Generation of '80
The Generation of'80 was the governing elite in Argentina from 1880 to 1916. Members of the oligarchy of the provinces and the country's capital, they first joined the League of Governors, the National Autonomist Party, they filled the highest public political, economical and religious positions, staying in power through electoral fraud. In spite of the growing opposition politically centred on the Radical Civic Union, anarchist and socialist groups workers formed by immigrant workers, the Generation of'80 managed to stay in power until the sanction of the Sáenz Peña Law of secret and obligatory male suffrage; the project of the Generation of'80 consisted of keeping the country free of any kind of unrest, with harsh responses towards any kind of revolts, to maintain a stability that would attract foreign investment, while centering the economy of the country in the production of primary food products to support the import of the needed manufactured goods. On the social level, the concept of progress was linked to the creation of public and compulsory primary education, the incentive of European immigration.
The positive international balance of trade of the country was not re-invested in modernization and industrialisation of the basic production of the country, but expended by the richest groups with luxury items and imposing constructions. European immigration brought not only educated people, but several political ideologies that were rising in Europe: socialism and anarchism, which clashed with the liberal position of the governing elite. During the second presidency of Julio A. Roca, Law 4144 or Law of Argentine Residence was sanctioned, which allowed the immediate expulsion of any activists opposing the national government. Juárez Celman had to resign after the Revolución del Parque. In 1905 the UCR coordinated an armed rebellion between several provinces. Though there were a few mild changes towards the conciliation with the workers, such as the creation of the National Work Department in 1907, such enterprises were decorative. In 1910, as celebration of the centenary of the National Independence approached, the Law of Social Defense was sanctioned, which allowed arrests for the prevention of revolts.
But the increasing number of workers' strikes and press criticism forced the sanction of the Sáenz Peña Law in 1912. In the following elections of 1916, the first ones open to every male Argentine citizen, radical candidate Hipólito Yrigoyen was elected president. Bruno, Paula, "Un balance acerca del uso de la expresión generación del 80 entre 1920 y 2000", Secuencia. Revista de Historia y Ciencias Sociales - Instituto de Investigaciones "Dr. José María Luis Mora", México DF: 117–161
Miguel Ángel Juárez Celman
Miguel Angel Juárez Celman was President of Argentina from 12 October 1886 to 6 August 1890. A lawyer and politician, his career was defined by the influence of his kinsman, Julio Argentino Roca, who propelled him into a legislative career, he was a staunch promoter of an aristocratic liberal. As president of Argentina, he promoted public works but was not capable of maintaining economic stability and had to contend with the powerful opposition of the Civic Union Party, his leader Leandro N. Alem. After the Revolución del Parque, after he defeated the uprising, he was forced to resign and retired from political life. Juárez Celman was born and raised in Córdoba, where he studied under the Jesuits at the Colegio de Montserrat, he studied Law, becoming a lawyer in 1869. In 1867, he became an active Freemason. Thanks to his family connections, he came from an aristocratic family, he entered political life early, he was elected Representative just after obtaining his doctorate and from the provincial parliament he headed the movement to promote the secularization of education.
Two years he was elected to the Senate of Argentina and in 1877 became its president. He spent little time as president as after the death of Governor Climaco de la Peña, the new Government of Antonio Del Viso nominated him as Government Minister, his energetic work earned him the nomination and election as Governor of Córdoba on May 17, 1880. He was Governor-elect when there was an insurrection in Buenos Aires, led by Carlos Tejedor and Lisandro Olmos, opposed to the federalization of Buenos Aires; the federalization succeeded in 1880 and was followed by the establishment of state elementary education in the capital during the presidency of Julio A. Roca. Having become a national Senator in 1883, becoming close to President Roca, he obtained Roca's support in his bid to become presidential candidate for the National Autonomist Party, he won the 1886 national election, not without accusations of fraud, not uncommon in the PAN. His Vice-President was Carlos Pellegrini, ex-War Minister under Roca, who had supported his candidacy from the pages of the Sud América newspaper.
His presidency was marked by a degree of paranoia. An 1890 rugby match in Buenos Aires resulted in the arrest of all 2,500 spectators. Juárez Celman was vigilant after the Revolution of the Park in the city earlier in the year, the police had suspected that the match was in fact a political meeting. Most observers expected Juárez Celman's administration to be a continuation of Roca's with the retired president managing from behind the scenes, but in a display of independence, he took control of the PAN with in a more authoritative form becoming what his opponents dubbed the unicato. This, combined with economic regression, led to the formation of the Civic Union, an opposition group, split into the National Civic Union and the Radical Civic Union, the latter being still important in Argentinian politics. In 1890, a revolution forced Juárez to resign, Vice-President Carlos Pellegrini, succeeded him. Juárez Celman died in Arrecifes, aged 64
The Primera Junta or First Assembly is the most common name given to the first independent government of Argentina. It was created on 25 May 1810, as a result of the events of the May Revolution; the Junta had representatives from only Buenos Aires. When it was expanded, as expected, with the addition of the representatives from the other cities of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, it became popularly known instead as the Junta Grande; the Junta operated at El Fuerte, used since 1776 as a residence by the Viceroys. This Junta—officially named the Junta Provisional Gubernativa de las Provincias del Río de la Plata a nombre del Señor Don Fernando VII —allegedly meant to govern in the name of the King of Spain, while he was imprisoned by Napoleon Bonaparte. Juntas were a form of transitional or emergency government, which attempted to maintain Spanish sovereignty, that emerged during the Napoleonic invasion in Spanish cities that had not succumbed to the French; the most important for Spanish America was the Junta of Seville, which claimed sovereignty over the overseas possessions, given the fact that the province of Seville had enjoyed exclusive rights to the American trade.
Its claims had been rejected by Spanish Americans, its authority was superseded by a Supreme Central Junta of Spain, which included American representation. When the Supreme Central Junta abolished itself in 1810, the politically active inhabitants of Buenos Aires saw no better moment than this to establish a local government, they had been influenced by the recent democratic and republican philosophical wave, were concerned about the commercial monopoly exerted by the Spanish crown, suffocating the local economy. Buenos Aires province had mitigated this problem through contraband. Local politicians, such as former council member and legal advisor to the viceroy, Juan José Castelli, who wanted a change towards self-government and free commerce, cited traditional Spanish political theory and argued that the King being imprisoned, sovereignty had returned to the people; the people were to assume the government until the King returned, just as the subjects in Spain had done two years earlier with the establishment of juntas.
The Viceroy and his supporters countered that the colonies belonged to Spain and did not have a political relationship with only the King. Therefore, they should follow any governmental body established in Spain as the legal authority, namely the Supreme Central Junta of Spain and its successor, the Council of Regency; the meeting of a Buenos Aires cabildo abierto during 22 May 1810, came under strong pressure from the militias and a crowd that formed in front of the cabildo hall on the Plaza Mayor, up to 25 May. The crowd favored the stance of the local politicians, the cabildo ended up creating the Primera Junta, the first form of local government in the territory that would become Argentina. Spain would never recover its dominion over that territory. From the beginning of the new government, two factions manifested their differences, a more radical one, whose visible leader was the Junta's Secretary, Mariano Moreno, the conservative wing that supported the Junta's President, Cornelio Saavedra.
In general the principles of the May Revolution were popular sovereignty, the principle of representation and federalization, division of powers, the maintenance of the mandates, publication of the government's actions President Cornelio SaavedraSecretaries: Mariano Moreno Juan José PasoCommittee member Manuel Alberti Miguel de Azcuénaga Manuel Belgrano Juan José Castelli Domingo Matheu Juan Larrea Despite the replacement of Cisneros, the Royal Audience and the Cabildo stood with the authorities that existed before the revolution, who opposed the Junta since its first day. The Audience refused at first to swear allegiance to the Junta, when they did, prosecutor Caspe did so with clear gestures of contempt. Caspe would be ambushed near his home, in retaliation for this; the Cabildo imposed a time limit on the Junta: if the General Congress was not formed in six months, the Cabildo would reassume government. The Junta answered the same day; the Audience requested that the Junta submitted to the Regency Counsel, but the Junta refused, on the grounds that Cisneros did not so submit and the Audience did not request him to.
The Audience itself swore allegiance to the Counsel shortly after, they were all banished in response. Together with the ex-viceroy Cisneros, they were forced to take the ship Dart that left them at the Canary Islands. From the early days of the Primera Junta there was a strong rivalry between Moreno. According to Ignacio Núñez, the Morenists accused Saavedra of plotting to restore the tyranny of the viceroys in his office, while the Saavedrists accused Moreno of usurping government roles that were not intended for him. Matheu would point in his memories that the Morenists were upset because they perceived that Saavedra enjoyed receiving honors and distinctions that they had chosen to avoid; the Junta was received with mixed reactions from the other cities of the viceroyalty. Santa Fe, Entre Ríos, Misiones and Mendoza supported the change, others did not. Upper Peru, which benefited from the system of mita to exploit the mines in
Vicente López y Planes
Alejandro Vicente López y Planes was an Argentine writer and politician who acted as interim President of Argentina from July 7, 1827 to August 18, 1827. He wrote the lyrics of the Argentine National Anthem adopted on May 11, 1813. López began his primary studies in the San Francisco School, studied in the Real Colegio San Carlos, today the Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires, he obtained a doctorate of laws in the University of Chuquisaca. He served as a captain in the Patriotic Regiment during the English invasions. After the Argentine victory he composed a poem entitled El triunfo argentino, he participated in the Cabildo Abierto of May 22, 1810 and supported the formation of the Primera Junta. He had good relations with Manuel Belgrano; when the royalist members of the city government of Buenos Aires were expelled, he was elected mayor of the city. Like many other nineteenth century Argentines prominent in public life, he was a freemason. López was a member of the Constituent Assembly of year XIII, representing Buenos Aires.
At the request of the Assembly, he wrote the lyrics to a "patriotic march", which became the Argentine National Anthem. It was a military march; the first public reading was at a tertulia on May 7 in the house of Mariquita Sánchez de Thompson. It displaced a different march, written by Esteban de Luca, which would have been the anthem if not for the more militaristic Lopez. López participated in the government of Carlos María de Alvear, with his fall he was sent to prison, he held a few more public offices, was named Secretary of the Constituent Congress of 1825, and, a little minister for the president Bernardino Rivadavia. After the scandal of negotiations with the Brazilian Empire, Rivadavia resigned the presidency. In his place, López was elected as caretaker, signing the dissolution of the Congress and calling elections in Buenos Aires; the new governor, Manuel Dorrego took charge of the ministry. When Dorrego fell from grace and was executed by firing squad by Juan Lavalle, Lopez was exiled to Uruguay.
He returned in 1830 as a member of the Tribunal of Justice for Juan Manuel de Rosas. He was president of the Tribunal for many years and, among other things, presided over the judgement of the assassins of Juan Facundo Quiroga, he was president of the literary salon led by Marcos Sastre, but was not part of the group known as the Generation of'37, to which belonged his two sons, Vicente Fidel López and Lucio Vicente López. List of heads of state of Argentina Works by Vicente López y Planes at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Vicente López y Planes at Internet Archive Vicente López y Planes at Find a Grave
Juan Esteban Pedernera
Juan Esteban Pedernera was interim President of Argentina during a brief period in 1861. Born in 1796 in San Luis Province, he studied in a Franciscan monastery when young, left his studies to join the Regiment of Mounted Grenadiers being summoned by José de San Martín to fight in the War of Independence against Spanish rule. In 1815, he fought in Chile, he was imprisoned by the Spanish during the former campaign in Chiloé Island, but managed to escape and rejoin his army. Lieutenant-general Juan Esteban Pedernera married the former Rosa Juana Heredia in Callao on September 23, 1823. In 1826 engaged again in military activity, this time in the Cisplatine War. In the Argentine Civil War, he joined the Unitarian side, under the command of General José María Paz, fought in La Tablada against federalist forces. After a long time in exile, he returned to the country after the fall of the Rosas' regime, acted as Senator for San Luis Province. In 1856, he was designated commander of the frontier armed forces, in 1859 he was elected Governor of San Luis, fought at the Battle of Cepeda that same year.
He was elected Vice-President to President of the Argentine Confederation Santiago Derqui, served from 1860 until 1861, when Derqui resigned after the Battle of Pavón. Pedernera acted as President until the political situation forced the dissolution of the office. In 1882 he was designated Lieutenant General of the Armies of the Republic. Argentine War of Independence Argentine Confederation Battle of Caseros
Carlos Enrique José Pellegrini was Vice President of Argentina and became President of Argentina from 6 August 1890 to 12 October 1892, upon Miguel Ángel Juárez Celman's resignation. His administration he cleaned up the finances and created the Banco de la Nación Argentina, Argentina's national bank, the prestigious high-school that carries his name, Escuela Superior de Comercio Carlos Pellegrini, public school of noted academic level, part of Universidad de Buenos Aires. After the end of his term, he served as senator between 1895 and 1903, in 1906, he was elected national representative in the lower house. Like many other nineteenth century Argentines prominent in public life, he was a freemason, he is buried in La Recoleta Cemetery. Carlos Pellegrini at Find a Grave
The May Revolution was a week-long series of events that took place from May 18 to 25, 1810, in Buenos Aires, capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. This Spanish colony included the territories of present-day Argentina, Paraguay and parts of Brazil; the result was the removal of Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros and the establishment of a local government, the Primera Junta, on May 25. It was the first successful revolution in the South American Independence process; the May Revolution was a direct reaction to Spain's Peninsular War. In 1808, King Ferdinand VII of Spain abdicated in favor of Napoleon, who granted the throne to his brother, Joseph Bonaparte. A Supreme Central Junta led resistance to Joseph's government and the French occupation of Spain, but suffered a series of reversals that resulted in the Spanish loss of the northern half of the country. On February 1, 1810, French troops gained control of most of Andalusia; the Supreme Junta retreated to Cadiz and dissolved itself, the Council of Regency of Spain and the Indies replaced it.
News of these events arrived in Buenos Aires on May 18, brought by British ships. Viceroy Cisneros tried to maintain the political status quo, but a group of criollo lawyers and military officials organized an open cabildo on May 22 to decide the future of the Viceroyalty. Delegates denied recognition to the Council of Regency in Spain and established a junta to govern in place of Cisneros, since the government that had appointed him Viceroy no longer existed. To maintain a sense of continuity, Cisneros was appointed president of the Junta. However, this caused much popular unrest, so he resigned under pressure on May 25; the newly formed government, the Primera Junta, included only representatives from Buenos Aires and invited other cities of the Viceroyalty to send delegates to join them. This resulted in the outbreak of war between the regions that accepted the outcome of the events at Buenos Aires and those that did not; the May Revolution began the Argentine War of Independence, although no formal declaration of independence was issued at the time and the Primera Junta continued to govern in the name of the deposed king, Ferdinand VII.
As similar events occurred in many other cities of the continent, the May Revolution is considered one of the early events of the Spanish American wars of independence. Historians today debate whether the revolutionaries were loyal to the Spanish crown or whether the declaration of fidelity to the king was a necessary ruse to conceal the true objective—to achieve independence—from a population, not yet ready to accept such a radical change. A formal declaration of independence was issued at the Congress of Tucumán on July 9, 1816; the United States' declaration of independence from Great Britain in 1776 led criollos to believe that revolution and independence from Spain were feasible. Between 1775 and 1783, the American patriots of the Thirteen Colonies waged the American Revolutionary War against both the local loyalists and the Kingdom of Great Britain establishing a popular government in the place of the British monarchy; the fact that Spain aided the colonies in their struggle against Britain weakened the idea that it would be a crime to end one's allegiance to the parent state.
The ideals of the French Revolution of 1789 spread across Europe and the Americas as well. The overthrow and execution of King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette ended centuries of monarchy and removed the privileges of the nobility. Liberal ideals in the political and economic fields developed and spread through the Atlantic Revolutions across most of the Western world; the concept of the divine right of kings was questioned by the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, by the oft-quoted statement that "all men are created equal" in the United States Declaration of Independence and by the Spanish church. However, the spread of such ideas was forbidden in the Spanish territories, as was the sale of related books or their unauthorized possession. Spain instituted those bans when it declared war on France after the execution of Louis XVI and retained them after the peace treaty of 1796. News of the events of 1789 and copies of the publications of the French Revolution spread around Spain despite efforts to keep them at bay.
Many enlightened criollos came into contact with liberal authors and their works during their university studies, either in Europe or at the University of Chuquisaca. Books from the United States found their way into the Spanish colonies through Caracas, owing to the proximity of Venezuela to the United States and the West Indies; the Industrial Revolution started in Britain, with the use of plateways and steam power. This led to dramatic increases in the productive capabilities of Britain, created a need for new markets to sell its products; the Napoleonic Wars with France made this a difficult task, after Napoleon imposed the Continental System, which forbade his allies and conquests to trade with Britain. Thus Britain needed to be able to trade with the Spanish colonies, but could not do so because the colonies were restricted to trade only with their parent state. To achieve their economic objectives, Britain tried to invade Rio de la Plata and conquer key cities in Spanish America; when that failed, they chose to promote the Spanish-American aspirations of emancipation from Spain.
The mutiny of Aranjuez in 1808 led King Charles IV of Spain to abdicate in favor of his son, Ferdinand VII. Charles IV requested.