Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Contemporary Learning Center
Contemporary Learning Center was a secondary school located in Houston, United States. CLC closed in 2011, it was replaced by DeVry Advantage Academy, operated in association with DeVry University. CLC, which serves grades 7 through 12, is a part of the Houston Independent School District. CLC was located near Midtown. CLC served students who do not succeed in traditional school environments and need more academic motivation and better attendance records. CLC included Houston ISD's evening high school program; the school, which served grades 9-12, opened in 1975 and closed in the summer of 2007. The building that housed CLC was constructed in 1925; the building was Johnston Junior High School. When Johnston moved to Meyerland in September 1959, Miller Junior High School opened in Johnston's former location. CLC began in 1973 as the Continuous Progress Learning and Development Center, a high school program for students who did not perform well in traditional academic environments, it was a pilot project of the Emergency School Aid Act.
It used two rooms at Miller before several temporary buildings were moved to the school. The CLC high school stayed in the temporary buildings until 1976; when the high school vacated the temporary buildings, the CLC middle school moved into the temporary buildings. In 1980 the middle school moved to the third floor. In 2006, the district suspended six female students. CLC closed in 2011. During its final year of operation, about 400 students attended CLC. In March 2011, the HISD board granted the district approval to move CLC to a new building, 5 miles from the old location; the school qualified for a grant intended to transform schools having problems, because CLC on repeated occasions did not meet federal academic standards. CLC was converted into the DeVry Advantage Academy. Few students from CLC transferred to DeVry. Tracey Lewis, the principal of the DeVry school, said that the new location may have discouraged some of the earlier CLC students. Terry Grier, the HISD superintendent, agreed with Lewis's hypothesis.
In the northern hemisphere fall of that year, the Young Women's College Preparatory Academy opened on the previous CLC site. During the 2004-2005 school year, 691 students were enrolled at CLC 67% African American 31% Hispanic American 1% White American 1% Asian AmericanNo Native Americans were enrolled during that school year. About 80 % of students qualified for reduced lunch. CLC requires school uniforms. Juan Díaz - Boxing champion Contemporary Learning Center at the Wayback Machine
Denver the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U. S. state of Colorado. Denver is located in the South Platte River Valley on the western edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains; the Denver downtown district is east of the confluence of Cherry Creek with the South Platte River 12 mi east of the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Denver is named after James W. Denver, a governor of the Kansas Territory, it is nicknamed the Mile High City because its official elevation is one mile above sea level; the 105th meridian west of Greenwich, the longitudinal reference for the Mountain Time Zone, passes directly through Denver Union Station. Denver is ranked as a Beta world city by World Cities Research Network. With an estimated population of 704,621 in 2017, Denver is the 19th-most populous U. S. city, with a 17.41% increase since the 2010 United States Census, it has been one of the fastest-growing major cities in the United States.
The 10-county Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated 2017 population of 2,888,227 and is the 19th most populous U. S. metropolitan statistical area. The 12-city Denver-Aurora, CO Combined Statistical Area had an estimated 2017 population of 3,515,374 and is the 15th most populous U. S. metropolitan area. Denver is the most populous city of the 18-county Front Range Urban Corridor, an oblong urban region stretching across two states with an estimated 2017 population of 4,895,589. Denver is the most populous city within a 500-mile radius and the second-most populous city in the Mountain West after Phoenix, Arizona. In 2016, Denver was named the best place to live in the United States by U. S. News & World Report. In the summer of 1858, during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush, a group of gold prospectors from Lawrence, Kansas established Montana City as a mining town on the banks of the South Platte River in what was western Kansas Territory; this was the first historical settlement in what was to become the city of Denver.
The site faded however, by the summer of 1859 it was abandoned in favor of Auraria and St. Charles City. On November 22, 1858, General William Larimer and Captain Jonathan Cox, both land speculators from eastern Kansas Territory, placed cottonwood logs to stake a claim on the bluff overlooking the confluence of the South Platte River and Cherry Creek, across the creek from the existing mining settlement of Auraria, on the site of the existing townsite of St. Charles. Larimer named the townsite Denver City to curry favor with Kansas Territorial Governor James W. Denver. Larimer hoped the town's name would help make it the county seat of Arapaho County but, unbeknownst to him, Governor Denver had resigned from office; the location was accessible to existing trails and was across the South Platte River from the site of seasonal encampments of the Cheyenne and Arapaho. The site of these first towns is now the site of Confluence Park near downtown Denver. Larimer, along with associates in the St. Charles City Land Company, sold parcels in the town to merchants and miners, with the intention of creating a major city that would cater to new immigrants.
Denver City was a frontier town, with an economy based on servicing local miners with gambling, saloons and goods trading. In the early years, land parcels were traded for grubstakes or gambled away by miners in Auraria. In May 1859, Denver City residents donated 53 lots to the Leavenworth & Pike's Peak Express in order to secure the region's first overland wagon route. Offering daily service for "passengers, mail and gold", the Express reached Denver on a trail that trimmed westward travel time from twelve days to six. In 1863, Western Union furthered Denver's dominance of the region by choosing the city for its regional terminus; the Colorado Territory was created on February 28, 1861, Arapahoe County was formed on November 1, 1861, Denver City was incorporated on November 7, 1861. Denver City served as the Arapahoe County Seat from 1861 until consolidation in 1902. In 1867, Denver City became the acting territorial capital, in 1881 was chosen as the permanent state capital in a statewide ballot.
With its newfound importance, Denver City shortened its name to Denver. On August 1, 1876, Colorado was admitted to the Union. Although by the close of the 1860s, Denver residents could look with pride at their success establishing a vibrant supply and service center, the decision to route the nation's first transcontinental railroad through Cheyenne, rather than Denver, threatened the prosperity of the young town. A daunting 100 miles away, citizens mobilized to build a railroad to connect Denver to the transcontinental railroad. Spearheaded by visionary leaders including Territorial Governor John Evans, David Moffat, Walter Cheesman, fundraising began. Within three days, $300,000 had been raised, citizens were optimistic. Fundraising stalled before enough was raised, forcing these visionary leaders to take control of the debt-ridden railroad. Despite challenges, on June 24, 1870, citizens cheered as the Denver Pacific completed the link to the transcontinental railroad, ushering in a new age of prosperity for Denver.
Linked to the rest of the nation by rail, Denver prospered as a service and supply center. The young city grew during these years, attracting millionaires with their mansions, as well as the poverty and crime of a growing city. Denver citizens were proud when the rich chose Denver and were thrilled when Horace Tabor, the Leadville mining millionaire, built an impressive business block at 16th and Larimer as well as the el
Paul "Paulie" Malignaggi is an American former professional boxer who competed from 2001 to 2017, has since worked as a commentator and analyst. He held world championships in two weight classes, including the IBF junior welterweight title from 2007 to 2008, the WBA welterweight title from 2012 to 2013. Malignaggi was known for his fast hand speed and durable chin. Malignaggi was born in United States to Sicilian immigrant parents, he spent most of his early days in Sicily. Six years after Malignaggi's brother Umberto was born, the family decided to settle back in Brooklyn, but Malignaggi's father stayed for only a few weeks before returning to Italy. Malignaggi's mother remarried; the two brothers reputedly did not get along with their new stepfather. In 1996, the pair got into a fight with their stepfather. Not long after, the brothers left the house. Malignaggi lived with his grandparents until he got his own home years later. Malignaggi used to violate school rules, he got involved in street fights, using knives and sometimes guns.
He was expelled from high school for street fights and ditching classes. His grandfather took him to work each day until Malignaggi asked that he be allowed to take up boxing, he was given the chance. Upon turning pro in 2001, Malignaggi won his first 21 fights. Malignaggi fought for the WBO light welterweight title against Miguel Cotto; the fight took place on June 10, 2006 in Madison Square Garden on TOP RANK PPV. Cotto opened a cut over Malignaggi's right eye in the first round, according to Malignaggi, affected his performance over the course of the fight, by stating "this was the first time in which I was cut, the blood kept going into my eye, and it bothered me the entire fight. I was not able to see well. Cotto's a great fighter, but I'm disappointed, as I wanted to be the champion". Cotto won the fight by unanimous decision with scores of 116-111 and 115-112. Malignaggi suffered a fractured right orbital bone and his jaw was injured, he was taken to Roosevelt Hospital after the fight's outcome was announced.
Malignaggi got back on track with a unanimous decision victory over Edner Cherry at the Hammerstein Ballroom in New York City, February 17, 2007. On June 16, 2007, Malignaggi defeated Lovemore N'dou via a 12 unanimous decision to win the IBF Light Welterweight Championship at the Mohegan Sun Casino in Uncasville, Connecticut; the bout was one sided with one judge awarding the bout a 120–106. Lennox Lewis, commentating at ringside for HBO, described Malignaggi's performance as a "boxing clinic." After this win and the victory over Edner Cherry earlier in the year, Malignaggi was awarded the Ring Magazine comeback of the year award at the end of 2007. On January 5, 2008, Malignaggi defended his title against Herman Ngoudjo in a competitive match held at Bally's Casino in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Malignaggi controlled the fight with his jab until he was stunned in the 7th round, but Ngoudjo failed to finish the job. After the seventh, Ngoudjo became ineffective with his aggression and came up short and lost a wide unanimous decision, which although fair, did not reflect the competitiveness of the fight.
On May 24, 2008, Malignaggi beat Lovemore N'Dou in a rematch by split decision to retain his IBF title at the City of Manchester Stadium in Manchester, England. Malignaggi was in control for the first half of boxing behind his faster and crisper jab. Prior to the fight, Malignaggi was sporting hair extensions which proved to be a problem throughout the fight until his trainer Buddy McGirt cut them off in his corner between rounds eight and nine. Malignaggi appeared sloppy in the second half of the fight as N'Dou came back to make the fight close. In the end, Malignaggi pulled out a close victory and suffered a fractured right hand in the fight. Malignaggi vacated his title on September 19, 2008. On November 22, 2008 in the MGM Grand Garden Arena in Las Vegas, Malignaggi fought The Ring and IBO Light Welterweight Champion Ricky Hatton, it was billed as the boxer against the brawler. Hatton won every round but the first. Hatton rocked Malignaggi in the second and several other times during the fight, leaving Paulie to hold on, doing what Malignaggi had publicly criticized Hatton for doing, while promoting the fight.
With Malignaggi way behind on points, his trainer Buddy McGirt threw in the towel during the 11th round. On August 22, 2009 at the Toyota Center in Houston, Texas. Malignaggi fought former lightweight titlist Juan Díaz for the vacant WBO NABO Light Welterweight title at a catch-weight of 138½ pounds. Unofficial HBO scorer Harold Lederman scored the fight 115–113 for Malignaggi, but none of the three judges saw the fight this way. Gale Van Hoy had it by 118–110, Raul Caiz had it 115–113 and the other Judge, Dave Sutherland scored it 116–112, all in favor of Juan Díaz. In the post fight interview of the Juan Díaz fight, Paulie was furious, stating that "boxing is full of shit." He stated that the only reason he is continuing to fight is because of the good pay day. A rematch with Juan Díaz occurred on December 12, 2009 in Chicago on HBO; this rematch went in Malignaggi's favor. All three judges scored the fight 116–111 in favor of Malignaggi. In the fight, Malignaggi threw more punches but only landed 21% of them while Diaz landed 28% of his, but threw fewer.
Malignaggi's next fight was against Amir Khan in Madison Square Garden in New York on May 15, 2010. The press conference took place in London on March 12 on PPV while another press conference was held in New York City, Un
The Ring (magazine)
The Ring is an American boxing magazine, first published in 1922 as a boxing and wrestling magazine. As the sporting legitimacy of professional wrestling came more into question, The Ring shifted to becoming a boxing oriented publication; the magazine is owned by Oscar De La Hoya's Golden Boy Enterprises, which acquired it in 2007. Ring publishes boxers annual ratings since 1924; the Ring and published by future International Boxing Hall of Fame member Nat Fleischer, has perpetrated boxing scandals, helped make unknown fighters famous worldwide, covered boxing's biggest events of all time. Dan Daniel was a prolific contributor to The Ring through most of its history, it refers to itself as "The Bible of Boxing." During the Fleischer years, the contents page or indicia of every issue carried the claim: "The Ring is a magazine which a man may take home with him. He may leave it on his library table safe in the knowledge that it does not contain one line of matter either in the text or the advertisements which would be offensive.
The publisher of The Ring guards this reputation of his magazine jealously. It is entertaining and it is clean."In 1972, following Fleischer's death, managing editor Nat Loubet, his son-in-law, took over as publisher, launching, in 1977, three international editions of the magazine. The Spanish version, Ring En Español, was published in Venezuela and distributed to all Spanish-speaking countries and the United States until 1985. There was a Japanese version published in Tokyo, a French version published in Paris. In 1979, the magazine was purchased from Loubet by flamboyant publisher Bert Randolph Sugar, who hired future New York boxing commissioner Randy Gordon as editor-in-chief. By 1985, both Sugar and Gordon had moved on watched from the sidelines as The Ring neared bankruptcy in 1989, causing the magazine to cease publication for most of the year, until rebounding under new ownership and management in 1990; the Ring magazine was saved from ruin in 1990 by Boxing Hall of Fame Publisher Stanley Weston who founded Boxing Illustrated, KO & World Boxing and GC London Publishing Corp.
Weston was a sentimentalist and 52 years after joining The Ring magazine as a stock boy, Weston purchased the magazine that gave him his first job. He not only resurrected the magazine from its imminent collapse, he re-established the publication as the definitive source for boxing news. An outstanding boxing artist, Weston painted 57 covers for The Ring with his first cover, a painting of Billy Conn, for the December 1939 issue. Weston was a photographer who, according to his own estimate, shot over 100,000 boxing photos—the majority of which are housed in the archives of The Ring magazine; some of the boxers featured on the magazine covers have included Tommy Ryan, Salvador Sánchez, Jack Dempsey, Pancho Villa, Max Schmeling, Joe Louis, Sugar Ray Robinson, Jake LaMotta, Rocky Marciano, Willie Pep, Muhammad Ali, Alexis Argüello, Wilfred Benítez, Wilfredo Gómez, Roberto Durán, Larry Holmes, Marvin Hagler, Sugar Ray Leonard, Bud Taylor, Mike Tyson, Evander Holyfield, Floyd Mayweather Jr. Thomas Hearns, Roy Jones Jr.
Bernard Hopkins, Julio César Chávez, Félix Trinidad, Manny Pacquiao, Oscar De La Hoya, Mauro Mina, Ricardo Mayorga. In 1977, boxer Cathy "Cat" Davis became the first female to be on a cover of The Ring, holding the distinction of being the only woman featured on the cover of the magazine until January 2016, when Ronda Rousey joined her and became the first Mixed Martial Arts fighter featured on Ring's cover; the Ring has used cover artwork created by famed artists such as Richard T. Slone; the Ring was published by London Publications and Kappa Publishing Group, which published sister magazines KO Magazine and World Boxing, which were former competitors of The Ring but ceased operations while under Kappa's ownership. The Ring magazine was led by International Boxing Hall of Famer Nigel Collins. Sports and Entertainment Publications, LLC, owns The Ring, which it acquired from Kappa Publishing Group in 2006. Sports and Entertainment Publications, LLC is owned by a group of private investors led by Oscar de la Hoya.
Acquired were KO Magazine and World Boxing. The magazine's rankings are recognized as "official" by some in the U. S. media ESPN. While some may see a conflict of interest in a boxing promoter being paymaster of what is a magazine/rankings organization that awards world titles and belts, De La Hoya says, not the case. "These magazines will be held in an editorial trust where they will be operating independent of any influence from me or others from the Golden Boy Companies as it relates to editorial direction or content". There is a 35-member ratings advisory panel, which include many of the media that cover boxing, who would prevent Golden Boy Promotions from using the magazine for self gain; the Ring was headquartered in Blue Bell, Pennsylvania until 2011 when it was relocated to Los Angeles. The magazine had a sister publication named The Ring Wrestling which came about due to professional wrestling writer Bob Leonard contacting the magazine and expressing that it was too focused on boxing and not giving wrestling enough coverage.
Nat Loubet served as the editor of the wrestling magazine as well. The Ring has its own championship belt in a given weight class where The Ring champion holds a linear reign to the throne, the man who beat the man; the Ring began awarding championship belts in 1922. The first Ring world title belt was awarded to heavyweight champion Jack Dempsey and the second was awarded to flyweight champion Pancho Villa; the Ring stopped giving belts to world champions in the 1990s reintroduced their t
Sames Auto Arena
Sames Auto Arena is a multi-purpose arena, in Laredo, Texas. The Sames Auto Arena can seat up to 8,065 fans at an ice hockey game, 8,067, at an arena football game, 10,000, at a basketball game, 11,360, at concerts, it is located on the northeastern side of Laredo. Within the Sames Auto Arena complex, there are several hotels within a walking distance; the Laredo International Airport is nearby. In 2010, the previously-named Laredo Entertainment Center was renamed the Laredo Energy Arena after Laredo Energy purchased the venue's naming rights. Eight years Sames Auto Group purchased the naming rights to the arena and the venue is now known as the Sames Auto Arena; the City of Laredo funded the $36.5 million project through a one-quarter percent sales tax increase, approved by Laredo voters on August 12, 2000, with the facility's groundbreaking taking place in June 2001. The facility opened in October 2002; the facility's management company, SMG, oversees all aspects of the arena including operations, scheduling and marketing.
With 32,000 square feet of continuous open floor space, the Sames Auto Arena has the largest indoor convention space in South Texas. The 178,000 square foot facility has a seating capacity of 10,000 with 14 luxury suites, six meeting rooms and a private club; the Sames Auto Arena sits on 25 acres at Jacaman Road and Loop 20 – property that Arena Ventures donated to the City of Laredo. Arena Ventures owns 35 additional acres around the site, being developed with hotels and office parks, specialized retail stores and restaurants, a $1.5 million water feature with fountains, a boardwalk and quarter-mile jogging track
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear