Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Alatriste is a 2006 Spanish epic historical fiction war film directed by Agustín Díaz Yanes, based on the main character of a series of novels written by Arturo Pérez-Reverte, The Adventures of Captain Alatriste. The film, which stars Viggo Mortensen, is the second most expensive Spanish language film made in Spain, it portrays Spain of the 17th century using both real characters. Twentieth Century Fox has bought the rights to the film; the story takes place during the 17th century in the Spanish Empire. Diego Alatriste is a soldier in the service of King Philip IV of Spain, during the Eighty Years' War; the story begins in the Netherlands, where the tercio of Diego Alatriste fights against the Dutch during the Dutch Revolt. Lope Balboa is killed here. Diego decides to return to Madrid, he is hired, along with a Sicilian assassin named Gualtiero Malatesta, to kill the Prince of Wales and his companion, the Duke of Buckingham. The job is contracted by Luis de Alquézar. Alatriste returns to the Netherlands in 1624 and participates in the final battles leading to Breda's surrender.
After the return to Spain, Íñigo wants to elope with Angélica, but she gets cold feet at the last moment. Alatriste has a romance with actress María de Castro; because she was disappointed that she failed to marry him, she became the lover of Philip IV. Alatriste ends up crossing swords with a friend of the king. In the end, the object of their attention falls ill with syphilis; the duel with his friend Martín Saldaña and the punishment of Íñigo in the galleys are part of the film's spectacular ending. The last scenes are at the Battle of Rocroi, described in the last book of The Adventures of Captain Alatriste saga. During the battle, Abel Moreno Gómez's "La Madrugá" is playing as the defeated army's march and this is where it is assumed that the old Captain Diego Alatriste dies; the plot of the film has elements from each of the five books published up to the premiere, it maintains the same storyline for the main characters. It includes excerpts from the future books of the saga. Viggo Mortensen as Captain Diego Alatriste Javier Cámara as Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of Olivares Eduardo Noriega as the Count of Guadalmedina Juan Echanove as the poet Francisco de Quevedo Unax Ugalde as Íñigo de Balboa, Alatriste's Basque squire Elena Anaya as Angélica de Alquézar, a teenaged femme fatale Ariadna Gil as María de Castro Francesc Garrido as Sheriff Saldaña Blanca Portillo as the inquisitor fray Emilio Bocanegra Antonio Dechent as Curro Garrote Paco Tous as Francisco de Melo Enrico Lo Verso as Gualtiero MalatestaAntonio Resines slated to appear as Saldaña retired from the entire movie due to a traffic accident.
The film was released on 1 September 2006. At the 21st Goya Awards the film was awarded and nominated for the following categories: Alatriste on IMDb Alatriste at AllMovie Official Arturo Pérez-Reverte's website
Óscar Jaenada Gajo is a Spanish actor. He has acted in more than forty films since 1999. Goya award for Best Actor for Camarón: When Flamenco Became Legend Óscar Jaenada on IMDb
Alfredo Landa Areta MML was a Spanish actor. He was born in Spain, he finished his pre-university studies in San Sebastián. He began university studies on Law, where he began to work with university school groups, he left university to work in the theater. After working as a dubbing actor for a short time in the 1950s, he debuted with his first considerable role in film in José María Forqué's Atraco a las tres in 1962; when Francisco Franco died in 1975, censorship began to disappear. This led to a growth of erotic comedies on Spanish cinema. Landa became the "sexually repressed" role of that trend under directors Mariano Ozores and Pedro Lazaga, he created his own trend, that some people called landismo. Afterwards, Landa changed his image, like his bandit in El Bosque animado. Landa, along with Francisco Rabal, won Best Actor award at 1984 Cannes Film Festival for his memorable performance in Los santos inocentes, he is now recognized as a great dramatic actor. After a career with more than one hundred and twenty movies, one dozen of television series, several stage successes, with a great amount of Spanish and European awards, 74-year-old Landa announced his retirement at the X Festival de Cine de Málaga while receiving a new award.
In 2008 he received the Prince of Viana Prize from the Government of Navarre for promoting his homeland, but he has received many film prizes throughout his career: Cannes Film Festival Goya Awards Fotogramas de Plata Spanish Actor's Guild TP de Oro Círculo de Escritores Cinematográficos Gold Medal of Merit in Labour. Alfredo Landa on IMDb
Luis García Berlanga
Luis García-Berlanga Martí was a Spanish film director and screenwriter. When young, he decided to study philosophy, but his true calling pushed him to enter in 1947 the Institute of Cinematographic Investigations and experiences in Madrid. In his youth he enrolled in the Blue Division in the Eastern Front of World War II to avoid his father's execution as a Republican politician, his debut as a film director in 1951 was with the film That Happy Couple in which he worked with Juan Antonio Bardem. With Bardem, he is considered to be one of Spanish film renovators after the Spanish civil war. Among his films stand out several unforgettable ones of Spanish film history, such as Welcome Mr. Marshall! or The Executioner. Bardem and he cofounded a film magazine, Objetivo, in 1953; the magazine existed until 1956. He worked on seven occasions with screenwriter Rafael Azcona. Characteristic of his films are their sense of irony and the satires of different social and political situations. During the Francoist State, his ability to outwit the censors allowed him to make daring projects such as Miracles on Thursdays.
In 1968, he was head of the jury at the 18th Berlin International Film Festival. In 1986 he received the Prince of Asturias Award for Arts and in 1993 the Goya for best director for Everyone to Jail! His film Plácido was nominated in 1961 for the Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film, Gold Medal for Fine Art in 1981, Spanish National Cinematography Prize in 1980, has been granted with the Italian Commendatore Order. Berlanga won international prizes in the most important film festivals: Cannes Film Festival, International Film Festival of Valencia, Montreal World Film Festival, Berlin Film Festival. In the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival he won a prize as one of the world’s ten most prominent film directors, he has been awarded a countless number of national acknowledgements. Esa pareja feliz co-written and co-directed Welcome Mr. Marshall! Novio a la vista Calabuch Miracles on Thursdays Plácido Las cuatro verdades El Verdugo Las Pirañas ¡Vivan los novios! Tamaño natural La escopeta nacional Patrimonio nacional Nacional III ( La vaquilla Moros y Cristianos Everyone to Jail!
París-Tombuctú El sueño de la maestra Días de viejo color No somos de piedra Corazón de bombón Hola Artemio Strangers to Themselves documentary Café Gijón Luis García Berlanga – Luis Garcia Berlanga's biography at Senses of Cinema Luis García Berlanga – In Spanish
Manolete known as The Passion Within in the United Kingdom and Passion in Canada, A Matador's Mistress in the United States, is a 2008 biopic of bullfighter Manuel Laureano Rodríguez Sánchez, better known as Manolete. The film was directed by Menno Meyjes; this is the first film from HandMade Films since Lock and Two Smoking Barrels. The Menno Meyjes directed drama stars Adrien Brody as Spanish bullfighter Manolete, in a film that covers his late life love affair with actress Lupe Sino before he was gored to death in the bull ring. Sino's communist politics turned their affair into a scandal in the early 1940s after discovering her previous marriage to a PCE member; the film begins with Manolete's last day in Linares. Adrien Brody as Manuel Laureano Rodríguez Sánchez, a.k.a. "Manolete" Penélope Cruz as Antoñita "Lupe" Sino Santiago Segura as Guillermo Ann Mitchell as Doña Angustias Josep Linuesa as Enrique de Ahumada Juan Echanove as Pepe Cámara Pedro Casablanc as General Tomas Rozzi as the'dealer' Nacho Aldeguer as Luis Miguel Dominguín Diego Martín Berta de la Dehesa Rubén Ochandiano Omar Muñoz as young Manolete Denise Moreno as girl Cayetano Rivera Ordóñez as Torero The film premiered on 28 August 2008 in the Toronto International Film Festival.
Despite a planned release date of 2007, the film faced several production delays and a spiralling budget. Although it was scheduled for a theatrical release in France on 31 March 2010, Deadline's Mike Fleming reported that, "Even though the film stars two Oscar winners, it never found any takers for a theatrical run." The film has been shelved since 2007. In April 2011 - Xenon Pictures CEO Leigh Savidge announced that on 7 June 2011 Xenon Pictures would release a newly edited version of A Matador's Mistress on DVD. Gravitas Ventures announced on 14 March 2011 that it has acquired VOD and digital rights to Manolete. Gravitas, licensing the film from Viva Pictures, plans to release the film on demand via cable, satellite and online in June 2011. "We are confident no one is better positioned to exploit this epic high-value production on a digital platform," said Viva president Victor Elizalde. Although bullfighting scenes were shot expensively without bulls, animal rights activists have encouraged a boycott of the film.
Protestors reject what they perceive to be a glamorous image of a matador on film. "It is inadmissible to release a film in which the hero is a matador," said the Alliance Anticorrida, a French anti-bullfighting group, in a message to its 20,000 members. "If they are properly informed, a great number of spectators will avoid this new film." The film has received few reviews, has not as yet got a critical score on Rotten Tomatoes, though it has a 39% audience score based on 500 reviews, together indicating negative reviews. It is not listed on Metacritic; the film was shot in 2005. Córdoba, Spain Alcoy, Comunidad Valenciana, Spain Alicante, Comunidad Valenciana, Spain Madrid, Spain El Puerto de Santa María, Spain Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Spain Manolete Official website Manolete on IMDb Manolete at Rotten Tomatoes Adrien Brody discusses preparing for the role with matador Cayetano Rivera Ordóñez in the March 2008 issue of Men's Vogue
Vicente Aranda Ezquerra was a Spanish film director and producer. Due to his refined and personal style, he was one of the most renowned Spanish filmmakers, he started as a founding member of the Barcelona School of Film and became known for bringing contemporary Spanish novels to life on the big screen. Aranda was noted for exploring difficult social issues and variations on the theme of desire while using the codes of melodrama. Love as uncontrollable passion and cruelty are constant themes in his filmography; the frank examination of sexuality is one of the trademarks of his work, as seen in his most internationally successful film: Amantes. Vicente Aranda Ezquerra was born in Barcelona on 9 November 1926, he was the youngest son in a large and impoverished family who had emigrated from Aragón to Barcelona twenty years before he was born. He knew his father, an itinerant photographer, who died when the child was only seven years old; the Spanish Civil War, in which his family took the side of the losing Republicans, marked his childhood.
Thinking that the war was going to be more bearable in a small town than in Barcelona, the family moved early in the war to Peñalba, his mother's native village. The dire situation there, close to the front at Aragon, forced them to return to Barcelona in 1938. After the war ended, Aranda spent a lot of time in the local movie theatre, much against the wishes of his mother, who took to smelling him on his return for traces of the disinfectant, sprayed in cinemas of the time, he never finished his formal studies. At age thirteen, he began to work, he had a number of different jobs in his home town, trying a multitude of trades before following his brother Palmiro to Venezuela in 1952. He emigrated for political reasons. In Venezuela, Aranda worked as a cargo technician for an American shipping business, he directed programs at NCR. After seven years, he returned to Spain in 1959. Wealthy and married upon his return, he intended to become a novelist, but found that he lacked enough talent as a writer.
He was encouraged to try his hand at filmmaking. He was not allowed to enroll at the School of Cinema in Madrid because he had not graduated from high school. In Barcelona and self-taught, Aranda found a way to direct his first feature film. Nearly 40 years old when he started directing, Aranda did not gain international success until his 60s, he had a prolific career, making 27 films in more than 40 years as a director. Vicente Aranda married twice, his first wife, Luisa, a name he used for the female leads in his films, committed suicide years after they divorced. They did not have children. Aranda's second wife, Teresa Font, was thirty years his junior, she was the editor of his movies since the mid-1980s. Aranda made his directorial debut with the low-budget Brillante Porvenir, co-directing with screenwriter Román Gubern to avoid problems with the directors guild of Spain. Loosely inspired by the American novel, The Great Gatsby, the film used the aesthetic of the neorealism in a story of a young man from the provinces who tries to make it into the Catalan middle class.
Brillante Porvenir, cut by censors, was received coldly by public and critics. This failure made; the director's second film, Fata Morgana, an unusual work in Spanish Cinema, is an experimental film, based on a script written with Gonzalo Suárez. The film took inspiration for its graphic visual style from comic strips. Ignored upon release, Fata Morgana would be recognized for inspiring the particular kitsch aesthetic of La Escuela de Barcelona, an avant garde movement which sought creative innovation in Spanish films. In the following years, Aranda's work played between pushing the artistic envelope and using a virtual style drawn from mass media. In these films, Aranda tackled established film genres with an eye on modernizing them. Since his first features were not seen, Aranda produced a commercially oriented film with fantastic and erotic overtones: Las Crueles. In it, a mysterious woman elaborates a scheme to avenge the death of her girlfriend by a callous publisher; this filmed was plagued with a series of problems: it was long in the making.
It would take Aranda many years to recover ownership of this film. The experience made him found his own production company: Morgana Film, which produced his next six features. In La Novia Ensangrentada, a female vampire seeks revenge against all men. A genre film for the cultural elite, it evaded censors by virtue of its incomprehensibility. By Aranda's own admission, he sacrificed conventional coherence for the cinematographic and phenomenological possibilities of each action; the film was distributed internationally in the United States and Italy. Aranda started to use the codes of melodrama with Clara es el Precio, an offbeat mix of melodrama and surreal comedy, he cast Amparo Muñoz, Spain's future Miss Universe, as a naive housewife adrift in a world without taboo. She pursues a career as a pornographic film actress in order to fund a business project for her impotent husband; this was made during El Destape, a period in Spanish Cinema that had a prolife