Juan Manuel Fernández Pacheco, 8th Duke of Escalona

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Juan Manuel Fernández Pacheco

Juan Manuel María de la Aurora Fernández Pacheco Acuña Girón y Portocarrero, grandee of Spain, 8th Duke of Escalona, 8th Marquis of Villena, 12th Count of San Esteban de Gormaz and 8th Count of Xiquena (Marcilla, Navarra, 7 September 1650 – Madrid, 29 June 1725), was a Spanish aristocrat, politician and academician.

Biography[edit]

He was the son of Diego López Pacheco, 7th Duke of Escalona (1599–1653) and his second wife Juana María Francisca de Zuñiga (died 1652).
He served as viceroy and captain-general of the Kingdoms of Navarre, Aragon, Catalonia, Sicily and Naples. He was awarded the title of Knight of Order of the Golden Fleece on 9 October 1687.

In 1694 he lost the Battle of Torroella against the invading French.
During the War of the Spanish Succession, he was imprisoned in Gaeta, Naples, by the Austrian empire after losing the Siege of Gaeta (1707). Upon his release and return to Spain, he founded (under orders of King Philip V) the Royal Spanish Academy or Real Academia Española (RAE). He was elected its 1st lifetime Director in 1713. He was also Mayordomo mayor to the King.

Marriage and children[edit]

He married on 29 september 1674 with María Josefa de Benavides Silva y Manrique de Lara, daughter of Diego de Benavides, 8th Count of Santisteban. They had 2 sons:

  • Mercurio López Pacheco y Benavides, (Escalona 9 May 1679 - Madrid 7 June 1738), the 9th Duke of Escalona and many other titles and also the lifetime 2nd director of the RAE (1725–1738).
  • Marciano Fernández Pacheco (1688-1743)

References[edit]

http://www.fuenterrebollo.com/Heraldica-Piedra/marqueses-villena-segovia.html

  • CIUDAD RUIZ, Manuel, (2000): «El maestrazgo de Don Rodrigo Téllez Girón», en En la España Medieval, nº 23. 0214-3038, pp. 321–365

Sources[edit]

  • Spanish Wikipedia entry
Government offices
Preceded by
Alejandro de Bournonville
Viceroy of Navarre
1691-1692
Succeeded by
Baltasar de Zúñiga
Preceded by
Baltasar de los Cobos
Viceroy of Aragon
1693
Succeeded by
Domenico del Giudice
Preceded by
Juan Claros Pérez de Guzmán
Viceroy of Catalonia
1693-1694
Succeeded by
Francisco Antonio de Agurto
Preceded by
Luis Francisco de la Cerda
Viceroy of Naples
1700-1713
Succeeded by
Georg Adam von Martinitz
Preceded by
Pietro Colonna
Viceroy of Sicily
1701-1702
Succeeded by
Francesco del Giudice
Academic offices
New title Director of
The Royal Spanish Academy

1713-1725
Succeeded by
The Duke of Escalona
A seat of
The Royal Spanish Academy

1713-1725
Succeeded by
Tomás Pascual de Azpeitia
Spanish nobility
Preceded by
Diego López Pacheco
Duke of Escalona
1653-1725
Succeeded by
Mercurio López Pacheco
Marquis of Villena
1653-1725
Count of San Esteban de Gormaz
1653-1725
Count of Xiquena
1653-1725
Marquis of Moya
1653-1725
Succeeded by
Vicente de Cabrera