Lord/Lady/Baroness X – Judges in the High Court of Justiciary and the Court of Session in Scotland, the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom; the Honorable – Judges and Justices in the United States. Oral address Your Excellency – Judges of the International Court of Justice. Oral address Your Worship – Justices of the Peace in the United Kingdom by solicitors. Oral address Your Worship – All courts in Australia. Oral address Your Honour – All courts in Australia.
Sire – Reigning Kings in the United Kingdom and in Belgium. It has been used in France, Germany, Portugal and Spain. His/Her Imperial Majesty, – Emperors and Empresses. For example, HIM the Shah of Iran. In modern times, the Emperor of Japan more uses the simpler style of "Majesty". His/Her Imperial and Royal Majesty – Until 1918, the rulers of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, who were Emperors/Empresses of Austria while Kings/Queens of Hungary, the German Emperors/Empresses, who were Kings/Queens of Prussia. His/Her Apostolic Majesty – the King of Hungary styled Imperial Majesty or Imperial and Royal Majesty as Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary sometimes Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty. His/Her Britannic Majesty – the British monarch. His/Her Most Gracious Majesty – an elaborate version of His/Her Majesty in the United Kingdom, only used in the most formal of occasions. His/Her Most Excellent Majesty – another elaborate vetsion of His/Her Majesty in the United Kingdom used in Acts of Parliament.
His/Her Catholic Majesty – the King of Spain. His/Her Most Christian Majesty – the King of France until 1790 and from 1815 to 1830. His/Her Faithful Majesty – the King of Portugal until deposed in 1910. His/Her Majesty – kings and some sultans. For example, HM Queen Elizabeth II, HM King Goodwill Zwelithini or HM King Willem-Alexander. His/Her Imperial Highness – members of an imperial house. Used by the Imperial House of Japan. His/Her Imperial and Royal Highness (ab