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Juan Pardo (explorer)

Juan Pardo was a Spanish explorer, active in the half of the sixteenth century. He led a Spanish expedition through what is now North and South Carolina and into eastern Tennessee on the orders of Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, who had built Fort San Felipe, established Santa Elena, on present-day Parris Island. While leading an expedition deeper in-country, Pardo founded Fort San Juan at Joara, the first European settlement in the interior of North Carolina. Pardo led two expeditions from Santa Elena into the interior of the present-day southeastern United States; the first, from December 1, 1566 to March 7, 1567, numbered 125 men who went to seek food and to establish bases among the region's indigenous people. He left a garrison behind. Claiming the settlement for Spain, he renamed it Cuenca in honor of the Spanish city Cuenca. Pardo led a second expedition from September 1, 1567 to March 2, 1568, explored the Piedmont interior and south along the Appalachian Mountains, he established additional forts that aimed to supply a land route to Zacatecas in present-day Mexico, where the Spanish had silver mines they wanted to protect.

Pardo returned to Santa Elena. In 1568, the Native Americans turned against Pardo's garrisons in the interior, killing all but one of the 120 men and burning down all six forts; the Spanish did not return to the interior of North Carolina. The Joara and Fort San Juan sites are being excavated through the Joara Foundation and a partnership with Warren Wilson College. A stone believed to have been inscribed by Pardo or one of his men is in the collection of the Spartanburg Regional Museum of History, it is inscribed with an arrow and the year 1567. The stone was found by a farmer in South Carolina. In 1569, Pardo left the Florida colony to return to Spain. Since 1986, archaeologists working at the Berry Site near Morganton have found evidence of mound culture, burned huts and 16th-century Spanish artifacts. There is strong scholarly consensus that this is the site of Fort San Juan. In 2007, the archaeologists excavated one of the burned huts, they found Spanish ceramic olive jar fragments, iron plate from a 16th century Brigadine type armor typical of what the expedition would have used.

Chisca Hudson, Charles M.. The Juan Pardo expeditions: Explorations of the Carolinas and Tennessee, 1566–1568. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. OCLC 20422515. Clark, Larry Richard; the Last Conquistadors of Southeast North America: Pedro Menendez and the Collapse of La Florida's Frontier. Morganton, NC: TimeSpan Press. ISBN 978-1514119020 "Juan Pardo Expeditions", North Carolina History Project


Karwan is a major suburb in Hyderabad, India. It is a part of the old city of Hyderabad, it is 10 km from the IT hubs like HITECH City, etc.. It had major importance in the trade. Karwan has a mixed population of both Muslims; the festival of Bonalu is famous here and is celebrated in grandeur. The main worship during Bonalu happens at the Darbar Maisamma temple; the celebrations start a week before and on a penultimate day, the thotella is installed in front of Maisamma temple. On the last day many cultural programs take place, along with the distribution of prizes to the meritorious students from UG to PG; the festival culminates with numerous palaharam carts which display various traditions and the removal of thotella along with the procession. Karwan has long history dating back to the Nizam rule it was a well known diamond pearls market till today there are old buildings and other old temples and masjids constructed during Nizam period. Andaroon or Inside karwan has few old buildings and was the place of the old pearl and diamond market existed.

It is famous for handloom clothes. Shree Vithalnathji Temple & shree Santhoshi matha temple along with Lord Narsimha swamy temple and Kesari Hanuman temple at are famous and old temples which are well known in the area. There is an old temple named Ranganathswamy temple, expected to be built during Nizam period, it is famous for Vaikunta Ekadashi celebrations in Jiyaguda. In earlier days it was known as Jiyargudem, under Karwan constituency. Jiyaguda Purana Pool Begum Bazar Attapur Internet Marketing Consultant - Bharath Bhushan Mee Seva Jyothi Communications The Mehdipatnam Rythu Bazaar and Gudimalkapur vegetable market are close to Karwan. There are many convention centres and big function halls on Karwan road, including: The Vintage Palace Crown Function Hall Mahaboob Pride Palace KS Palace SBA Garden - Jiyaguda Road Grand Garden Hall SDA Palace S V C Eeshwar Asian Cinemas M Cube Cinepolis ALankar Cinemas - Langar House There are schools which cater to all budgets, such as: Bharathi High School, Vivekananda High School, St. Mary's High School, D'Drop High School.

MESCO College in Mustaidpura, Sri Gayatri e-Techno School, Newgen School of Excellence Kakatiya Vidyaniketan SchoolThere are government-run schools such as Govt. High School Mustaidpura, Govt. High School Kulsumpura, Bharath Abyudaya High School, the last of, one of the biggest government schools in Telangana. There are many banks in the area, including: Andhra Bank Vijaya Bank State Bank of Hyderabad State Bank of India There are many buses that connect to different parts of the city like CBS, Secunderabad by TSRTC; this area is close to Mehdipatnam Bus Depot. The Karwan/Jiyaguda Bus Stand, near Kesari Hanuman Temple, serves routes to as far as Secunderabad and L. B. Nagar passing through Afzalgunj. There is another station in an area called Tallagadda, with buses to Secunderabad and Ramnagar There is no close MMTS Train station near Karwan, but Nampally Railway Station is near to the Karwan

Val McCalla

Val Irvine McCalla was a Jamaican accountant and media entrepreneur who settled in Britain in 1959. He is best known as the founder of The Voice, a British weekly newspaper aimed at the Britain's black community, which he established in 1982 as a voice for the British African-Caribbean community, he was honoured as a pioneering publisher for the community, but faced critics who deemed him sensationalistic. In the 100 Great Black Britons poll conducted in 1997, Val McCalla was voted number 68. Val McCalla was born in a poor part of Jamaica. After studying accountancy at Kingston College, a Jamaican high school, McCalla travelled to England in May 1959, aged 15, he joined the RAF, but a perforated eardrum put paid to his dreams of becoming a pilot and instead he honed his skills as a bookkeeper, leaving in the mid-1960s. He found employment in various accounts and book-keeping positions, before working part-time on a community newspaper, East End News, based near his flat in Bethnal Green, he started The Voice newspaper in 1982, with a team that included broadcaster Alex Pascall, launching it at the Notting Hill carnival that August, bringing in Viv Broughton as marketing manager.

McCalla died of liver failure on 22 August 2002, aged 58, in Seaford, East Sussex, where he was buried. "Val McCalla", Encyclopædia Britannica Steve Pope, "Val McCalla", The Guardian, 24 August 2002. "We Remember Val McCalla, Founder Of'The Voice'", The Voice, 22 August 2017

Musgrave baronets

There have been four baronetcies created for persons with the surname Musgrave, one in the Baronetage of England, one in the Baronetage of Nova Scotia, one in the Baronetage of Ireland and one in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom. As of 2014 two of the creations are extant; the Musgrave Baronetcy, of Hartley Castle in the County of Westmorland, was created in the Baronetage of England on 29 June 1611 for Richard Musgrave, Member of Parliament for Westmorland. He was the member of a family, settled at Musgrave in Westmorland for many centuries and of which an earlier member, Thomas Musgrave, was summoned to the House of Lords as Baron Musgrave in 1350; the second Baronet represented Westmorland in the House of Commons and served with distinction as a Royalist in the Civil War. He was offered a peerage as Baron Musgrave, of Hartley Castle in the County of Westmorland, but did not take up the patent; the fourth Baronet sat as Member of Parliament for Carlisle, Appleby, Oxford University and Totnes.

The fifth Baronet represented Carlisle and Cumberland in Parliament while the sixth Baronet represented Westmorland. The eighth Baronet sat as Member of Parliament for Petersfield and Carlisle and the eleventh Baronet sat for Cumberland East and served as Lord-Lieutenant of Westmorland; the family seat was Hartley Castle, near Cumbria. The Musgrave Baronetcy, of Hayton Castle in the County of Cumberland, was created in the Baronetage of Nova Scotia on 20 October 1638 for Edward Musgrave; the third Baronet represented Cumberland in the House of Commons. The title became extinct on the death of the tenth Baronet in 1875; the Musgrave Baronetcy, of Tourin in the County of Waterford, was created in the Baronetage of Ireland on 2 December 1782 for Richard Musgrave, a member of the Irish House of Commons, with remainder in default of male issue of his own to his younger brothers and the heirs male of the body. On his death in 1818 he was succeeded according to the special remainder by his younger brother Christopher Frederick, the second Baronet.

The third Baronet sat as Member of Parliament for County Waterford. The fourth Baronet served as Lord-Lieutenant of County Waterford; the family seat was Tourin House, near County Waterford. The Musgrave Baronetcy, of Drumglass in the County of Antrim, was created in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom on 4 March 1897 for the industrialist and philanthropist James Musgrave; the title became extinct on his death in 1904. Sir Richard Musgrave, 1st Baronet Sir Philip Musgrave, 2nd Baronet Sir Richard Musgrave, 3rd Baronet Sir Christopher Musgrave, 4th Baronet Sir Christopher Musgrave, 5th Baronet Sir Philip Musgrave, 6th Baronet Sir John Chardin Musgrave, 7th Baronet Sir Philip Musgrave, 8th Baronet Sir Christopher John Musgrave, 9th Baronet Sir George Musgrave, 10th Baronet Sir Richard Courtenay Musgrave, 11th Baronet Sir Richard George Musgrave, 12th Baronet Sir Nigel Courtenay Musgrave, 13th Baronet Sir Charles Musgrave, 14th Baronet Sir Christopher Patrick Charles Musgrave, 15th Baronet The heir presumptive is the present holder's only brother Julian Nigel Chardin Musgrave.

Sir Edward Musgrave, 1st Baronet Sir Richard Musgrave, 2nd Baronet Sir Richard Musgrave, 3rd Baronet Sir Richard Musgrave, 4th Baronet Sir Richard Hylton, 5th Baronet Sir William Musgrave, 6th Baronet, FRS... a promoter of literature, & well known for a valuable collection illustrating the History of England... Sir Thomas Musgrave, 7th Baronet, Colonel of the 76th Regiment of Foot Sir James Musgrave, 8th Baronet Sir James Musgrave, 9th Baronet Sir William Augustus Musgrave, 10th Baronet Sir Richard Musgrave, 1st Baronet, of Tourin Sir Christopher Frederick Musgrave, 2nd Baronet Sir Richard Musgrave, 3rd Baronet Sir Richard Musgrave, 4th Baronet Sir Richard John Musgrave, 5th Baronet Sir Christopher Norman Musgrave, 6th Baronet Sir Richard James Musgrave, 7th Baronet Sir Christopher John Shane Musgrave, 8th Baronet The heir presumptive is the present holder's only brother Michael Shane Musgrave. Sir James Musgrave, 1st Baronet Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's list of baronets

Mount Adatara

Mount Adatara is a stratovolcano in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. It is located about 15 kilometres southwest of the city of east of Mount Bandai, its last known eruption was in 1996. An eruption in 1900 killed 72 workers at a sulfur mine located in the summit crater; the mountain is multiple volcanoes forming a broad, forested massif. It abuts a dormant volcano to the north; the peak is called Minowa-yama. It is the highest peak in the Adatara range; the active summit crater is surrounded by hot fumaroles. Sulfur mining was carried out in the 19th century, 72 mine workers were killed in an eruption in 1900. Poems about Mount Adatara by Kōtarō Takamura from his book "Chieko-sho" helped make it famous. SourcesTakeda, Toru. Hello! Fukushima - International Exchange Guide Book. Fukushima City: Fukushima Mimpo Press. Mount Bandai Mount Iide Adatarayama - Japan Meteorological Agency Adatarayama: National catalogue of the active volcanoes in Japan - Japan Meteorological Agency Adatara Yama - Geological Survey of Japan Adatarayama: Global Volcanism Program - Smithsonian Institution

Renewable thermal energy

Renewable thermal energy is the technology of gathering thermal energy from a renewable energy source for immediate use or for storage in a thermal battery for use. The most popular form of renewable thermal energy is the sun and the solar energy is harvested by solar collectors to heat water, buildings and various processes. Another example of Renewable Thermal is a Geothermal or ground source Heat Pump system, where thermal stored in the ground from the summer is extracted from the ground to heat a building in another season; this example system is "renewable" because the source of excess heat energy is a reliably recurring process that occurs each summer season. Solar energy has been in use for centuries for heating dwellings and to produce hot water before low cost natural gas was discovered, it gained attention during and after the oil embargo of 1973 as engineers investigated ways to produce thermal energy from a renewable source instead of fossil fuels. The history of utilizing the ground as a heat source is more recent and has gained prominence in recent years in rural areas where natural gas heating may not be available.

The outer crust of the Earth is a Thermal Battery that maintains a median temperature, the same as the average air temperature at that location. This "average ground temperature" is a combination in balance of solar gain from the sun, thermal gain from the core of the earth, heat loss due to conduction and radiation; the graphic at the right shows a map of the "average ground temperature" at locations within the United States. Solar energy is considered to be the most popular form of renewable thermal energy in the world. Solar thermal energy is collected by either liquid or air solar collectors. Liquid solar collectors are used to heat water for domestic hot water, process applications and for swimming pools. Millions of solar water systems are being used world wide. Air solar collectors are used to heat buildings and for processes such as crop drying. Air collectors are building integrated on south facing walls to maximize the low winter sun angles when buildings in cold climates require heating.

A ground heat exchanger is an area of the earth, used as an annual cycle thermal battery. These thermal batteries are un-encapsulated areas of the earth into which pipes have been placed in order to transfer thermal energy. Energy is added to the GHEX by running a higher temperature fluid through the pipes and thus raising the temperature of the local earth. Energy can be taken from the GHEX by running a lower temperature fluid through those same pipes. GHEX thermal batteries are implemented in two forms; the picture above depicts what is known as a "horizontal" GHEX where trenching is used to place an amount of pipe in a closed loop in the ground. GHEX's are formed by drilling boreholes into the ground, either vertically or horizontally, the pipes are inserted in the form of a closed-loop with a "u-bend" fitting on the far end of the loop; these drilled GHEX thermal batteries are sometimes called "borehole thermal energy storage systems". Heat energy can be removed from a GHEX Thermal Battery at any point in time.

However, they are most used as an "Annual-Cycle Thermal Battery" where energy is extracted from a building during the summer season to cool a building and added to the GHEX, that same energy is extracted from the GHEX in the winter season to heat the building. This annual cycle of energy addition and subtraction is predictable based on energy modeling of the building served. A Thermal Battery used in this mode is a Renewable Energy source as the energy extracted in the winter will be restored to the GHEX the next summer in a continually repeating cycle; this Annual-Cycle Thermal Battery is a solar powered thermal storage because it is the heat from the sun in the summer, removed from a building and stored in the ground for use in the next winter season for heating. The state of New York took a big step in September 2015 when it created a new office titled Director of Renewable Thermal; the NY Director of Renewable Thermal will oversee a team to help companies develop and implement renewable, low-carbon cooling and heating systems.

NY State considers this initiative a critical component of NYSERDA’s strategy to enable net-zero energy buildings, which produce the same amount of energy as they consume. It will further advance New York’s progress toward creating self-sustaining energy markets for clean, renewable technologies. Renewable Thermal has been a core resource in many states Renewable Portfolio Standards; the report says: "State Renewable Portfolio Standard programs have focused on electricity generation. However, some states have started incorporating renewable thermal power for heat generation into their RPS as a way to support the development and market growth of solar thermal, biomass thermal and other renewable thermal technologies." Further: "Renewable thermal energy has many of the same benefits as other renewable technologies, including improved air quality, economic development and job creation, the promotion of regional energy security." In a recent article, Bill Nowak, the Executive Director of the NY-GEO industry trade group, stated: "According to the adopted New York State energy plan, on-site combustion is responsible for 35 percent of fossil fuel greenhouse gas emissions in New York State.

In-state electricity generation is responsible for only 18 percent. We support cleaning up electricity generation in New York, but stress that renewable thermal is the next wave in resisting climate change." Thermal energy storage Seasonal thermal energy storage system Solar