University of Buenos Aires
The University of Buenos Aires is the largest university in Argentina and the largest university by enrollment in Latin America. Founded on August 12, 1821 in the city of Buenos Aires, it consists of 13 departments, 6 hospitals, 10 museums and is linked to 4 high schools: Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires, Escuela Superior de Comercio Carlos Pellegrini, Instituto Libre de Segunda Enseñanza and Escuela de Educación Técnica Profesional en Producción Agropecuaria y Agroalimentaria. Entry to any of the available programmes of study in the university is open to anyone with a secondary school degree. Only upon completion of this first year may the student enter the chosen school; each subject is of one semester duration. If someone passes all 6 subjects in their respective semester, the CBC will take only one year. Potential students of economics, take a 2-year common cycle, the "CBG", comprising 12 subjects; the UBA has no central campus. A centralized Ciudad Universitaria was started in the 1960s, but contains only two schools, with the others at different locations in Buenos Aires.
Access to the university is free of charge including foreigners. However, the postgraduate programs charge tuition fees that can be covered with research scholarships for those students with outstanding academic performance; the university has produced four Nobel Prize laureates, one of the most prolific institutions in the Spanish-speaking world. According to the QS World University Rankings the University of Buenos Aires ranked number 75 in the world, making it the highest ranked university in Ibero-America; the schools that comprise the university are: Ciclo Básico Común Facultad de Psicología Facultad de Ingeniería Facultad de Odontología Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica Facultad de Filosofía y Letras Facultad de Derecho Facultad de Medicina Facultad de Ciencias Sociales Facultad de Veterinaria Facultad de Agronomía Facultad de Ciencias Económicas Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseño y Urbanismo Of these, only the last two have their buildings located in Ciudad Universitaria, a campus-like location in Núñez, in northern Buenos Aires along the banks of the Río de la Plata.
The others are scattered around the city in buildings of various sizes, with some having more than one building. There are projects to move more schools to Ciudad Universitaria, the first one in order of importance is the School of Psychology, whose building is designed to be placed on this Campus. There are no existing Argentinian or Latin-American university ranking systems, but several international rankings have ranked the University of Buenos Aires; the reputed Academic Ranking of World Universities known as the Shanghai Ranking ranked UBA not only above all other Argentinian universities but all other Latin-American ones. The QS World University Rankings ranks UBA in the 75th place, above all other Spanish or Portuguese speaking universities in its worldwide ranking but relegates it to the 11th place in its Latin-American ranking. Luis Agote, physician Diana Agrest, Argentine born American architect and theorist Viviana Alder, marine microbiologist, Argentine Antarctic researcher Teodosio Cesar Brea and founder of Allende & Brea Alejandro Bulgheroni, oil billionaire Juan Cabral, film director Luis Caffarelli, mathematician Alberto Calderón, mathematician Primarosa Chieri, geneticist Julio Cortázar, writer Augusto Claudio Cuello and Charles E. Frosst/Merck Chair in Pharmacology and Therapeutics at McGill University Che Guevara, revolutionary leader and physician Esther Hermitte, anthropologist Salvador Maciá, physician and politician Jose Pedro Montero De Candia, 27th President of Paraguay Luis Moreno-Ocampo, lawyer and Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court Patricio Pouchulu and educator Alberto Prebisch, architect Raul Prebisch, economist Teresa Ratto, physician Juan Rosai, Italian-born American surgical pathologist José Luis Murature, foreign minister of Argentina Irene Schloss, plankton biologist, Argentine Antarctic researcher Clorindo Testa and painter Richard Tomlinson, former British spy Claudio Vekstein, architect specialized in public architecture Rafael Viñoly, Uruguayan architect Inés Mónica Weinberg de Roca, former Judge at the International Criminal Tribunal for RwandaThe following former students and professors of the university have received the Nobel Prize: Carlos Saavedra Lamas, Peace, 1936.
Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, Peace, 1980. Bernardo Houssay, Physiology, 1947. Luis Federico Leloir, Chemistry, 1970. César Milstein, Medicine, 1984; the following Presidents of Argentina have earned their degrees at the university: Carlos Pellegrini, lawyer. Luis Sáenz Peña, lawyer. Manuel Quintana, lawyer. Roque Sáenz Peña, lawyer. Victorino de la Plaza, lawyer. Hipólito Yrigoyen (1916–1922 and 1928–1930, Radical Civic U
André Lhote was a French Cubist painter of figure subjects, portraits and still life. He was very active and influential as a teacher and writer on art. Lhote was born in Bordeaux and learned wood carving and sculpture from the age of 12, when his father apprenticed him to a local furniture maker to be trained as a sculptor in wood, he enrolled at the École des Beaux-Arts in Bordeaux in 1898 and studied decorative sculpture until 1904. Whilst there, he began to paint in his spare time and he left home in 1905, moving into his own studio to devote himself to painting, he was influenced by Gauguin and Cézanne and held his first one-man exhibition at the Galerie Druet in 1910, four years after he had moved to Paris. After working in a Fauvist style, Lhote shifted towards Cubism and joined the Section d'Or group in 1912, exhibiting at the Salon de la Section d'Or, he was alongside some of the fathers of modern art, including Gleizes, Duchamp, Picabia and La Fresnaye. The outbreak of the First World War interrupted his work and, after discharge from the army in 1917, he became one of the group of Cubists supported by Léonce Rosenberg.
In 1918, he co-founded Nouvelle Revue Française, the art journal to which he contributed articles on art theory until 1940. Lhote taught at the Académie Notre-Dame des Champs from 1918 to 1920, taught at other Paris art schools—including the Académie de la Grande Chaumière and his own school, which he founded in Montparnasse in 1922. Students included Henri Cartier-Bresson, Conrad O'Brien-ffrench, Elena Mumm Thornton Wilson, Adamson-Eric, Simon Elwes, Kuno Veeber, Charlotte van Pallandt, Wesley E. Johnson, Sava Šumanović, Margaret Lefranc, Shirley Russell, Gwyneth Johnstone, Paul Kane, Julie van der Veen, Lino Spilimbergo, Tamara de Lempicka, Sarah Marindah Baker, Helen Stewart. Lhote lectured extensively in France and other countries, including Belgium, Italy and, from the 1950s in Egypt and Brazil. In Egypt Lhote worked with Effat Nagy using Egyptian archaeology as subject matter for their work, his work was rewarded with the Grand Prix National de Peinture for 1955, the UNESCO commission for sculpture appointed Lhote president of the International Association of Painters and Sculptors.
Lhote died in Paris in 1962. André Lhote at artcyclopedia.com Biography at the Tate Gallery 5 paintings by or after André Lhote at the Art UK site Agence Photographique de la Réunion des musées nationaux et du Grand Palais des Champs-Elysées
José Hernández (writer)
José Hernández was an Argentine journalist and politician best known as the author of the epic poem Martín Fierro. Hernández, whose ancestry was Spanish, was born on a farm near San Martín, his father was a foreman of a series of cattle ranches. His career was to be an alternation between stints on the Federal side in the civil wars of Argentina and Uruguay and life as a newspaperman, a short stint as an employee of a commercial firm, a period as stenographer to the legislature of the Confederation. Hernández founded the newspaper El Río de la Plata, which advocated local autonomy, abolition of the conscripted "frontier contingents", election of justices of the peace, military commanders, school boards, he opposed immigration, because he believed it undermined the pastoral foundation of the region's wealth. He envisioned a federal republic based in pastoralism, but featuring a strong system of education and a literate population. Although a federalist opposed to the centralizing and Europeanizing tendencies of Argentine president Domingo Sarmiento, Hernández was no apologist for General Juan Manuel de Rosas, whom he characterized as a tyrant and a despot.
Hernández is known today exclusively for his masterpiece Martín Fierro, the epic poem that stands as the pinnacle of gauchesque literature. The poem was begun during a period of exile in Brazil following the defeat at Ñaembé and was published in two parts. Hernández died of heart disease October 21, 1886, in Belgrano, at that time a separate suburb a neighborhood of the Buenos Aires city, he was buried in La Recoleta Cemetery in Buenos Aires. Jorge Luis Borges, "José Hernández", in El Martín Fierro Media related to José Hernández at Wikimedia Commons Works by José Hernández at Project Gutenberg Works by or about José Hernández at Internet Archive Works by José Hernández at LibriVox Historical-biographical study on José Hernández, epílogue to the full text of Martín Fierro, pages 474 to 495 of the 1995 online edition of the poem by the Buenos Aires City Govt
Ramón Gómez Cornet
Ramón Gómez Cornet was an Argentine painter. He was one of the forerunners of the modern Argentine painting. Ramón Gómez Cornet was the son of Ramon Gomez, former Minister of Interior on Hipólito Yrigoyen's government and National Senator for Santiago del Estero province, Rosario Palacio Achával Cornet. Began his studies at the Normal School in his province to continue them in the Colegio Marista of Lujan passing to the School Charles Magne. Gómez showed his artistic abilities since a young age: in his early twenties he drew portraits of his maternal grandparents, Manuel Cornet Diaz - Deputy for the National Congress in 1882 - and his wife Doña Rosario Palacio Achával, found today in the Historical Museum of Santiago del Estero, he began his studies at the Academy of Fine Arts, Córdoba, traveled by the main art centers of Europe, where he lived for several years, Africa, gathering experiences that, while tuned his plastic art, enriching his human knowledge. He was influenced by artists like Cezanne and Renoir.
He perfected his art in the Libre Arts workshop of Barcelona, where in 1917 he made his first exhibits with favorable reviews, the Ranson Academy of Paris. After studying at the City of Lights and Barcelona know the works and techniques of early Renaissance masters and contact and the avant-garde, in 1921 Gómez returned to Argentina and exposed in the defunct Galería Chandler of Buenos Aires the first pictures with Cubist and Fauvist influences known in Argentina, having a pioneering role on the new trends that other artists would follow a few years later. Ramón Gómez Cornet served as a diplomat and professor teaching at universities including the National University of Tucumán convened by Lino Enea Spilimbergo, in his private atelier. During his stay in Mendoza he was a professor at the Academía de Bellas Artes, from which emerged internationally renowned artists such as Carlos Alonso and Enrique Sobisch. During his life he made around 1500 works, including oils, pastels and prints. 50 of them are in national and foreign museums.
Ramón Gómez Cornet married Argentina Rotondo, with whom he had two daughters and Adelina. He died in Buenos Aires on April 9, 1964 at 66 years of age
This article deals with Hernández's poem. For other things named after it, see Martín Fierro Martín Fierro known as El Gaucho Martín Fierro, is a 2,316-line epic poem by the Argentine writer José Hernández; the poem was published in two parts, El Gaucho Martín Fierro and La Vuelta de Martín Fierro. The poem supplied a historical link to the gauchos' contribution to the national development of Argentina, for the gaucho had played a major role in Argentina's independence from Spain; the poem, written in a Spanish that evokes rural Argentina, is seen as the pinnacle of the genre of "gauchesque" poetry and a touchstone of Argentine national identity. It has appeared in hundreds of editions and has been translated into over 70 languages. Martín Fierro has earned major praise and commentaries from Leopoldo Lugones, Miguel de Unamuno, Jorge Luis Borges and Rafael Squirru, among others; the Martín Fierro Award, named after the poem, is the most respected award for Argentine television and radio programs.
In El Gaucho Martín Fierro. The eponymous protagonist is an impoverished gaucho, drafted to serve at a border fort, defending the Argentine inner frontier against the Native Peoples, his life of poverty on the pampas is somewhat romanticized. He deserts and tries to return to his home, but discovers that his house and family are gone, he deliberately provokes an affair of honor by insulting a black woman in a bar. The narration of another knife fight suggests by its lack of detail. Fierro becomes an outlaw pursued by the police militia. In battle with them, he acquires a companion: one, Sergeant Cruz, inspired by Fierro's bravery in resistance and joins him mid-battle; the two set out hoping to find a better life there. In La Vuelta de Martín Fierro, we discover that their hope of a better life is promptly and bitterly disappointed, they are taken for spies. The poem narrates an epidemic, the horrible, expiatory attempts at cure, the fatal wrath upon those, including a young "Christian" boy, suspected of bringing the plague.
Both Cruz and the cacique die of the disease. Shortly afterward, at Cruz's grave, Fierro hears the anguished cries of a woman, he follows and encounters a "criolla" weeping over the body of her dead son, her hands tied with the boy's entrails. It develops. Fierro fights and wins a brutal combat with her captor and travels with her back towards civilization, or at least towards Christian lands. After Fierro leaves the woman at the first ranch they see, he goes on to an encounter that raises the story from the level of the mildly naturalistic to the mythic, he encounters his two surviving sons, the son of Cruz. He has a night-long payada with a black payador, who turns out to be the younger brother of the man Fierro murdered in a duel. At the end, Fierro speaks of changing his name and living in peace, but it is not clear that the duel has been avoided. Like his predecessors in "gauchesque" poetry, Hernández sticks to the eight-syllable line of the payadas, the rural ballads. However, Hernández uses a rhyming six-line stanza with a novel invention.
The first line is kept "free" and unrhymed, allowing Hernández to present a "thesis" to the stanza without having to worry about the last word being part of the rhyme scheme. Lines two and six rhyme together while lines four and five constitute an independent rhyming group; the first verse of the poem illustrates this structure of six eight-syllable lines. 1 A- quí me pon- go/a can- tar Aquí me pongo a cantar 2 al com- pás de la vi- güe- la, Al compás de la vigüela 3 que/al hom- bre que lo des- ve- la Que al hombre que lo desvela 4 u- na pe- na/es- tror- di- na- ria, Una pena estrordinaria, 5 co- mo la/a- ve so- li- ta- ria Como la ave solitaria 6 con el can- tar se con- sue- la. Con el cantar se consuela. Unlike his predecessors, Hernández, who had himself spent half his life alongside the gauchos in the pampas, in the regular army brigades that took part in Argentina's civil wars and more years engaged in the border wars, does not seek out every rural colloquialism under the sun, he hews much closer to the actual payadores, using a mildly archaic style and giving a sense of place more through phonetic spellings than through choice of words.
At times - in the payadas within the larger poem - he rises to a stark and powerful poetry, taking on romantic and metaphysical themes. In La Vuelta de Martín Fierro, at the time Fierro is returning to the "Christian" world, he talks of his notoriety in an echo of a plot poi
Biennale, Italian for "biennial" or "every other year", is any event that happens every two years. It is most used within the art world to describe large-scale international contemporary art exhibitions; as such the term was popularised by Venice Biennale, first held in 1895. The phrase has since been used for other artistic events, such as the "Biennale de Paris", "Kochi-Muziris Biennale", or as a portmanteau as with Berlinale and Viennale. "Biennale" is therefore used as a general term for other recurrent international events. According to author Federica Martini, what is at stake in contemporary biennales is the diplomatic/international relations potential as well as urban regeneration plans. Besides being focused on the present, because of their site-specificity cultural events may refer back to, produce or frame the history of the site and communities' collective memory. A strong and influent symbol of biennales and of large-scale international exhibitions in general is the Crystal Palace, the gigantic and futuristic London architecture that hosted the Great Exhibition in 1851.
According to philosopher Peter Sloterdijk, the Crystal Palace is the first attempt to condense the representation of the world in a unitary exhibition space, where the main exhibit is society itself in an a-historical, spectacular condition. The Crystal Palace main motives were the affirmation of British economic and national leadership and the creation of moments of spectacle. In this respect, 19th century World fairs provided a visual crystallization of colonial culture and were, at the same time, forerunners of contemporary theme parks; the Venice Biennale, a periodical large-scale cultural event founded in 1895, served as an archetype of the biennales. Meant to become a World Fair focused on contemporary art, the Venice Biennale used as a pretext the wedding anniversary of the Italian king and followed up to several national exhibitions organised after Italy unification in 1861; the Biennale put forth issues of city marketing, cultural tourism and urban regeneration, as it was meant to reposition Venice on the international cultural map after the crisis due to the end of the Grand Tour model and the weakening of the Venetian school of painting.
Furthermore, the Gardens where the Biennale takes place were an abandoned city area that needed to be re-functionalised. In cultural terms, the Biennale was meant to provide on a biennial basis a platform for discussing contemporary art practices that were not represented in fine arts museums at the time; the early Biennale model included some key points that are still constitutive of large-scale international art exhibitions today: a mix of city marketing, gentrification issues and destination culture, the spectacular, large scale of the event. The situation of biennials has changed in the contemporary context: while at its origin in 1895 Venice was a unique cultural event, but since the 1990s hundreds of biennials have been organized across the globe. Given the ephemeral and irregular nature of some biennials, there is little consensus on the exact number of biennials in existence at any given time. Furthermore, while Venice was a unique agent in the presentation of contemporary art, since the 1960s several museums devoted to contemporary art are exhibiting the contemporary scene on a regular basis.
Another point of difference concerns 19th century internationalism in the arts, brought into question by post-colonial debates and criticism of the contemporary art “ethnic marketing”, challenged the Venetian and World Fair’s national representation system. As a consequence of this, Eurocentric tendency to implode the whole word in an exhibition space, which characterises both the Crystal Palace and the Venice Biennale, is affected by the expansion of the artistic geographical map to scenes traditionally considered as marginal; the birth of the Havana Biennial in 1984 is considered an important counterpoint to the Venetian model for its prioritization of artists working in the Global South and curatorial rejection of the national pavilion model. The term is most used in the context of major recurrent art exhibitions such as: Asian Art Biennale, in Taichung, Taiwan Athens Biennale Arts in Marrakech International Biennale Bamako Encounters, a biennale of photography in Mali Bat-Yam International Biennale of Landscape Urbanism Beijing Biennale Berlin Biennale Bi-City Biennale of Urbanism\Architecture, in Shenzhen and Hong Kong, China Bienal de Arte de Ponce in Ponce, Puerto Rico BiennaleOnline Online biennial exhibition of contemporary art from the most promising emerging artists.
Biennial of Hawaii Artists La Biennale de Montreal Bucharest Biennale in Bucharest, Romania Bushwick Biennial, in Bushwick, New York Canakkale Biennial, in Canakkale, Turkey Copenhagen Ultracontemporary Biennale, biennale in Copenhagen, Denmark Dakar Biennale called Dak'Art, biennale in Dakar, Senegal Estuaire, biennale in Nantes and Saint-Nazaire, France EVA International, biennial in Limerick, Republic of Ireland Florence Biennale Göteborg International Biennial for Contemporary Art, in Gothenburg, Sweden Greater Taipei Contemporary Art Biennial, in Taipei, Taiwan Gwangju Biennale, Asia's first and most prestigious contemporary art biennale Havana biennial, in Havana, Cuba Herzliya Biennial For Contemporary Art, in He
Joseph Fernand Henri Léger was a French painter and filmmaker. In his early works he created a personal form of cubism which he modified into a more figurative, populist style, his boldly simplified treatment of modern subject matter has caused him to be regarded as a forerunner of pop art. Léger was born in Argentan, Lower Normandy, where his father raised cattle. Fernand Léger trained as an architect from 1897 to 1899, before moving in 1900 to Paris, where he supported himself as an architectural draftsman. After military service in Versailles, Yvelines, in 1902–1903, he enrolled at the School of Decorative Arts after his application to the École des Beaux-Arts was rejected, he attended the Beaux-Arts as a non-enrolled student, spending what he described as "three empty and useless years" studying with Gérôme and others, while studying at the Académie Julian. He began to work as a painter only at the age of 25. At this point his work showed the influence of impressionism, as seen in Le Jardin de ma mère of 1905, one of the few paintings from this period that he did not destroy.
A new emphasis on drawing and geometry appeared in Léger's work after he saw the Cézanne retrospective at the Salon d'Automne in 1907. In 1909 he moved to Montparnasse and met Alexander Archipenko, Jacques Lipchitz, Marc Chagall, Joseph Csaky and Robert Delaunay. In 1910 he exhibited at the Salon d'Automne in the same room as Jean Metzinger and Henri Le Fauconnier. In his major painting of this period, Nudes in the Forest, Léger displays a personal form of Cubism that his critics termed "Tubism" for its emphasis on cylindrical forms. In 1911 the hanging committee of the Salon des Indépendants placed together the painters identified as'Cubists'. Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Le Fauconnier, Delaunay and Léger were responsible for revealing Cubism to the general public for the first time as an organized group; the following year he again exhibited at the Salon d'Automne and Indépendants with the Cubists, joined with several artists, including Le Fauconnier, Gleizes, Francis Picabia and the Duchamp brothers, Jacques Villon, Raymond Duchamp-Villon and Marcel Duchamp to form the Puteaux Group—also called the Section d'Or.
Léger's paintings, from until 1914, became abstract. Their tubular and cubed forms are laconically rendered in rough patches of primary colors plus green and white, as seen in the series of paintings with the title Contrasting Forms. Léger made no use of the collage technique pioneered by Picasso. Léger's experiences in World War. Mobilized in August 1914 for service in the French Army, he spent two years at the front in Argonne, he produced many sketches of artillery pieces and fellow soldiers while in the trenches, painted Soldier with a Pipe while on furlough. In September 1916 he died after a mustard gas attack by the German troops at Verdun. During a period of convalescence in Villepinte he painted The Card Players, a canvas whose robot-like, monstrous figures reflect the ambivalence of his experience of war; as he explained:... I was stunned by the sight of the breech of a 75 millimeter in the sunlight, it was the magic of light on the white metal. That's all it took for me to forget the abstract art of 1912–1913.
The crudeness, variety and downright perfection of certain men around me, their precise sense of utilitarian reality and its application in the midst of the life-and-death drama we were in... made me want to paint in slang with all its color and mobility. This work marked the beginning of his "mechanical period", during which the figures and objects he painted were characterized by sleekly rendered tubular and machine-like forms. Starting in 1918, he produced the first paintings in the Disk series, in which disks suggestive of traffic lights figure prominently. In December 1919 he married Jeanne-Augustine Lohy, in 1920 he met Le Corbusier, who would remain a lifelong friend; the "mechanical" works Léger painted in the 1920s, in their formal clarity as well as in their subject matter—the mother and child, the female nude, figures in an ordered landscape—are typical of the postwar "return to order" in the arts, link him to the tradition of French figurative painting represented by Poussin and Corot.
In his paysages animés of 1921, figures and animals exist harmoniously in landscapes made up of streamlined forms. The frontal compositions, firm contours, smoothly blended colors of these paintings recall the works of Henri Rousseau, an artist Léger admired and whom he had met in 1909, they share traits with the work of Le Corbusier and Amédée Ozenfant who together had founded Purism, a style intended as a rational, mathematically based corrective to the impulsiveness of cubism. Combining the classical with the modern, Léger's Nude on a Red Background depicts a monumental, expressionless woman, machinelike in form and color, his still life compositions from this period are dominated by stable, interlocking rectangular formations in vertical and horizontal orientation. The Siphon of 1924, a still life based on an advertisement in the popular press for the aperitif Campari, represents the high-water mark of the Purist aesthetic in Léger's work, its balanced composition and fluted shapes suggestive of classical columns are brought together with a quasi-cinematic close-up of a hand holding a bottle.
As an enthusiast of the modern, Léger was attracted to cinema, for a time he considered giving up painting for filmmaking. In 1923–24 he designed the set for the laboratory scene in Marcel L'Herbier's L