A cabildo or ayuntamiento was a Spanish colonial, early post-colonial, administrative council which governed a municipality. Cabildos were sometimes appointed, sometimes elected; the colonial cabildo was the same as the one developed in medieval Castile. The cabildo was the legal representative of the municipality—and its vecinos—before the Crown, therefore it was among the first institutions established by the conquistadors themselves after, or before, taking over an area. For example, Hernán Cortés established La Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz to free himself from the authority of the Governor of Cuba; the word cabildo has the same Latin root as the English word chapter, in fact, is the Spanish word for a cathedral chapter. The term ayuntamiento was preceded by the word excelentísimo as a style of office, when referring to the council; this phrase is abbreviated Exc.mo Ay.to The Castilian cabildo has some similarities to the ancient Roman municipium and civitas—especially in the use of plural administrative officers and its control of the surrounding countryside, the territorium—but its evolution is a uniquely medieval development.
With the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and the establishment of the Visigothic Kingdom, the ancient municipal government vanished. In many areas, seeking to escape from the political instability around them, people entrusted themselves to large landholders, exchanging their service for the landholder's protection, in a process that led to feudalism. In areas where the old territoria survived, the Visigothic kings appointed a single officer, called either a comes or a iudice to replace the defunct municipia or civitates. After the Muslim conquest, the new rulers appointed various judicial officers to manage the affairs of the cities. Qadis heard any cases that fell under the purview of Sharia law and sahibs oversaw the administration of the various other areas of urban life, such as the markets and the public order; the cabildo proper began its slow evolution in the process of the Reconquista. As fortified areas grew into urban centers or older cities were incorporated into the expanding Christian kingdoms of Portugal, León and Castile, kings granted the cities various levels of self-rule and unique sets of laws and made them the administrative center of a large terminus or alfoz, analogous to the ancient territorium.
In general, municipal governments consisted of a council open to all the property-owning adult males of the city and a nobleman appointed to represent the king and organize the defense of the city and terminus. By the 13th century, these open councils proved unwieldy and were replaced by a smaller body, the cabildo or ayuntamiento consisting of set number of regidores elected by the property owners in the city; these new bodies took their permanent form by the end of the 14th century. As part of the same process, a municipal council with different attributes and composition evolved in the neighboring Kingdom of Aragon during this period. In theory, every municipality in the Spanish colonies in the Americas and the Spanish Philippines had a cabildo. Municipalities were not just the cities. All lands were assigned to a municipality; the cabildo made local laws and reported to the presidente of the audiencia, who in turn reported to the viceroy. The cabildo had judicial and administrative duties.
For this reason it was addressed with the formula, Justicia y Regimiento. The cabildo consisted of several types of officials. There were four depending on the size and importance of the municipality. Regidores, were not just deliberative officers, but all shared in the administration of the territory, dividing tasks among themselves; the regidores were elected by all the heads of household. In the late Middle Ages, these elections turned violent, with citizens forming bands to control elections and resorting to murder. To minimize this kings began to appoint a certain number of, or all of, the regidores in certain cities. By the modern era different cabildos had different mixes of elected and appointed regidores both on the Peninsula and overseas. To add another layer of control, the kings introduced corregidores to represent them directly and preside over the cabildos. Although many municipalities lost their right to elect all or some of their regidores as time went on, cities and cabildos gained new power with the development of the Castilian and Leonese parliaments because cities had a right to representation in them.
In addition to the council members, the cabildo had one or two magistrates, the alcaldes, whom the regidores elected every January 1. Alcaldes served as judges of first instance in all criminal and civil cases and acted as presiding officers of the cabildo, unless there was a corregidor. In provincial capitals the first alcalde would fill in for incapacitated governors. Other officers were the alférez real, who had a vote in cabildo deliberations and would substitute the alcalde if the latter could not carry out the functions of his office. After the Bou
Presidio San Antonio de Béxar
Presidio San Antonio de Béxar was a Spanish fort built near the San Antonio River, located in what is now San Antonio, Texas, in the United States. It was designed for civil settlement in central Texas, it served to secure Spain's claim to the region from French and American aggression. It was built by the Payaya. From the Convent of Querétaro, several expeditions were organized to the region of Texas, an area of great strategic importance to the Spanish crown. With that goal, in 1675 an expedition formed by Fray Antonio de Olivares, Fray Francisco Hidalgo, Fray Juan Larios, Fernando del Bosque was sent to explore and describe the country beyond the Rio Grande, to test the possibilities of new settlements in the area. In 1709, Olivares participated in the expedition headed by Pedro de Aguirre, together with Fray Isidro de Espinosa, exploring the territory between the present-day location of the city of San Antonio and the Colorado River; the same year, he traveled to Spain to convince the authorities of the importance of maintaining the territory and establishing new missions on the bank of the San Antonio River.
The authorities said "yes." He remained in Spain six years. In 1716, Fray Antonio de Olivares wrote to the Viceroy of New Spain, telling of their hopes and plans for the future mission, urged him to send families of settlers to found a town. In the same letter, he stressed that it was necessary for some of these families to be skilled in the useful arts and industries, "to teach the Indians all that should be required to be useful and capable citizens." Fray Antonio's perseverance paid off, the Viceroyalty gave formal approval for the missions in late 1716, assigning responsibility for their establishment to Martín de Alarcón, the governor of Coahuila y Tejas. Fray Antonio de Olivares organized the construction of the new mission San Antonio de Valero, from the next Mission San Francisco Solano, he built the first irrigation ditch in Texas, six miles long, to irrigate 400 hectares of land and to supply water to the new facilities. The operating complex was completed with the construction of the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar, on the west side of the San Antonio River one-half mile from the mission.
It was designed to protect the system of missions and civilian settlements in central Texas and to represent Spanish regional interests, considering the aggression of French and Americans. The presidio consisted of an adobe building, thatched with grass, with soldiers and their families quartered in brush huts; as settlers concentrated around the presidio complex and mission, it began to form the town of Béjar or Béxar, which became the cornerstone of Spanish Tejas or Texas. Being located in the center of several operating systems, mission Béxar did not suffer the needs and anxieties of other presidios. Despite occasional Indian attacks, the defenses of the presidio walls were never completed or were deemed necessary, as the mission was completed and converted into the main unit of walled defense. On May 5, the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar was founded on the west side of the San Antonio River, marking the origin of the present city of San Antonio, Texas; the event was chaired by Martin de Alarcón.
On February 14, 1719, the Marquess of San Miguel de Aguayo made a report to the king of Spain, proposing that 400 families be transported from the Canary Islands, Galicia, or Habana to populate the province of Texas. In June 1730, 25 families came to Cuba, 10 families were sent to Veracruz. Under the leadership of Juan Leal Goraz, the group in Veracruz marched overland to the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar, arriving on March 9, 1731; the group joined the military community resident since 1718, forming the first government of the city and taking as its headquarters the Presidio of San Antonio de Béxar. In 1726, there were 45 soldiers in 4 families living nearby. Soldiers' quarters and the Spanish Governor's Palace were completed in 1749 to house the military garrison's commanding officer; the location became known as the Plaza de Armas. In 1763, there were 22 soldiers in the presidio, entrusted to defend all five nearby missions; the soldiers at times were used as escorts, to prevent cattle rustling and smuggling.
In 1772, other forts in the area were closed. Béxar was made the presidio captain served as regional governor. In 1790, plans were never realized. In 1803, 100 men from the Second Flying Company of San Carlos de Parras were sent to reinforce the presidio, from Parras de la Fuente in southern Coahuila. Under the jurisdiction of the clergy of the Villa de San Fernando de Béxar and the Bishop of Nuevo León, they occupied the presidio Plaza de Armas and the secularized mission of San Antonio de Valero. Although stockade walls were begun in 1805 on the north side of the city, a fort was no longer believed necessary. By 1806, all the troops had moved into the former Alamo Mission, by a fort. In 1811, retired militia officer, Juan Bautista de las Casas, persuaded the presidio soldiers to rebel against its Spanish officers. Support for the Royalist officers was re-established, the soldiers joined the army under Manuel María de Salcedo and fough
Yanaguana (San Antonio)
Yanaguana was the Payaya Indian village in the geographical area that became the Bexar County city of San Antonio, in the U. S. state of Texas. Some accounts believe the Payaya referred to the San Antonio River as Yanaguana, it is sometimes promoted as such for the tourist industry. For a number of years, the city of San Antonio contracted with Yanaguana Cruises Inc. for an exclusive monopoly to operate tour barges on a select section of the river. The National Park Service has a designated "Yanaguana Trail" that runs along the river at Mission San Juan Capistrano. In 1933 Frederick C. Chabot of San Antonio formed the Yanaguana Society named for the Payaya village, to collect and preserve the early artifacts and history of the area; the organization lasted through 1960. The first recorded European contact with the village occurred when Spanish Franciscian priest Damián Massanet led a military expedition through the area. Massanet wrote in the June 13, 1691 entry to his diary that he had named the area San Antonio de Padua, but that the Payaya they encountered had called their village Yanaguana.
The priest detailed a great variety of trees, abundant waters and fishing opportunities, noted the wild chickens at Yanaguana. The Payaya were a nomadic Coahuiltecan band who camped at Yanaguana for the reasons Massanet mentioned in his diary; the natural bounty of the area met their needs for sustaining their village. In 1709, Spanish Franciscan missionary Isidro de Espinosa renamed the area Agua de San Pedro; the city of San Antonio created San Pedro Springs Park out of Yanaguana in 1852. At Yanaguana in 1718, Martín de Alarcón founded the city of San Antonio by establishing San Antonio de Valero on the west side of the springs, Presidio San Antonio de Bexar. On May 1, 1718, Alarcón turned over possession of the "..mission at the site of the Indian village on the banks of the San Antonio River..." to Franciscan priest Antonio de Olivares. In 1729, King Philip V of Spain decreed the area public land; the mission that began as huts was moved to the other side of the river a year later. In 1724, the mission was moved to its current location south of the springs, at what is now known as Alamo Plaza.
Acequia Madre de Valero
Havana is the capital city, largest city, major port, leading commercial center of Cuba. The city has a population of 2.1 million inhabitants, it spans a total of 781.58 km2 – making it the largest city by area, the most populous city, the fourth largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean region. The city of Havana was founded by the Spanish in the 16th century and due to its strategic location it served as a springboard for the Spanish conquest of the Americas, becoming a stopping point for treasure-laden Spanish galleons returning to Spain; the King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City in 1592. Walls as well as forts were built to protect the old city; the sinking of the U. S. battleship Maine in Havana's harbor in 1898 was the immediate cause of the Spanish–American War. The city is the center of the Cuban government, home to various ministries, headquarters of businesses and over 90 diplomatic offices; the current mayor is Marta Hernández of the Communist Party of Cuba. In 2009, the city/province had the third highest income in the country.
Contemporary Havana can be described as three cities in one: Old Havana and the newer suburban districts. The city extends westward and southward from the bay, entered through a narrow inlet and which divides into three main harbors: Mari melena and Antares; the sluggish Almendares River traverses the city from south to north, entering the Straits of Florida a few miles west of the bay. The city attracts over a million tourists annually. Old Havana was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1982; the city is noted for its history, culture and monuments. As typical of Cuba, Havana experiences a tropical climate. Most native settlements became the site of Spanish colonial cities retaining their original Taíno names. Conquistador Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar founded Havana on August 25, 1515, on the southern coast of the island, near the present town of Surgidero de Batabanó, or more on the banks of the Mayabeque River close to Playa Mayabeque. All attempts to found. However, an early map of Cuba drawn in 1514 places the town at the mouth of this river.
Between 1514 and 1519 the Spanish established at least two different settlements on the north coast, one of them in La Chorrera, today in the neighborhoods of Vedado and Miramar, next to the Almendares River. The town that became Havana originated adjacent to what was called Puerto de Carenas, in 1519; the quality of this natural bay, which now hosts Havana's harbor, warranted this change of location. Pánfilo de Narváez gave Havana – the sixth town founded by the Spanish on Cuba – its name: San Cristóbal de la Habana; the name combines patron saint of Havana. Shortly after the founding of Cuba's first cities, the island served as little more than a base for the Conquista of other lands. Havana began as a trading port, suffered regular attacks by buccaneers and French corsairs; the first attack and resultant burning of the city was by the French corsair Jacques de Sores in 1555. Such attacks convinced the Spanish Crown to fund the construction of the first fortresses in the main cities – not only to counteract the pirates and corsairs, but to exert more control over commerce with the West Indies, to limit the extensive contrabando that had arisen due to the trade restrictions imposed by the Casa de Contratación of Seville.
Ships from all over the New World carried products first to Havana, in order to be taken by the fleet to Spain. The thousands of ships gathered in the city's bay fueled Havana's agriculture and manufacture, since they had to be supplied with food and other products needed to traverse the ocean. On December 20, 1592, King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City. On, the city would be designated as "Key to the New World and Rampart of the West Indies" by the Spanish Crown. In the meantime, efforts to build or improve the defensive infrastructures of the city continued. Havana expanded in the 17th century. New buildings were constructed from the most abundant materials of the island wood, combining various Iberian architectural styles, as well as borrowing profusely from Canarian characteristics. In 1649, an epidemic of the fatal Yellow fever brought from Cartagena in Colombia affected a third of the European population of Havana. By the middle of the 18th century Havana had more than seventy thousand inhabitants, was the third-largest city in the Americas, ranking behind Lima and Mexico City but ahead of Boston and New York.
During the 18th century Havana was the most important of the Spanish ports because it had facilities where ships could be refitted and, by 1740, it had become Spain's largest and most active shipyard and only drydock in the New World. The city was captured by the British during the Seven Years' War; the episode began on June 6, 1762, when at dawn, a British fleet, comprising more than 50 ships and a combined force of over 11,000 men of the Royal Navy and Army, sailed into Cuban waters and made an amphibious landing east of Havana. The British opened up trade with their North American and Caribbean colonies, causing a rapid transformation of Cuban society. Less than a year after Havana was seized, the Peace of Paris was signed by the three warring powers thus ending the Seven Years' War; the treaty gave
Teguise is a municipality in the central part of the island of Lanzarote in the Las Palmas province in the Canary Islands. The population is 22,122, the area is 263.98 km². It is located south of Haría; the seat of the municipality is the town of Teguise. The municipality comprises a number of neighbouring islands including Graciosa, Roque del Este, Roque del Oeste and Montaña Clara; the artist and architect César Manrique was born in the area. The insect of the island is the cochineal from which a dye, is extracted. Jardín de Cactus, in Guatiza Wind sculpture List of municipalities in Las Palmas
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Cuautitlán Izcalli is a city and municipality in the north of Mexico City, Mexico. The name comes from Náhuatl and means'your house among the trees.' By 2005 Mexican national intermediary census figures, the city of Cuautitlán Izcalli is the sixth-most populous in the state, with its population of 477,872 dominating a municipality of 498,021 people. As municipal seat, the city of Cuautitlán Izcalli has governing jurisdiction over the following communities: Axotlán, Ej. Sta. Ma. Tianguistenco, Ejido de Guadalupe, El Cerrito, Las Tinajas, Los Ailes, San Pablo de los Gallos The second-largest community in the municipal area of 109.9 square kilometres is the town of Huilango. It is bordered by the municipalities of Cuautitlán, Tultitlán, Tlalnepantla de Baz, Atizapán de Zaragoza, Nicolás Romero, Tepotzotlán and Teoloyucán. Cuautitlán Izcalli municipality was created in the 1970s, carved out of Cuautitlán de Romero Rubio. Planned as the first self-sufficient city in the neighbourhood of Mexico City, the city's design was based on European and American cities and included an industrial, a residential and several green areas.
After the 1985 Mexico City earthquake, the plans fell apart due to a large influx of people searching for zones, such as Cuautitlán Izcalli, with no seismic danger. Nowadays 75% of the municipality's residents work in nearby cities such as Satellite City and Mexico City, causing enormous congestion on the only highway available, the Periférico. Several shopping malls have opened in recent years, including San Miguel, San Marcos, Luna Parc, which compete with Perinorte to the south of the municipality. There is a Ford Motor Company plant, assembling Fiestas, a Bacardi spirits factory. Cuautitlán Izcalli is home of the Centro Episcopal Mexicano visited by Pope John Paul II during his 1991 visit to the country. You can find the largest San Benedict's Abbey in Mexico and the second largest music auditorium, Teatro San Benito Abad, in the urban area of Mexico City. Juan Manuel Gliffard, from Cuautitlán, took part in the discussions leading to the Constitution of 1917, under the rule of Venustiano Carranza.
He was exiled in 1923. On 9 June 2014, Pope Francis erected the new Izcalli Diocese to serve the area, with territory taken from the Cuautitlán Diocese. Municipalities of Mexico State Mexico State Ayuntamiento de Cuautitlán Izcalli Official website Comercio en Cuautitlán Izcalli Comercio en Cuautitlan Izcalli