Edwin Valero was a Venezuelan professional boxer who competed from 2002 to 2010. He was an undefeated former world champion in two weight classes at the time of his death, having held the WBA super featherweight title from 2006 to 2008 and the WBC lightweight title from 2009 to 2010. A southpaw known for his aggressive style and exceptional punching power, Valero remains the only champion in the 30-year history of the WBC to win every fight in his career by knockout. In 2010, Valero committed suicide in jail after being arrested on suspicion of killing his wife. Valero started boxing at the age of 12, ostensibly compiling an amateur record of 86–6 with 45 knockouts, he was a Venezuelan national amateur champion three years running, as well as a Central and South American champion. On February 25, 2006, Valero set a new world record by winning his first 18 fights as a professional by first-round knockout, breaking Arthur Susskind's historic record set in 1905; that record has since been broken by Tyrone Brunson, but most boxing experts do not acknowledge Brunson's claim owing to the poor level of opposition he faced while making his way to the record.
Because of his punching power and perfect knockout ratio, Valero became a cult sensation in the community. His biggest backers in the sport included Doug Fischer of The Ring magazine and Boxing Inside with journalist Peter Palmiere; the Los Angeles local cable show aired Valero's workouts, sparring sessions and interviews conducted by Palmiere. In his first attempt at a world title, on August 5, 2006, Valero faced WBA super featherweight champion Vicente Mosquera. In what would arguably prove to be both boxers' toughest contest, Valero started out the match in signature fashion, knocking down the champion twice in the first round. However, Mosquera recovered and in the third round responded by knocking Valero down, to be Valero's only knockdown in his career. At this point in his 19–0 career, Valero's longest fight had only been two rounds, the question remained as to whether the untested Valero had the stamina to go the distance; the answer came after ten grueling rounds when the ever-tenacious Mosquera started to wane under the challenger's continuous heavy-handed counters.
Deciding Mosquera had received enough punishment, the referee called a halt to the match at 2:00 of round ten, making the 24-year-old Valero champion. Valero would go on to defend the title four times before moving up in weight class, with his final defense a seventh-round stoppage of Takehiro Shimada in Tokyo on June 12, 2008. On September 3, 2008, Valero vacated his WBA title to fight in the lightweight division, he fought Antonio Pitalua for the vacant WBC lightweight title on April 2009, in Austin, Texas. The bout marked the first time Valero had fought in the United States since 2003. Pitalua came into the fight with 14 consecutive knockouts on his 46–3 record, with Valero's 24 consecutive knockouts the stage was set for a decisive match between two heavy hitters. After an uneventful first round, Valero knocked Pitalua down just seconds into the second round with a right hook. Pitalua managed to get up but suffered two more knockdowns before the referee stopped the fight at 0:49 of round two.
Valero's next fight came on his home turf of Venezuela, in La Guaira, where he defended his WBC lightweight title by a TKO victory over Hector Velasquez in the seventh round. Valero's second and final defense of the belt came against Antonio DeMarco in Mexico, on February 6, 2010. In the second round, Valero suffered a serious cut over his right eye after DeMarco landed an unintentional elbow. Valero was able to continue the fight and went on to win by corner retirement when DeMarco failed to answer the bell for the tenth round; this would be Valero's last match. In March 2010, Valero vacated his WBC title. Valero's professional record at the time of his death was 27–0, making him one of the few world champions to finish their careers undefeated. On February 5, 2001, Valero was involved in a severe motorcycle accident in which he was not wearing a helmet, he had surgery to remove a blood clot. This injury was sustained prior to his launching his pro career, it created roadblocks to major bodies sanctioning his fights.
Valero claimed that his doctor cleared him to fight on January 17, 2002, he turned pro that July with a first-round KO. Valero appeared to hit the jackpot when he was signed after his 12th pro fight by Golden Boy Promotions. Valero was scheduled to appear on HBO's Boxing After Dark, but in January 2004 he failed an MRI owing to brain scan irregularities in New York and thus was not allowed to fight in the United States, he continued to fight outside the US and on March 25, 2008, Valero was cleared to box in the state of Texas. It was reported on September 2009, that Edwin Valero had been arrested on assault charges. A man alleged that the boxer attacked his sister over a feud. Valero considered them an attempt to harm his reputation, his mother came forward to tell the media. On March 25, 2010, Valero was again accused of assault, this time by his wife, sent to hospital for bruises and a damaged lung. Valero denied any wrongdoing, stating his wife stumbled from a stairway, but investi
In combat sports such as boxing, an orthodox stance is one in which the boxer places his left foot farther in front of the right foot, thus having his weaker side closer to the opponent. As it favors the stronger, dominant side—often the right side, see laterality—the orthodox stance is the most common stance in boxing, it is used by right-handed boxers. Many boxing champions, such as Jack Johnson, Anthony Joshua, Marco Antonio Barrera, Evander Holyfield, Rocky Marciano, Ingmar Johansson, Roberto Durán, Floyd Mayweather Jr. Sugar Ray Robinson, Muhammad Ali, Amir Khan, Peter Buckley, Johnny Tapia, Joyce Gracie, Mike Tyson, Larry Holmes, Lennox Lewis, Joseph Parker, Vitali Klitschko, Wladimir Klitschko, Tyson Fury, fought in an orthodox stance; the corresponding designation for a left-handed boxer is southpaw and is a mirror image of the orthodox stance. A southpaw boxer jabs with his right hand; some famous boxers who use southpaw are Marvelous Marvin Hagler, Tyson Fury, Victor Ortiz, Sultan Ibragimov, Naseem Hamed, Joe Calzaghe, Manny Pacquiao, Lucian Bute.
Francisco Palacios, Andre Ward, Terence Crawford fight as orthodox, but switch to a southpaw stance to confuse their opponents. Hagler was the opposite fighting southpaw but able to switch to orthodox; some fighters who are left-handed fight in the orthodox stance with the advantage of a fast, hard jab and left hook, including Oscar De La Hoya, Miguel Angel Cotto, Gerry Cooney, Marco Antonio Barrera. Vasyl Lomachenko is a right-handed fighter who stands in the southpaw stance. Deciding between orthodox or southpaw, expertboxing.com, retrieved 2012-12-19 Southpaws, coxcorner.com, retrieved 2012-12-19 Boxing basics, learnhowtobox.com, retrieved 2013-01-11 Stands and on guard, myboxingcoach.com, retrieved 2012-12-20 What is southpaw in boxing, innovateus.net, retrieved 2012-12-20
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined amount of time in a boxing ring. Amateur boxing is both an Olympic and Commonwealth Games sport and is a common fixture in most international games—it has its own World Championships. Boxing is overseen by a referee over a series of one- to three-minute intervals called rounds; the result is decided when an opponent is deemed incapable to continue by a referee, is disqualified for breaking a rule, or resigns by throwing in a towel. If a fight completes all of its allocated rounds, the victor is determined by judges' scorecards at the end of the contest. In the event that both fighters gain equal scores from the judges, professional bouts are considered a draw. In Olympic boxing, because a winner must be declared, judges award the content to one fighter on technical criteria. While humans have fought in hand-to-hand combat since the dawn of human history, the earliest evidence of fist-fighting sporting contests date back to the ancient Near East in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC.
The earliest evidence of boxing rules date back to Ancient Greece, where boxing was established as an Olympic game in 688 BC. Boxing evolved from 16th- and 18th-century prizefights in Great Britain, to the forerunner of modern boxing in the mid-19th century with the 1867 introduction of the Marquess of Queensberry Rules; the earliest known depiction of boxing comes from a Sumerian relief in Iraq from the 3rd millennium BC. Depictions from the 2nd millennium BC are found in reliefs from the Mesopotamian nations of Assyria and Babylonia, in Hittite art from Asia Minor. A relief sculpture from Egyptian Thebes shows both spectators; these early Middle-Eastern and Egyptian depictions showed contests where fighters were either bare-fisted or had a band supporting the wrist. The earliest evidence of fist fighting with the use of gloves can be found on Minoan Crete. Various types of boxing existed in ancient India; the earliest references to musti-yuddha come from classical Vedic epics such as the Ramayana and Rig Veda.
The Mahabharata describes two combatants boxing with clenched fists and fighting with kicks, finger strikes, knee strikes and headbutts. Duels were fought to the death. During the period of the Western Satraps, the ruler Rudradaman - in addition to being well-versed in "the great sciences" which included Indian classical music, Sanskrit grammar, logic - was said to be an excellent horseman, elephant rider and boxer; the Gurbilas Shemi, an 18th-century Sikh text, gives numerous references to musti-yuddha. In Ancient Greece boxing was enjoyed consistent popularity. In Olympic terms, it was first introduced in the 23rd Olympiad, 688 BC; the boxers would wind leather thongs around their hands. There were no boxers fought until one of them acknowledged defeat or could not continue. Weight categories were not used; the style of boxing practiced featured an advanced left leg stance, with the left arm semi-extended as a guard, in addition to being used for striking, with the right arm drawn back ready to strike.
It was the head of the opponent, targeted, there is little evidence to suggest that targeting the body was common. Boxing was a popular spectator sport in Ancient Rome. In order for the fighters to protect themselves against their opponents they wrapped leather thongs around their fists. Harder leather was used and the thong soon became a weapon; the Romans introduced metal studs to the thongs to make the cestus. Fighting events were held at Roman Amphitheatres; the Roman form of boxing was a fight until death to please the spectators who gathered at such events. However in times, purchased slaves and trained combat performers were valuable commodities, their lives were not given up without due consideration. Slaves were used against one another in a circle marked on the floor; this is. In AD 393, during the Roman gladiator period, boxing was abolished due to excessive brutality, it was not until the late 16th century. Records of Classical boxing activity disappeared after the fall of the Western Roman Empire when the wearing of weapons became common once again and interest in fighting with the fists waned.
However, there are detailed records of various fist-fighting sports that were maintained in different cities and provinces of Italy between the 12th and 17th centuries. There was a sport in ancient Rus called Kulachniy Boy or "Fist Fighting"; as the wearing of swords became less common, there was renewed interest in fencing with the fists. The sport would resurface in England during the early 16th century in the form of bare-knuckle boxing sometimes referred to as prizefighting; the first documented account of a bare-knuckle fight in England appeared in 1681 in the London Protestant Mercury, the first English bare-knuckle champion was James Figg in 1719. This is the time when the word "boxing" first came to be used; this earliest form of modern boxing was different. Contests in Mr. Figg's time, in addition to fist fighting contained fencing and cudgeling. On 6 January 1681, the first recorded boxing match took place in Britain when Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle engineered a bout between his butler and his butcher with the latter winning the prize.
Early fighting had no written rules. There were no weight divisions or round limits, no referee. In general, it was chaotic. An early article on boxing was published i