WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities
Anastasio Bustamante y Oseguera was president of Mexico three times, from 1830 to 1832, from 1837 to 1839 and from 1839 to 1841. He first came to power by leading a coup against president Vicente Guerrero, Bustamante was deposed twice and exiled to Europe each time. Anastasio Bustamantes father, José María, worked hauling snow from the volcanoes of Colima to Guadalajara, at 15, the younger Bustamante entered the Seminary of Guadalajara. When he finished, he went to Mexico City to study medicine and he passed his medical examinations and went to San Luis Potosí as director of San Juan de Dios Hospital. In 1808, he entered the army as a cavalry officer under the command of Félix María Calleja. In 1810, General Calleja mobilized the army to fight the rebels under Miguel Hidalgo, during the War of Independence, he rose to the rank of general. He supported royalist-turned-insurgent Agustín de Iturbide and the Plan of Iguala, on 19 March 1821, in support of Agustín de Iturbide, Bustamante proclaimed the independence of Mexico from Spain at Pantoja, Guanajuato.
A few days later, he removed the remains of the 1811 insurgent leaders from the Alhóndiga de Granaditas in Guanajuato and had buried in San Sebastián cemetery. Iturbide named him commander of the cavalry, second in command of the Army of the Center, the Regency named him field marshal and captain general of the Provincias Internas de Oriente y Occidente, effective 28 September 1821. He fought and defeated a Spanish expeditionary force at Xichú, in December 1828, under the Plan de Perote, Congress named him vice-president of the Republic under President Vicente Guerrero. He took possession of this office on 1 April 1829 but soon was at odds with Guerrero, on 4 December 1829, in accord with the Plan de Jalapa, he rose against Guerrero, driving him from the capital. On 1 January 1830, he assumed the presidency on an interim basis, Congress declared Guerrero incapable of governing. In office, Bustamante removed employees not having the confidence of public opinion and he instituted a secret police force and took steps to suppress the press.
He exiled some of his competitors and expelled U. S and he was involved in the kidnapping and execution of his predecessor, Guerrero. He supported industry and the clergy and these and other policies stimulated opposition, especially in the states of Jalisco and Texas. In 1832, a revolt broke out in Veracruz, the rebels asked Antonio López de Santa Anna to take command. When their immediate demands were met, they demanded the presidents ouster. They intended to replace him with Manuel Gómez Pedraza, whose 1828 election had been annulled, Bustamante turned over the presidency to Melchor Múzquiz on 14 August 1832 and left the capital to fight the rebels
It was headed by “the big three” painters, Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros. The modern tradition has its roots in the 19th century, with use of political and social themes. The first Mexican mural painter to use philosophical themes in his work was Juan Cordero in the mid 19th century, the latter 19th century was dominated politically by the Porfirio Díaz regime. This government was the first to push for the development of the country, supporting the Academy of San Carlos. However, this left out indigenous culture and people, with the aim of making Mexico like Europe. Gerardo Murillo, known as Dr. Atl, is considered to be the first modern Mexican muralists with the idea that Mexican art should reflect Mexican life, Academy training and the government had only promoted imitations of European art. Atl and other early muralists pressured the Diaz government to allow them to paint on building walls to escape this formalism, Atl organized an independent exhibition of native Mexican artists promoting many indigenous and national themes along with color schemes that would appear in mural painting.
The first modern Mexican mural, painted by Atl, was a series of female nudes using “Atlcolor” a substance Atl invented himself, very shortly before the beginning of the Mexican Revolution. Another influence on the artists of the late Porfirian period was the graphic work of José Guadalupe Posada. The Mexican Revolution itself was the culmination of political and social opposition to Porfirio Díaz policies, one important oppositional group was a small intellectual community that included Antonio Curo, Alfonso Reyes and José Vasconcelos. These ideas gained power as a result of the Mexican Revolution, there was nearly a decade of fighting among the various factions vying for power. Governments changed frequently with a number of assassinations, including that of Francisco I and it ended in the early 1920s with one-party rule in the hands of the Álvaro Obregón faction, which became the Partido Revolucionario Institucional. During the Revolution, Atl supported the Carranza faction and promoted the work of Rivera and Siqueiros, through the war and until 1921, Atl continued to paint murals among other activities including teaching the Mexico’s next generation of artists and muralists.
In 1921, after the end of the phase of the Revolution. At the time, most of the Mexican population was illiterate and it was Vasconcelos’s idea have a government-backed mural program for this purpose. Similar to mural use in the pre Hispanic period and during the period, the purpose of these murals were not simply aesthetic. These ideals or principles were to glorify the Mexican Revolution and the identity of Mexico as a mestiza nation, the government began to hire the country’s best artists to paint murals, calling some of them home from Europe including Diego Rivera. These initial muralists included Dr. Atl, Ramón Alva de la Canal, Federico Cantú and others and his time as secretary was short but it set how muralism would develop
Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate. Classicism is a genre of philosophy, expressing itself in literature, architecture and music, which has Ancient Greek and Roman sources. It was particularly expressed in the Neoclassicism of the Age of Enlightenment, Classicism is a recurrent tendency in the Late Antique period, and had a major revival in Carolingian and Ottonian art. Until that time the identification with antiquity had been seen as a history of Christendom from the conversion of Roman Emperor Constantine I. Renaissance classicism introduced a host of elements into European culture, including the application of mathematics and empiricism into art, humanism and depictive realism, importantly it introduced Polytheism, or paganism, and the juxtaposition of ancient and modern. The classicism of the Renaissance led to, and gave way to and this period sought the revival of classical art forms, including Greek drama and music.
Opera, in its modern European form, had its roots in attempts to recreate the combination of singing and dancing with theatre thought to be the Greek norm, examples of this appeal to classicism included Dante and Shakespeare in poetry and theatre. Tudor drama, in particular, modeled itself after classical ideals, studying Ancient Greek became regarded as essential for a well-rounded education in the liberal arts. They began reviving plastic arts such as bronze casting for sculpture, for example, the painting of Jacques-Louis David which was seen as an attempt to return to formal balance, clarity and vigor in art. Various movements of the period saw themselves as classical revolts against a prevailing trend of emotionalism and irregularity. The 20th century saw a number of changes in the arts, both pre-20th century disciplines were labelled classical and modern movements in art which saw themselves as aligned with light, sparseness of texture, and formal coherence. Examples of classicist playwrights are Pierre Corneille, Jean Racine and Moliere, the influence of these French rules on playwrights in other nations is debatable.
In the English theatre, Restoration playwrights such as William Wycherly and those of Shakespeares plays that seem to display the unities, such as The Tempest, probably indicate a familiarity with actual models from classical antiquity. Classicism in architecture developed during the Italian Renaissance, notably in the writings and designs of Leon Battista Alberti and this style quickly spread to other Italian cities and to France, England and elsewhere. In the 16th century, Sebastiano Serlio helped codify the classical orders, building off of these influences, the 17th-century architects Inigo Jones and Christopher Wren firmly established classicism in England. For the development of classicism from the mid-18th-century onwards, see Neoclassical architecture, for Greek art of the 5th century B. C. E. See Classical art in ancient Greece and the Severe style Italian Renaissance painting and sculpture are marked by their renewal of classical forms and subjects. In the 15th century Leon Battista Alberti was important in theorizing many of the ideas for painting that came to a fully realised product with Raphaels School of Athens during the High Renaissance
Santa Teresa la Antigua
Santa Teresa la Antigua is a former convent located in the historic center of Mexico City on Licenciado Primo de Verdad #6 just northeast of the citys main plaza. The complex ceased to be a convent in the part of the 19th century and has housed the Santa Teresa la Antigua Alternative Art Center since 1989. The impetus behind the establishment of the convent occurred in 1613 when the ship carrying archbishop Juan Pérez de la Serna ran into a storm threatened to destroy it. The archbishop promised Saint Teresa of Ávila to establish a Carmelite monastery if she would allow him to reach New Spain safely. Once securely on land, he convinced sisters Inés Castillet and Mariana de la Encarnación, heiresses of the plantations of Juan Luis de Riveral, the convent had a number of other wealthy contributors, such as the Marquise of Guadalcazar. Much of the convent was built in eight months, and the order was established in 1616, it was first known as the San José de las Carmelitas Descalzas convent. However, popularly the complex known as “Santa Teresa la Antigua.
”Much of the facility was built with the intention of allowing public access. The order was a one, as it followed the Spanish Discalced Carmelites tradition of writer. Unlike many other convents of the time, it had no servants or other help other than girls aspiring to be admitted into the order. The convent’s church was rebuilt in 1684 by Captain Esteban de Molina and was renamed officially as “Nuestra Señora de la Antigua. ”Much of the complex was rebuilt by Antonio Gonzalez Velazquez, paintings by the Spanish artist Rafael Ximeno y Planes were added at this time. An earthquake demolished the dome and the apse, taking them the paintings done by Ximeno. Reconstruction, replacing the dome with a double-vaulted one, took thirteen years. New paintings were done by Juan Cordero, sor Juana Inés de la Cruz once lived here, but due to her fragile health and the austere conditions of the order, she soon moved to another convent nearby in the city. The convent served as a prison for Josefa Ortiz de Dominguez, in 1863, the convent was closed and the complex was converted to secular use.
It served as barracks, a school for teachers, as the home of the National University. In 1989, the convent was rededicated as the Ex-Santa Teresa Alternative Art Center, a non-profit organization dedicated to collecting alternative art was founded in 1993 here. The facade inclines noticeably backwards, which is due to the sinking of the building into the soft soil underneath Mexico City. The convent has two identical Baroque portals, both the first and second stories appear to be adorned with Solomonic columns, but the columns on the second floor are really smooth helixes
Academy of San Carlos
The Academy of San Carlos is located at 22 Academia Street in just northeast of the main plaza of Mexico City. It was the first major art academy and the first art museum in the Americas and it was founded in 1781 as the School of Engraving and moved to the Academia Street location about 10 years later. It emphasized classical European training until the early 20th century, when it shifted to a modern perspective. At this time, it integrated with the National Autonomous University of Mexico, eventually becoming the Faculty of Arts and Design. Currently, only graduate courses of the school are given in the original academy building. The Academy of San Carlos was founded in 1781 under the name of the School of Engraving, the School of Engraving was begun in the building that used to be the mint, and would become the modern-day National Museum of Cultures. Ten years later, it moved to the former Amor de Dios Hospital, the street it is located on was renamed from Amor de Dios Street to Academia Street in its honor.
The Academy was originally sponsored by the Spanish Crown and a number of private patrons, the academy was inaugurated on 4 November 1781 on the saints day of King Carlos III, operating for its first ten years in the old mint building. However, it did not obtain its royal seal until 1783 and was not fully functional until 1785, the school moved into the old Hospital del Amor de Dios building in 1791, where it has remained ever since. The academy was the first major art institution in the Americas, Tolsá and Ximeno would stay on to become directors of the school. The new school began to promote Neoclassicism, focusing on Greek and Roman art and architecture, to this end, plaster casts of classic Greek and Roman statues were brought to Mexico from Europe for students to study. Since its founding, it attracted the countrys best artists, and was a force behind the abandonment of the Baroque style in Mexico, in the early 19th century, the academy was closed for a short time due to the Mexican War of Independence.
When it reopened, it was renamed the National Academy of San Carlos and enjoyed the new governments preference for Neoclassicism, despite the schools association with the independent Mexican government, Emperor Maximilian I protected the school during his reign, although foreign artists were shunned there. When Benito Juárez ousted the emperor and regained the presidency of Mexico, he was reluctant to support the school and its European influence, the academy continued to advocate classic, European-style training of its artists until 1913. In that year, a student and teacher strike advocating a modern approach ousted director Antonio Rivas Mercado. It was integrated into University of Mexico at that time. In 1929, the program was separated from the rest of the academy, and in 1953. The remaining programs in painting and engraving were renamed National School of Expressive Arts Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas, the undergraduate fine arts programs were moved to a facility in Xochimilco, leaving only some graduate programs in the original Academy of San Carlos building
The Holy See, referred to as the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity. It serves as the point of reference for the Catholic Church everywhere. Today, it is responsible for the governance of all Catholics, organised in their Particular Churches, Patriarchates, as an independent sovereign entity, holding the Vatican City enclave in Rome as sovereign territory, it maintains diplomatic relations with other states. Diplomatically, the Holy See acts and speaks for the whole church and it is recognised by other subjects of international law as a sovereign entity, headed by the Pope, with which diplomatic relations can be maintained. The creation of the Vatican City state was meant to ensure the diplomatic, in Greek, the adjective holy or sacred is constantly applied to all such sees as a matter of course. The word see comes from the Latin word sedes, meaning seat, while Saint Peters basilica in Vatican City is perhaps the church most associated with the Papacy, the actual cathedral of the Holy See is the church of Saint John Lateran within the city of Rome.
The Pope governs the Catholic Church through the Roman Curia, the Secretariat of State, under the Cardinal Secretary of State and coordinates the Curia. The incumbent, Archbishop Pietro Parolin, is the Sees equivalent of a prime minister, Archbishop Paul Gallagher, Secretary of the Section for Relations with States of the Secretariat of State, acts as the Holy Sees minister of foreign affairs. Parolin was named in his role by Pope Francis On 31 August 2013, mamberti was named in his role by Pope Benedict XVI in September 2006. The Secretariat of State is the body of the Curia that is situated within Vatican City. The others are in buildings in different parts of Rome that have rights similar to those of embassies. The Roman Rota handles normal judicial appeals, the most numerous being those that concern alleged nullity of marriage and it oversees the work of other ecclesiastical tribunals at all levels. The most important of these is the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, the Prefecture of the Papal Household is responsible for the organization of the papal household and ceremonies.
The Holy See does not dissolve upon a Popes death or resignation and it instead operates under a different set of laws sede vacante. The government of the See, and therefore of the Catholic Church, canon law prohibits the College and the Camerlengo from introducing any innovations or novelties in the government of the Church during this period. In 2001, the Holy See had a revenue of 422.098 billion Italian lire, the Guardian newspaper described Mennini and his role in the following manner. Paolo Mennini, who is in effect the popes merchant banker, Mennini heads a special unit inside the Vatican called the extraordinary division of APSA – Amministrazione del Patrimonio della Sede Apostolica – which handles the patrimony of the Holy See. The Holy See has been recognized, both in practice and in the writing of modern legal scholars, as a subject of public international law, with rights