The Tongva are Native Americans who inhabited the Los Angeles Basin and the Southern Channel Islands, an area covering 4,000 square miles. The Tongva are known as the Gabrieleño and Fernandeño, names derived from the Spanish missions built on their territory: Mission San Gabriel Arcángel and Mission San Fernando Rey de España. Along with the neighboring Chumash, the Tongva were the most powerful indigenous people to inhabit Southern California. At the time of European contact, they may have numbered 5,000 to 10,000. Many lines of evidence suggest that the Tongva are descended of Uto-Aztecan-speaking peoples from Nevada who moved southwest into coastal Southern California 3,500 years ago; these migrants either pushed out the Hokan-speaking peoples in the region. By 500 AD, the Tongva had come to occupy all the lands now associated with them. A hunter-gatherer society, the Tongva traded with neighboring peoples. Over time, scattered communities came to speak distinct dialects of the Tongva language, part of the Takic subgroup of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
There may have been five or more such dialects. The Tongva language became extinct in the twentieth century, but a reconstructed form continues to be spoken today. Initial Spanish exploration of the Los Angeles area occurred in 1542, but sustained contact with the Tongva came only after Mission San Gabriel Arcángel was constructed in 1771; this marked the beginning of an era of forced relocation and exposure to Old World diseases, leading to the rapid collapse of the Tongva population. At times the Tongva violently resisted Spanish rule, such as the 1785 rebellion led by the female chief Toypurina. In 1821, Mexico gained its independence from Spain and the government sold mission lands to ranchers, forcing the Tongva to culturally assimilate. Three decades California was ceded to the United States following the Mexican–American War; the US government signed treaties with the Tongva, promising 8.5 million acres of land for reservations, but these treaties were never ratified. By the turn of the 20th century, the Island Tongva had disappeared and the mainland communities were nearing extinction.
The endonym Tongva was recorded by American ethnographer C. Hart Merriam in 1903 and has been adopted by scholars and descendants, although some prefer the endonym Kizh. Since 2006, there have been four organizations claiming to represent the Tongva Nation: the Gabrielino-Tongva Tribe, known as the "hyphen" group from the hyphen in their name. Two of the groups are the result of a hostile split over the question of building an Indian casino. In 1994, the state of California recognized the Tongva "as the aboriginal tribe of the Los Angeles Basin," but no group representing the Tongva has attained recognition by the federal government. In 2008, more than 1,700 people claimed partial ancestry; the first record of an endonym for the Tongva people was Kizh, from 1846. Although subsequent authors equated this with the word for "house", Hale gives the word for house as kītç in a list where the language was called "Kīj", suggesting that the words were distinct; the term Kizh was used at that time to designate the language, the first comprehensive publication on the language used it.
In 1875, Yarrow indicated. He reported that the natives called themselves Tobikhar, meaning "settlers", spoke exclusively Spanish. In 1885, Hoffman referred to the natives as Tobikhar; the word Tongva was recorded by Merriam in 1903 from a single informant. Merriam could not pronounce the village name Toviscangna He ( abbreviated or spelled it Tong-vā; the name Tongva has become preferred as a self-designation since the 1990s, although either "Gabrieleño" or "Gabrielino" is part of every official name. The territory which in historical times was occupied by the kizh People of the willow houses had been inhabited for more than 10,000 years. A prehistoric milling area estimated to be 8,000 years old was discovered in 2006 at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains near Azusa, California; the find yielded arrowheads and stone slabs used to grind seeds as well as tools and implements, but no human or animal bones. The Chowigna site in Palos Verdes, excavated in the 1930s, dates back 7,100 years or more.
In 2007 and early 2008, over 174 ancient American Indian remains were unearthed by archaeologists at a development site of Brightwater Hearthside Homes in the Bolsa Chica Mesa area in Huntington Beach, California. This land was once shared by the Acjachemem tribes; the site was in legal limbo for years before Hearthside was given permission to start construction of over 300 homes. The Tongva and Acjachemem Indians are in dispute over the remains; as speakers of a language of the Uto-Aztecan family, the remote ancestors of the Tongva coalesced as a people in the Sonoran Desert, between 3,000 and 5,000 years ago. This was a center of that language family; the diversity within the Takic group is "moderately deep". The division of the Tongva-Serrano group into the separate Tongva and Serrano peoples is more recent, may have been influenced by
San Joaquin Hills
The San Joaquin Hills are a low mountain range of the Peninsular Ranges System, located in coastal Orange County, California. They extend in a northwest-southeast direction, starting in the northwest in Newport Beach at the southern edge of the Los Angeles Basin, extending southeast to San Juan Capistrano. Named summits in the San Joaquin Hills include French Hill in Irvine. A fault line, the San Joaquin Hills blind thrust, lies eight miles below the hills. Scientists have suggested; the main ridge of the San Joaquin Hills runs southeast from the Upper Newport Bay area, attaining its maximum height of 1,000 feet near Laguna Beach. Many of the high ridges exceed 600 to 800 feet in height; the hills can be up to 3 to 4 miles broad. In many places, the San Joaquin Hills drop directly into the Pacific Ocean, creating the steep sea cliffs that characterize the region. Streams that originate on the west slope of the range include Buck Gully, Los Trancos Creek, Muddy Creek, El Moro Creek, Emerald Creek, Prima Deshecha Cañada, Segunda Deshecha Cañada, Christianitos Canyon.
The east side is drained by Bonita Creek, Sand Canyon Wash, San Joaquin Wash, La Cañada Wash. Cities bordering the range include Newport Beach, Laguna Hills, Aliso Viejo, Laguna Beach, Laguna Niguel, Dana Point, San Juan Capistrano, San Clemente; because of erosion phenomena during the previous Ice Age, the San Joaquin Hills are not one continuous mountain range, but instead are bisected by numerous water gaps cut by rivers flowing southwest from the Santa Ana Mountains. In the north, Newport Bay was formed by the Santa Ana River switching its course to the south, cutting across the northern part of the range. Laguna Canyon was formed by San Diego Creek, but the larger creek changed course and left a wind gap through the hills; the largest canyon by far is Aliso Canyon, cut by Aliso Creek. Further south, the hills are bisected by the canyon of Salt Creek; the southern extent of the hills are cut by San Juan Creek. The native vegetation of the hills is in the California coastal sage and chaparral and California chaparral and woodlands ecoregions coastal sage scrub, but other habitat types include grasslands, oak woodlands and riparian habitats along several streams.
In past ages the land, now the San Joaquin Hills lay under the ocean: construction for the San Joaquin Hills Toll Road unearthed a number of artifacts and more than 40,000 fossils, up to 35 million years old, including 5-million-year-old fossilized whales. The hills take their name from Rancho San Joaquin, owned by Jose Andres Sepulveda. Formed in 1842 by the merger of two smaller ranches, this ranch included the northern part of the hills and had Laguna Canyon as its southeastern boundary. Rancho San Joaquin became part of the Irvine Ranch. Mexican Rancho Niguel was located in the southeastern section of the hills; the San Joaquin Hills blind thrust may be the source of the earliest recorded earthquake in California, a large earthquake felt in what is now northern Orange County on July 28, 1769 by Gaspar de Portolà. Two neighborhoods within the San Joaquin Hills take the name of the hills for their own: San Joaquin Hills, Newport Beach, California, a former census-designated place annexed to the city of Newport Beach, San Joaquin Hills, Laguna Niguel, California, a master-planned community located in the city of Laguna Niguel.
Other neighborhoods set in and named after hills in this range include University Hills and Turtle Rock in Irvine. State Route 73 called the San Joaquin Hills Toll Road, extends through the length of the hills from Newport Beach to San Juan Capistrano. State Route 133 crosses the hills through Laguna Canyon in Laguna Beach, they are crossed in several other places by less major roads. Mountain ranges of Orange County, California Peninsular Ranges−related topics
Temecula is a city in southwestern Riverside County, United States. The city is a tourist destination, with the Temecula Valley Wine Country, Old Town Temecula, the Temecula Valley Polo Club, the Temecula Valley Balloon & Wine Festival, the Temecula Valley International Film Festival, championship golf courses, resort accommodations for tourists which contribute to the city's economic profile; the City of Temecula, forming the southwestern anchor of the Inland Empire region, is 58 miles north of downtown San Diego and 85 miles southeast of downtown Los Angeles. Temecula is bordered by the city of Murrieta to the north and the Pechanga Indian Reservation and San Diego County to the south; the population was 100,097 during the 2010 census and an estimated 2018 population of 113,181. It was incorporated on December 1, 1989; the area was inhabited by the Temecula Native Americans for hundreds of years before their contact with the Spanish missionaries. The Pechanga Band of Luiseño believe their ancestors have lived in the Temecula area for more than 10,000 years.
In Pechanga history, life on earth began in the Temecula Valley. They call it, "Exva Temeeku", the place of the union of Sky-father, Earth-mother; the Temecula Indians lived at "Temeekunga" – "the place of the sun". Other popular interpretations of the name, include "The Sun That Shines Through The Mist" or "Where the sun breaks through the mist"; the first recorded Spanish visit occurred in October 1797, with a Franciscan padre, Father Juan Norberto de Santiago, Captain Pedro Lisalde. Father Santiago kept a journal in which he noted seeing "Temecula...an Indian village". The trip included the Temecula Valley. Today, over 1,000 Native Americans live in the Temecula Valley; the wine industry was founded by the Californios. The vineyards were adapted by Anglo-American settlers and European immigrants from Spain and France in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 1798, Spanish Missionaries established the Mission of San Luis Rey de Francia and designated the Indians living in the region "Sanluiseños", or shortened to "Luiseños".
In the 1820s, the Mission San Antonio de Pala was built. The Mexican land grants made in the Temecula area were Rancho Temecula granted to Felix Valdez and to the east Rancho Pauba granted to Vicente Moraga in 1844. Rancho Little Temecula was made in 1845 to Luiseño Pablo Apis, one of the few former mission converts to be given a land grant, it was fertile well watered land at the southern end of the valley, which included the village of Temecula. A fourth grant, known as Rancho Santa Rosa was made to Juan Moreno in 1846, was in the hills to the west of Temecula; the Luiseño and Cahuilla were involved in local battles not part of the Mexican–American War. In the Pauma Massacre in January 1847, Luiseños captured 11 Mexican soldiers, who had stolen some of the tribe's horses; the Californios in Los Angeles mounted a military retaliation directed by General Pio Pico. In the Temecula Massacre, a combined force of Mexican soldiers and Cahuilla Indians killed 33 to 100 Luiseños; as American settlers moved into the area after the war, conflict with the native tribes increased.
A treaty was signed in the Magee Store in Temecula in 1852, but was never ratified by the United States Senate. In addition, the Luiseños challenged the Mexican land grant claims, as under Mexican law, the land was held in trust to be distributed to the indigenous population after becoming subjects, they challenged the Apis claim to the Little Temecula Rancho by taking the case to the 1851 California Land Commission. On November 15, 1853, the commission rejected the Luiseño claim; the Luiseño of Temecula village remained on the south side of Temecula Creek when the Apis grant was acquired, in 1872, by Louis Wolf. A stagecoach line started a local route from Warner Ranch to Colton in 1857 that passed through Temecula Valley. Within a year, the Butterfield Overland Mail stagecoach line, with a route between St. Louis and San Francisco, stopped at Temecula's Magee Store. On April 22, 1859, the first inland Southern California post office was established in Temecula in the Magee Store and the city was incorporated.
This was the second post office in the first being located in San Francisco. The Temecula post office was moved in the ensuing years, its present locations are the eighth sites occupied. The American Civil War put an end to the Butterfield Overland Stage Service, but stage service continued on the route under other stage companies until the railroad reached Fort Yuma in 1877. In 1862, Louis Wolf, a Temecula merchant and postmaster, married Ramona Place, mixed-race and half Indian. Author Helen Hunt Jackson spent time with Louis and Ramona Wolf in 1882 and again in 1883. Wolf's store became an inspiration for Jackson's fictional "Hartsel's store" in her 1884 novel, Ramona. In 1882, the United States government established the Pechanga Indian Reservation of 4,000 acres some 8 miles from downtown Temecula. In 1882, the California Southern Railroad, a subsidiary of the Santa Fe Railroad completed construction of the section from National City to Temecula. In 1883, the line was extended to San Bernardino.
In the late 1880s
Arroyo Trabuco is a 22-mile -long stream in coastal southern California in the United States. Rising in a rugged canyon in the Santa Ana Mountains of Orange County, the creek flows west and southwest before emptying into San Juan Creek in the city of San Juan Capistrano. Arroyo Trabuco's watershed drains 54 square miles of hilly, semi-arid land and lies in Orange County, with a small portion extending northward into Riverside County; the lower section of the creek flows through three incorporated cities and is moderately polluted by urban and agricultural runoff. Tongva and Luiseño Native American people lived along the perennial stream in settlements and hunting camps for 8,000 years before the invasion of Spanish colonization. Trabuco is Spanish for a Blunderbuss, a type of shotgun. Local legend attributes a Franciscan missionary friar traveling with the Gaspar de Portolà Expedition in 1769 for the story that a blunderbuss was lost in the upper canyon by the creek, so the naming of the area.
John "Don Juan" Forster received a Mexican land grant in 1846 for the canyon lands and creek and established Rancho Trabuco here. In its natural state, Arroyo Trabuco supported one of the most significant steelhead trout runs in Orange County, birds, large mammals, amphibians still flourish in riparian zones along its undeveloped portions. Trabuco Canyon along upper Arroyo Trabuco, long, narrow O'Neill Regional Park, formed from the original land grant of Rancho Trabuco in 1982, are popular off-roading, hiking and camping areas in the watershed. Arroyo Trabuco begins in the Trabuco Ranger District of the Cleveland National Forest, just west of the Orange–Riverside County border, at an elevation of 4,310 feet; the headwaters of the creek are in the large and deep Trabuco Canyon just north of 4,400-foot Los Pinos Peak and south of 4,604-foot Trabuco Peak. The creek flows in this 2,000-foot deep gorge for its first 4 miles, receiving Holy Jim and Falls Canyon creeks before it passes the unincorporated community of Trabuco Canyon, where Live Oak Canyon Creek joins from the right.
Once out of the mountains, Arroyo Trabuco changes from a swift mountain torrent to a meandering, braided stream crossing a wide sandy bed known as the "Plano Trabuco". After entering the city limits of Rancho Santa Margarita, the creek flows southwest through the long, narrow wilderness preserve of O'Neill Regional Park, it crosses under California State Route 241, a toll road that follows the western foothills of the Santa Ana Mountains, passes close to Lake Mission Viejo, a popular recreational lake in the city of Mission Viejo. Still bending southwards, Arroyo Trabuco is joined by Tijeras Canyon Creek from the left bank passes under a high bridge for Oso Parkway and leaves the southern boundary of the regional park. After passing Saddleback College, located near the southern junction of California State Route 73 and Interstate 5, the creek flows through a residential community and is diverted into twin culverts underneath the interstate; the creek flows over two large man-made drop structures, the first of which marks the beginning of a small canyon that it flows through until it reaches downtown San Juan Capistrano.
Passing into the northernmost extreme of San Juan Capistrano, it is joined by its largest tributary, Oso Creek, from the right. The creek flows south through orchards until it is forced into a concrete channel, passes by Mission San Juan Capistrano, joins with San Juan Creek in downtown San Juan Capistrano. On Arroyo Trabuco, the USGS operated two stream gauges, one from 1932–1981, the second from 1973–2008, both near its mouth; the USGS refers to this creek as "Arroyo Trabuco". For the former gauge, the average flow was 6.22 cubic feet per second or 4,500 acre feet per year, the highest recorded flow was on February 6, 1937, water flow 9,240 cubic feet per second, with a stage of 6.8 feet. For the latter gauge, the average discharge was 17.4 cubic feet per second, 12,600 acre feet per year. The largest flow was 10,000 cubic feet per second on 23 February 1998, with a peak stage of 19.81 feet. The USGS states that "All or part of the record affected by Urbanization, Agricultural changes, Channelization, or other", explaining the large discrepancy in average flows between early and more recent records.
Above their confluence, Arroyo Trabuco is longer than San Juan Creek, but San Juan Creek drains a larger area. The Trabuco watershed covers 54 square miles in the northern and far eastern parts of the San Juan Creek watershed. Located in an arid coastal basin in southern Orange County, the creek's watershed comprises 40.3% of the 133.9-square-mile San Juan Creek watershed. It makes a wide bend from northeast to southwest, bounded by the Santa Ana Mountains to the north, the foothills of the Santa Anas to the west, a drainage divide within the San Juan watershed itself on the south and east. Although much of the Arroyo Trabuco watershed is bounded by the San Juan Creek basin it borders on several other major Orange and Riverside County watersheds. Listed from east to west, the major San Juan Creek subwatersheds it bounds are Bell Canyon, Cañada Gobernadora, Cañada Chiquita and El Horno Creek. Arroyo Trabuco's headwaters are not physically far from that of Bell Canyon and San Juan Creek, the first of, the second longest tributary of San Juan Creek.
On the west of the Arroyo Trabuco watershed is the Aliso Creek drainage basin, on the north the Santiago Creek, on the northeast streams draining into the Lake Elsinore area. There are between 140,000 and 145,000 people living in the major citi