Juan Carlos Onganía
Juan Carlos Onganía Carballo was de facto President of Argentina from 29 June 1966 to 8 June 1970. He rose to power as military dictator after toppling the president Arturo Illia in a coup d'état self-named Revolución Argentina. While preceding military coups in Argentina were aimed at establishing temporary, transitional juntas, the Revolución Argentina headed by Onganía aimed at establishing a new political and social order, opposed both to liberal democracy and to communism, which gave to the Armed Forces of Argentina a leading role in the political and economic operation of the country; the political scientist Guillermo O'Donnell named this type of regime "authoritarian-bureaucratic state", in reference both to the Revolución Argentina, the Brazilian military regime, Augusto Pinochet's regime and Juan María Bordaberry's regime in Uruguay. While Chief of the Army in 1963, Onganía helped crush the 1963 Argentine Navy Revolt by mobilizing troops that seized rebelling Navy bases. However, he demonstrated a disregard for civil authority when he refused to call off his troops after a ceasefire agreement had been approved by President José María Guido and his cabinet, was only convinced to follow orders after a tense meeting.
As military dictator, Onganía suspended political parties and supported a policy of Participacionismo, by which representatives of various interest groups such as industry and agriculture, would form committees to advise the government. However these committees were appointed by the dictator himself. Onganía suspended the right to strike and supported a corporatist economic and social policy, enforced in Cordoba by the appointed governor, Carlos Caballero. Onganía's Minister of Economy, Adálbert Krieger Vasena, decreed a wage freeze and a 40% devaluation, which adversely impacted the state of the Argentine economy, favoring foreign capital. Krieger Vasena suspended collective labour conventions, reformed the Fossil Fuels Law which had established a partial monopoly of the Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales state enterprise and signed a law facilitating the expulsion of tenants in cases of non-payment of rent. Onganía's rule signified an end to university autonomy, achieved by the University Reform of 1918.
A month into his administration, he was responsible for the violation of university autonomy in the so-called La Noche de los Bastones Largos in which he ordered police to invade the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires. Students and professors were arrested. Many were forced to leave the country, beginning a "brain drain" that adversely affects Argentine academia to this day. Onganía ordered repression on all forms of "immoralism", proscribing miniskirts, long hair for boys, all avant-garde artistic movements; this moral campaign favorized the radicalization of the middle classes, who were over-represented in universities. In 1969, Ongania dedicated the country to the Immaculate Heart of Mary; this position was opposed by the other factions in the military, which felt that its influence in government would be diminished. At the end of May 1968, General Julio Alsogaray dissented from Onganía, rumors spread about a possible coup d'état, Alsogaray leading the conservative opposition to Onganía.
At the end of the month, Onganía dismissed the leaders of the Armed Forces: Alejandro Lanusse replaced Julio Alsogaray, Pedro Gnavi replaced Benigno Varela, Jorge Martínez Zuviría replaced Adolfo Alvarez. Ongania's ruthless government was weakened by a popular uprising of workers and students that took place in the whole of the country, in particular in the interior, in cities such as Córdoba in 1969 or Rosario; the dominant military faction, led by General Lanusse, demanded. When he refused, he was toppled by a military junta. Jorge Rafael Videla Argentine military officer who would succeed Ongania. 31 yrs after
Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas Solórzano is a prominent Mexican politician. He is a former Head of Government of the Federal District and a founder of the Party of the Democratic Revolution, he ran for the presidency of Mexico three times. His 1988 loss to the Institutional Revolutionary Party candidate by the narrowest of margins had long been considered a direct result of obvious electoral fraud acknowledged by President Miguel de la Madrid, he served as a Senator, having been elected in 1976 to represent the state of Michoacán and as the Governor of Michoacán from 1980 to 1986. He was named after the last Aztec emperor, Cuauhtémoc, he is the only son of Amalia Solórzano. When he was seven months old, his father was inaugurated as President of Mexico, he studied at Colegio Williams, an all-boys private, secular English-language school that has a rigorous academic curriculum. The school is located in the old mansion of José Yves Limantour. An alumnus described the education there as cultivating "the body as a source of energy and fighting.
It was an energy destined to produce intelligent animals of prey. Worshiped manly virtues like tenacity, strength and aggression."Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas served as his father's aide de camp in years, when the former president remained a powerful political figure. Lázaro Cárdenas remained active in Institutional Revolutionary Party politics, with son Cuauhtémoc, tried to move the party to a more leftist stance. Both were active in the Movimiento de Liberación Nacional, which sought international support for Cuba following its 1959 revolution, as well as to affect domestic politics in Mexico the need for democracy in the PRI and decentralization of power. Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas served as a senator for the state of Michoacán from 1974 to 1980 and as governor of that same state from 1980 to 1986, he won election to these two posts as a member of the then-ruling Institutional Revolutionary Party. When President Miguel de la Madrid, a centrist who began policy changes in Mexico that liberalized its economy, designated his presidential successor as Carlos Salinas de Gortari, another technocrat with centrist tendencies, leftist elements within the PRI formed a "democratic current."
They demanded democracy and a return to a more leftist, populist stance by the PRI. Cárdenas and Porfirio Muñoz Ledo led this current. There was an informal rule within the PRI called'"el dedazo," the incumbent president's unwritten and exclusive right to designate his successor. With the designation of Salinas as the official candidate, the democratic current were forced out of the PRI. In an interview with historian Enrique Krauze, De la Madrid said "as far as I'm concerned, let them go! Let them form another party." It was too late to form a new party in advance of the July 1988 elections, but a coalition of small left-wing parties, the Frente Democrático Nacional supported Cárdenas as their candidate. On July 6, 1988, the day of the elections, a system shutdown of the IBM AS/400 that the government was using to count the votes occurred; the government stated that se cayó el sistema, to refer to the incident. When the system was restored, Carlos Salinas was declared the official winner; the elections became controversial, though some declare that Salinas won the expression se cayó el sistema became a colloquial euphemism for electoral fraud.
It was the first time in 59 years, from the creation of PRI to that point, that the winning of the presidency by that party was in doubt, the citizens of Mexico realized that PRI could lose. Historian Enrique Krauze's assessment is, but in memory of his father, the missionary general, a man of strong convictions but not a man of violence, he did the country a great service by sparing it a possible civil war."The following year, Cárdenas and other leading center-left and leftist PRI politicians, including Francisco Arellano-Belloc, formally founded the Party of the Democratic Revolution. He was elected the PRD's first president, running unopposed, had a huge influence on the Executive Board's composition; the party had the expectation that Cárdenas would make another run for the presidency in 1994 and he was this new party's candidate in the 1994 presidential election. He placed third, trailing the PAN candidates, with 17 % of the national vote; that election year was tumultuous, with the rebellion of the Zapatista Army of National Liberation in Chiapas beginning January 1, the assassination of the PRI candidate Luis Donaldo Colosio in March, his replacement as presidential candidate by Ernesto Zedillo.
Cárdenas's poor showing at the polls may reflect the Mexican public's desire for stability via the long time ruling party remaining in office. In the assessment of Enrique Krauze, "the events in Chiapas cost the PRD and its candidate, Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas--who had no involvement with the Zapatista uprising--the votes of many Mexicans uneasy with the return of the past." Despite the PRD's electoral results, they were part of the 1996 negotiations between the PRI and the conservative National Action Party on institutional reform. In 1995, Cárdenas played a role in the peace negotiations with the Zapatistas. In 1996, the PRD was choosing a new party president, Cárdenas's ally Manuel López Obrador, like Cárdenas sought a political alliance with the Zapati
Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires
Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires is a public high school in Buenos Aires, Argentina. In the tradition of the European gymnasium it provides a free education that includes classical languages such as Latin and Greek; the school is one of the most prestigious in Argentina. Its alumni include many personalities, including two Nobel laureates and four Presidents of Argentina, its origins date to 1661, when it was known as Colegio Grande de San Carlos, when the colonial government entrusted the Jesuit Order with the education of the youth. After the Papal suppression of the Jesuits from Spanish Empire-controlled South America in 1767, the institution languished until 1772, when governor Juan José de Vértiz y Salcedo reopened the school as the Real Colegio de San Carlos. Vértiz appointed Viceroy of the Río de la Plata, renamed the school Real Convictorio Carolino in 1783, a name that endured until 1806. Thereafter, the school changed its program several times. President Bartolomé Mitre redesignated the institution as the Colegio Nacional in 1863, since 1911 the school has been administered by the University of Buenos Aires.
Only for men, the school has admitted female students since 1957. Nowadays, students from the Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires rank among the best in most science Olympiads, such as the IPhO, IChO and IBO. Alumni include many of Argentina's founding fathers, members of political parties of all ideologies, internationally recognized scientists and two Nobel laureates. A partial list includes: In the present Macri's Administration: Hernán Lombardi, Martín Losteau During the previous Fernandez de Kirchner Administration, government officials: Axel Kicillof. Alberto Manguel - writer, essayist, journalist Herman Aguinis - business school professor, author Luis Agote - devised the first effective method of blood transfusion Roberto Aizenberg - Surrealist painter Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear - President of Argentina, 1922–1928 Mariano Moreno - Independence figure, member of the first independent government of Argentina. Manuel Belgrano - leader in the Argentine War of Independence, creator of the national flag Miguel Cané - writer and lawmaker Gregorio de Laferrère - playwright and lawmaker Martiniano Molina - chef and elected mayor of Quilmes Partido Juan Bautista Egusquiza - President of Paraguay, 1894–1898 Bernardo Houssay - Nobel laureate in Medicine, 1947 Agustin P. Justo - President of Argentina, 1932–1938 Mario Firmenich - Montoneros guerrilla leader Alejandro Korn - philosopher and lawmaker Ernesto Jaimovich - politician Manuel Mendanha - plastic artist Film directors: Manuel Antin, Fabián Bielinsky, Ana Katz, Nicolas Entel Salvador Mazza - epidemiologist who helped control Chagas disease locally Father Carlos Mugica - activist priest, assassinated in 1974 José Pablo Ventura - student activist, assassinated in 1977 José Luis Murature - Foreign Minister of Argentina, 1914–1916 Carlos Pellegrini - President of Argentina, 1890–1892 Ignacio Pirovano - surgeon, performed first local laparotomy Nicolás Repetto - co-founder of the Socialist Party of Argentina and Cooperative movement leader Carlos Saavedra Lamas - Nobel Peace laureate Roque Sáenz Peña - President of Argentina, 1910–1914 Lalo Schiffrin - composer and pianist, born Boris Claudio Schifrin, Grammy Award winner and Academy Award nominee Bernardo Grinspun - economist, Economy Minister Journalists: Pepe Eliaschev, Martín Caparrós, Rolando Hanglin, Mario Mactas Ana María Shua - writer Ada María Elflein- Poet Alicia Moreau de Justo - political figure, pioneer in women's and human rights.
Roberto Alemann - lawyer and economist, antinazi activist, Several times minister of Economy. Juan Ernesto Alemann - economist, antinazi activist, Minister of Economy Mario Roberto Álvarez, architect, he designed the municipal Teatro General San Martín. Cartoonists: Caloi, Nik Julio Montaner - AIDS research pioneer The school offers an astronomy observatory, a swimming pool, a cinema, a sports campus with football, handball, volleyball and basketball courts. Free classes are available such as astronomy, languages, tango, history of cinema, piano, band production and martial arts; the sailing team has won many of the local competitions. It has a choir, which sings in the most important school events. In accordance with the meritocratic conception of the school, admission is competitive, it involves ten exams after a year-long course, testing in language, mathematics and history. Every year 1,200 candidates apply but only around 400 gain admission. There are about 2,000 students enrolled, who pay no fees since the school is public and therefore free.
Escuela Superior de Comercio Carlos Pellegrini Instituto Libre de Segunda Enseñanza
Revolución Libertadora was a military and civilian uprising that ended the second presidential term of Juan Perón in Argentina, on 16 September 1955. President Perón was first elected in 1946. In 1949, a constitutional amendment sponsored by the government introduced a number of workers' rights and the possibility of presidential reelection. Perón was reelected in 1952. At the time, his administration was supported by the labor unions, the military and the Catholic Church. However, economic problems, some of the government's policies and Perón's own personality cult changed this situation; the opposition criticized Perón because of his treatment of dissidents. The government's relationship with the Catholic Church worsened; as the Church distanced itself from Perón, the government, which had first respected the Church's privileges, now took them away in a distinctly confrontational fashion. By 1954, the Catholic clergy was anti-Peronist, which influenced some factions of the military. Meanwhile, a Christian Democratic Party was founded in 1954 after several other organisations had been active promoting Christian democracy in Argentina.
By 1955, Perón had lost the support of a large part of the military, who conspired with other political actors. There was turmoil in different parts of the country. On 14 June, Catholic bishops spoke against Perón during a Corpus Christi procession which turned into an anti-government demonstration. On 16 June 1955, 30 Argentine Navy and Air Force aircraft bombed Plaza de Mayo, Buenos Aires' main square, killing over 300 civilians and wounding hundreds more; the attack remains to this day the largest aerial bombing executed on the Argentine mainland. The bombing targeted the adjacent Casa Rosada, the official seat of government, as a large crowd was gathered there expressing support for president Juan Perón; the strike took place during a day of official public demonstrations to condemn the burning of a national flag carried out by detractors of Perón during the recent procession of Corpus Christi. In retaliation, extremist Peronist groups attacked and burned several churches that night instigated by Vice-President Alberto Teisaire.
The only important political support for Perón came from the General Confederation of Labour, which called the workers to defend the president. Perón addressed a workers' demonstration on 31 August. On 16 September, a new uprising, led by General Eduardo Lonardi, General Pedro E. Aramburu and Admiral Isaac Rojas, deposed Perón and established a provisional government. For several days, there was some fighting in places like the city of Córdoba, the Puerto Belgrano Naval Base near Bahía Blanca, another naval base at Río Santiago, a mechanized infantry regiment at Curuzú Cuatiá, Corrientes Province; the rebellion in Corrientes, defeated, was led by Pedro Eugenio Aramburu, who became one of the main players of the future government. Two rebel destroyers, that were enforcing the blockade of the Río de la Plata, were strafed by loyalist aircraft and suffered some casualties; the city of Mar del Plata was subjected to naval bombardment on 19 September by the light cruiser ARA 9 de Julio and several destroyers, scattered skirmishes and air strikes took place elsewhere, including Buenos Aires itself.
After realizing that the country was on the brink of civil war, Perón resigned and sought asylum in Paraguay, after taking shelter aboard the Paraguayan gunboat Paraguay. On 23 September, Lonardi assumed the presidency and gave a speech from the balcony of the Casa Rosada, saying that there would be "neither victors nor vanquished". General Lonardi promised that the interim administration would end as soon as the country was "reorganized", his conciliatory tone earned him the opposition of hard-liners, in November an internal coup deposed Lonardi and placed General Aramburu in the presidency, giving rise to a wild "anti-Peronism". After the Revolución Libertadora, Perón and his followers were accused of treason, Eva Perón's remains were moved secretly to Italy and buried in a graveyard at Milan under a fake identity. Public references to Perón or his late wife, including songs and pictures, were forbidden. Sportsmen like Delfo Cabrera, Mary Terán de Weiss, many of the major basketball players, as well as Olympic-level athlete, Osvaldo Suárez, were unfairly punished, by being accused of having gotten their sports success only because they were Perón followers.
The Peronist Party suffered a proscription, to last until Perón's return in 1973 though Perón influenced the results of the 1958 and 1963 elections from his exile in Madrid. Peronismo. Historia Argentina: Los gobiernos de Perón. Sucesos Históricos Argentinos. Civiles y militares de 1955 a 1983. La Revolución Libertadora en Internet 16 de septiembre de 1955 - Golpe autodenominado “Revolución Libertadora” Potash, Robert A; the Army and Politics in Argentina, 1945-1962: Peron to Frondizi Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, ISBN 978-0804710565
Cuba the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet, it is east of the Yucatán Peninsula, south of both the U. S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is capital; the area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometres. The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometres, the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants; the territory, now Cuba was inhabited by the Ciboney Taíno people from the 4th millennium BC until Spanish colonisation in the 15th century. From the 15th century, it was a colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, when Cuba was occupied by the United States and gained nominal independence as a de facto United States protectorate in 1902.
As a fragile republic, in 1940 Cuba attempted to strengthen its democratic system, but mounting political radicalization and social strife culminated in a coup and subsequent dictatorship under Fulgencio Batista in 1952. Open corruption and oppression under Batista's rule led to his ousting in January 1959 by the 26th of July Movement, which afterwards established communist rule under the leadership of Fidel Castro. Since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba; the country was a point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, a nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Cuba is one of few Marxist–Leninist socialist states, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent observers have accused the Cuban government of numerous human rights abuses, including arbitrary imprisonment. Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America, it is a multiethnic country whose people and customs derive from diverse origins, including the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves and a close relationship with the Soviet Union in the Cold War.
Cuba is a sovereign state and a founding member of the United Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the African and Pacific Group of States, ALBA and Organization of American States. The country is a middle power in world affairs, it has one of the world's only planned economies, its economy is dominated by the exports of sugar, tobacco and skilled labor. According to the Human Development Index, Cuba has high human development and is ranked the eighth highest in North America, though 67th in the world, it ranks in some metrics of national performance, including health care and education. It is the only country in the world to meet the conditions of sustainable development put forth by the WWF. Historians believe the name Cuba comes from the Taíno language, however "its exact derivation unknown"; the exact meaning of the name is unclear but it may be translated either as'where fertile land is abundant', or'great place'. Fringe theory writers who believe that Christopher Columbus was Portuguese state that Cuba was named by Columbus for the town of Cuba in the district of Beja in Portugal.
Before the arrival of the Spanish, Cuba was inhabited by three distinct tribes of indigenous peoples of the Americas. The Taíno, the Guanahatabey and the Ciboney people; the ancestors of the Ciboney migrated from the mainland of South America, with the earliest sites dated to 5,000 BP. The Taíno arrived from Hispanola sometime in the 3rd century A. D; when Columbus arrived they were the dominant culture in Cuba, having an estimated population of 150,000. The Taíno were farmers, while the Ciboney were farmers as well as hunter-gatherers. After first landing on an island called Guanahani, Bahamas, on 12 October 1492, Christopher Columbus commanded his three ships: La Pinta, La Niña and the Santa María, to land on Cuba's northeastern coast on 28 October 1492. Columbus claimed the island for the new Kingdom of Spain and named it Isla Juana after Juan, Prince of Asturias. In 1511, the first Spanish settlement was founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar at Baracoa. Other towns soon followed, including San Cristobal de la Habana, founded in 1515, which became the capital.
The native Taíno were forced to work under the encomienda system, which resembled a feudal system in Medieval Europe. Within a century the indigenous people were wiped out due to multiple factors Eurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no natural resistance, aggravated by harsh conditions of the repressive colonial subjugation. In 1529, a measles outbreak in Cuba killed two-thirds of those few natives who had survived smallpox. On 18 May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto departed from Havana at the head of some 600 followers into a vast expedition through the Southeastern United States, starting at La Florida, in search of gold, treasure and power. On 1 September 1548, Dr. Gonzalo Perez de Angulo was appointed governor of Cuba, he arrived in Santiago, Cuba on 4 November 1549 and declared the liberty of all natives. He became Cuba's first permanent governor to reside in Havana instead of Santiago, he built Havana's first church made of maso
Governor of Buenos Aires Province
The Governor of Buenos Aires province is a citizen of the Buenos Aires Province of Argentina, holding the office of governor for the corresponding period. The governor is elected alongside a vice-governor; the governor of Buenos Aires Province is Maria Eugenia Vidal since December 10, 2015. For being able to be elected as governor, the citizen must have been born in Argentina, or be the child of an Argentine citizen if born at a foreign country; the citizen must be of at least 30 years old, have at least 5 uninterrupted years of residence in the province if not natural from it. The period lasts 4 years, with the chance of a single reelection. Buenos Aires Province
Alejandro Agustín Lanusse
Alejandro Agustín Lanusse was the president of the Argentine Republic between March 22, 1971, May 25, 1973, during the Argentine Revolution. He was born as Alejandro Agustín Lanusse Gelly on August 28, 1918, in Buenos Aires to his parents Luis Gustavo Lanusse Justo and Albertina Gelly Cantilo. A graduate of the Army Academy, he was head of the Regimiento de Granaderos a Caballo. In 1951 he was sentenced to life imprisonment for his part in an attempted coup to overthrow Juan Perón, he was released in 1955 with the Revolución Libertadora, a military uprising which ousted General Perón and set up a military dictatorship, in power from 1955 to 1958. In 1956 he was designated Ambassador to the Holy See. In 1960 he became Assistant Director of the Superior Military School and Commander of the First Armored Cavalry Division. In 1962 he took part in the overthrowing of president Arturo Frondizi, in 1966 supported General Juan Carlos Onganía in the ousting of president Arturo Illia. In 1968 Lanusse became Commander-in-Chief of the Argentine Army.
Lanusse became president of Argentina in 1971. During his administration he established diplomatic relations with China and continuously faced political unrest, with an increase in guerrilla activity. Many political opponents were jailed, Lanusse decided to negotiate with the Montoneros for the return of the corpse of Evita, the legendary second wife of Juan Domingo Perón, whose body had been hidden by the "Revolución Libertadora". On August 22, 1971, several imprisoned guerrillas attempted to escape from the Naval Base of Rawson in Patagonia, were executed without trial in the Trelew massacre. In 1973 presidential elections were held, won by Hector Cámpora. In 1985 Lanusse published his autobiography and criticized the human rights violations that took place during the Dirty War, including the state murder of his cousin, diplomat Elena Holmberg, he was placed under house arrest in 1994 for criticizing president Carlos Menem in a magazine interview. "Alejandro Agustín Lanusse". Find a Grave. Retrieved June 3, 2013