Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
Jagersfontein Mine is an abandoned open-pit mine in South Africa located close to the town of Jagersfontein and about 110 kilometres south-west of Bloemfontein. Since it was first established in 1870, two of the ten biggest diamonds discovered, the Excelsior and the Reitz, were mined from Jagersfontein; the term "Jagers" has since been coined to denote the distinctive faint bluish tint of the gems from this mine. Among geologists, Jagersfontein is known as a kimberlite pipe, a prime locality for mantle xenoliths, some of which are believed to have come from depths of 300–500 km. About 9.6 million carats of jewel-quality diamonds were extracted during the mine's century of operation, interrupted only by the two World Wars and the Great Depression. After thirty-nine years of open-pit mining, underground mining began in 1909, continued until its eventual closure on May 28, 1971, less than a year after the centenary of the first diamond discovery in the area. Since an Open Mine Museum and the Jagers Mining Village have opened as tourist attractions at the site.
Research by historian Steve Lunderstedt in 2005 confirmed that the mine was the biggest hand-excavated hole in the world at 19.65 hectares larger than the Big Hole of 17 ha in Kimberley, which had claimed the title up to then. It is not the deepest, since the final depth of the Big Hole reached 220 m or more. Jagersfontein was dug by hand to a depth of 200 m by 1911; the mine area is closed to the public. Several miners strikes or ‘riots’ occurred between 1913 and 1914 in mines Koffiefontein, Randfontein, Premier mines and Jagersfontein mines. Deaths due to shootings in Premier mines and well as Jagersfontein mines led to higher publicity than other miners strikes which occurred during that time; the majority of the miners who worked at these mines were Basotho people who lived in Basotholand. During their time working in the mines, they lived in hostels which had strict rules for black people which included the necessity for the possession of a pass book. Issues that affected Sotho people and precipitated riots included The Great Depression, a drought over South Africa, severe over Basotholand as well as the first request that the British territories be handed over to the South African Union.
The most distressing of these issues was the drought as it, compounded with the economic depression, put much pressure on migrant workers to return money back home to Basotholand. The ratio of women to men in Jagersfontein was 16:1, abnormal for a Free State town and as such a larger proportion of women participated in protests in Jagersfontein compared to others of its time. Nonetheless, authorities in Jagersfontein took drastic action on the women involved in the strikes including an event in March 1913 where police officials sealed off the bantu location, searched each house and demanded pass books at gun-point. 61 women were arrested, of which 50% were coloured. Many Basotho people fled back to Basotholand for refuge after the shootings and brutality during the riots. In 1914 the mining riots resulted in the deaths of 11 Basotho people. For Google Maps Aerial view of Jagersfontein Mine, click here. Http://karoospace.co.za/historic-jagersfontein-free-state/
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
A chemically pure and structurally perfect diamond is transparent with no hue, or color. However, in reality no gem-sized natural diamonds are perfect; the color of a diamond may be affected by chemical impurities and/or structural defects in the crystal lattice. Depending on the hue and intensity of a diamond's coloration, a diamond's color can either detract from or enhance its value. For example, most white diamonds are discounted in price when more yellow hue is detectable, while intense pink diamonds or blue diamonds can be more valuable. Of all colored diamonds, red diamonds are the rarest; the Aurora Pyramid of Hope displays a spectacular array of colored diamonds, including red diamonds. Diamonds occur in a variety of colors—steel gray, blue, orange, green, pink to purple and black. Colored diamonds contain interstitial impurities or structural defects that cause the coloration, pure diamonds are transparent and colorless. Diamonds are scientifically classed into two main types and several subtypes, according to the nature of impurities present and how these impurities affect light absorption: Type I diamonds have nitrogen atoms as the main impurity at a concentration of 0.1%.
If the nitrogen atoms are in pairs they do not affect the diamond's color. If the nitrogen atoms are in large even-numbered aggregates they impart a yellow to brown tint. About 98% of gem diamonds are type Ia, most of these are a mixture of IaA and IaB material: these diamonds belong to the Cape series, named after the diamond-rich region known as Cape Province in North Africa, whose deposits are Type Ia. If the nitrogen atoms are dispersed throughout the crystal in isolated sites, they give the stone an intense yellow or brown tint. Synthetic diamond containing nitrogen is Type Ib. Type I diamonds absorb from 320 nm, they have a characteristic fluorescence and visible absorption spectrum. Type II diamonds have no measurable nitrogen impurities. Type II diamonds absorb in a different region of the infrared, transmit in the ultraviolet below 225 nm, unlike Type I diamonds, they have differing fluorescence characteristics, but no discernible visible absorption spectrum. Type IIa diamond can be colored pink, red, or brown due to structural anomalies arising through plastic deformation during crystal growth—these diamonds are rare, but constitute a large percentage of Australian production.
Type IIb diamonds, which account for 0.1% of gem diamonds, are light blue due to scattered boron within the crystal matrix. However, a blue-grey color may occur in Type Ia diamonds and be unrelated to boron. Not restricted to type are green diamonds, whose color is caused by GR1 color centers in the crystal lattice produced by exposure to varying quantities of radiation. Pink and red are caused by plastic deformation of the crystal lattice from pressure. Black diamonds are caused by microscopic black or gray inclusions of other materials such as graphite or sulfides and/or microscopic fractures. Opaque or opalescent white diamonds are caused by microscopic inclusions. Purple diamonds are caused by a combination of high hydrogen content; the majority of diamonds that are mined are in a range of pale yellow or brown color, termed the normal color range. Diamonds that are of intense yellow or brown, or any other color are called fancy color diamonds. Diamonds that are of the highest purity are colorless, appear a bright white.
The degree to which diamonds exhibit body color is one of the four value factors by which diamonds are assessed. Diamonds have a color grading system; this system goes from D to Z. The more colorless a diamond is, the rarer and more valuable it is because it appears white and brighter to the eye. Color grading of diamonds was performed as a step of sorting rough diamonds for sale by the London Diamond Syndicate; as the diamond trade developed, early diamond grades were introduced by various parties in the diamond trade. Without any co-operative development these early grading systems lacked standard nomenclature, consistency; some early grading scales were. Numerous terms developed to describe diamonds of particular colors: golconda, jagers, blue white, fine white, gem blue, etc. Refers to a grading scale for diamonds in the normal color range used by internationally recognized laboratories; the scale ranges from D, colorless to Z, a pale yellow or brown color. Brown diamonds darker than K color are described using their letter grade, a descriptive phrase, for example M Faint Brown.
Diamonds with more depth of color than Z color fall into the fancy color diamond range. Diamond color is graded by comparing a sample stone to a master stone set of diamonds; each master stone is known to exhibit the least amount of body color that a diamond in that color grade may exhibit. A trained diamond grader compares a diamond of unknown grade against the series of master stones, assessing where in the range of color the diamond resides; this process occurs in a lighting box, fitted with daylight equivalent lamps. Accurate color grading can only be performed with diamond unset, as the comparison with master
Mouawad is a held Swiss and Emirati luxury goods, vertically integrated company that makes High Jewelry, retail company that sources diamonds and gemstones, designs and sells jewelry collections, objects of art, luxury watches. The firm has headquarters in Geneva, with a Middle East headquarters at Jumeirah Lakes Towers in Dubai. Founded in 1891 in Beirut, Lebanon by David Mouawad, the firm is now led by 4th generation co-guardians Fred Mouawad, Alain Mouawad and Pascal Mouawad; the firm's jewelry and watch design and manufacturing divisions are located in Switzerland and Asia Pacific. The Mouawad Company and brand began with David Mouawad who spent more than two decades in New York City and Mexico learning the craft of watchmaker and jeweler before returning to Beirut in 1891, he opened a small shop in Beirut in 1908 where he combined the trade of watch and jewelry repairs, with his passion for creating intricate clocks and fashioning one-of-a-kind pieces commissioned by wealthy clients. His son Fayez Mouawad expanded the business in the 1950s.
He was able to capitalize on the Middle East's increased oil wealth by making personalized jewelry for people in the area. As jeweler to kings and the aristocracy, Fayez fashioned outstanding pieces and unique creations commemorating important state events; the firm moved into the worldwide market under Fayez's son Robert Mouawad. He had studied in Europe to become a doctor but returned after being convinced by his father to join the family business, he started as a salesman with Mouawad in order to learn the business from the ground up entering into an agreement with his father to take over the business as the sole president. In the early 1970s, Robert moved the headquarters to Switzerland, he took many risks with the firm by purchasing some of the world's largest diamonds. He expanded the brand into Europe and North America and began producing watches in the early 1990s. He’s contributed to the jewelry education and research through support of the Gemological Institute of America whose campus in Carlsbad, California is named in his honor.
Robert Mouawad acquired a historical residence in Beirut, Lebanon to host his collections of fine arts and antique pieces, in 2006 established the Robert Mouawad Private Museum for his collections of books, architectural elements, ancient weapons, jewelry, objets d'art and rare precious stones. In 2010, Robert Mouawad left the firm to focus on his real estate group, the Robert Mouawad Foundation, his museum, he retired on January 1, 2010, the company was led by his sons Fred Mouawad and Pascal Mouawad. Alain Mouawad joined to head up the watch division in January 2013. Over the years the Mouawad family has acquired a collection of diamonds, one of the world's finest in private hands. A good number of the largest diamonds in existence take their place among the gems in the collection; these diamonds include the Ahmedabad, a pear shaped diamond that weighs 78.86 carats with a D-VS1 Grade. Mouawad is the owner of the Indore Pears. In January 1925, armed men attacked a car in Bombay, being driven by an official of the Bombay Corporation.
The passenger in the vehicle was a young Muslim woman, the subject of the attack. The official was killed and four British officers came to the aid of the woman. Robbery was not the motive for this crime as the young woman was believed to be a dancer at the Court of Tukoji Rao III; the woman escaped from being a concubine and the murder was believed to be retaliation. It was agreed that the crime on Malabar Hill could not be ignored: Mumtaz Begum had recognized her assailants as an aide-de-camp of the Maharajah and members of the Indore army and mounted police; the Maharajah's involvement in the crime was never made public but he was asked either to appear at the subsequent official inquiry or abdicate in favor of his son. In the following year he chose the latter course. While traveling in Switzerland after his abdication, he met a rich young American. Amid much publicity the couple married in 1928; the bride embraced the Hindu religion and subsequently became known as the Maharanee Shamista Davi Holkar.
In 1946 Harry Winston bought the two pear-shaped diamonds, weighing 46.95 and 46.70 carats, which the Maharanee had worn on many occasions. The diamonds were purchased several times throughout the years until they were purchased by Robert Mouawad in 1987; the Queen of Holland diamond is another in the Mouawad collection. Its origin is unknown, it was first cut in 1904 by F. Freidman & Co. who made it a cushion-cut and named it after Queen Wihelmina of the Netherlands, incorrectly referred to as Holland. The diamond was re-cut sometime after the 1960s into its current weight of 135.92 carats. It is judged to be'D' color by the Gemological Institute of America; this diamond was formerly owned by William Goldberg. Mouawad is the owner of the Jubilee Diamond; the Jubilee Diamond was known as the Reitz Diamond and is a colourless, cushion-shaped diamond weighing 245.35 carats. It is the sixth largest diamond in the world and named after Francis William Reitz, the president of the Orange Free State at the time the diamond was discovered in the area.
The Jubilee is the largest diamond in the Mouawad collection. The Mouawad Liliac is considered one of the top ten pink diamonds in the world and is owned by Mouawad; the Mouawad Lilac weighs 24.44 carat. It is an emera
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
Sir Dorabji Tata was an Indian businessman, a key figure in the history and development of the Tata Group. He was knighted in 1910 for his contributions to industry in British India. Dorab was the elder son of Parsi Zoroastrian Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata. Through an aunt, Jerbai Tata, who married a Bombay merchant, Dorabji Saklatvala, he was a cousin of Shapurji Saklatvala who became a Communist Member of the British Parliament. Tata received his primary education at the Proprietary High School in Bombay before travelling to England in 1875, where he was tutored, he entered Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge in 1877, where he remained for two years before returning to Bombay in 1879. He continued his studies at St. Xavier's College, where he obtained a degree in 1882. Upon graduating, Dorab worked for two years as a journalist at the Bombay Gazette. In 1884, he joined the cotton business division of his father's firm, he was first sent to Pondicherry a French colony, to determine whether a cotton mill might be profitable there.
Thereafter, he was sent to Nagpur, to learn the cotton trade at the Empress Mills, founded by his father in 1877. Dorabji's father Jamshetji had visited Mysore State in south India on business, had met Dr. Hormusji Bhabha, a Parsi and the first Indian Inspector-General of Education of that state. While visiting the Bhabha home, he had approved of young Meherbai, Bhabha's only daughter. Returning to Bombay, Jamshetji sent Dorab to Mysore State to call on the Bhabha family. Dorab did so, duly married Meherbai in 1897; the couple did not have children. Meherbai's brother Jehangir Bhabha became a reputed lawyer, he was the father of the scientist Homi J. Bhabha and thus Dorabji was Homi Bhabha's uncle by marriage; this family connection explains why the Tata group lavishly funded Bhabha's research and the research institutions set up by Bhabha, including the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. Dorabji was intimately involved in the fulfilment of his father's ideas of a modern iron and steel industry, agreed to the necessity for hydroelectric electricity to power the industry.
Dorab is credited with the establishment of the conglomerates Tata Steel in 1907 which his father founded and Tata Power in 1911, which are the core of the present-day Tata Group. Dorabji is known to have accompanied the mineralogists who were searching for iron fields, it is said that his presence encouraged the researchers to look in areas that would otherwise have been neglected. Under Dorabji's management, the business that had once included three cotton mills and the Taj Hotel Bombay grew to include India's largest private sector steel company, three electric companies and one of India's leading insurance companies. Founder of New India Assurance Co Ltd. in 1919, the largest General Insurance company in India. Dorabji Tata was knighted in January 1910 by Edward VII. Dorabji was fond of sports, was a pioneer in the Indian Olympic movement; as president of the Indian Olympic Association, he financed the Indian contingent to the Paris Olympics in 1924. The Tata family, like most of India's big businessmen, were Indian nationalists but did not trust the Congress because it seemed too aggressively hostile to the Raj, too socialist, too supportive of trade unions.
Meherbai Tata died of leukaemia in 1931 at the age of 72. Shortly after her death, Dorabji established the Lady Tata Memorial Trust to advance the study into diseases of the blood. On 11 March 1932, one year after Meherbai's death and shortly before his own, he established a trust fund, to be used "without any distinction of place, nationality or creed," for the advancement of learning and research, disaster relief, other philanthropic purposes; that trust is today known as the Sir Dorabji Tata Trust. Dorabji additionally provided the seed money to fund the setting up of India's premier scientific and engineering research institution, the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Dorabji died in Bad Kissingen, Germany on 3 June 1932, at the age of 73, he is buried alongside his wife Meherbai in Brookwood Cemetery, England. They had no children. Sir Dorabji Tata and Allied Trusts Tata Group Choksi, R. "Tata, Sir Dorabji Jamshed" in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography accessed 28 Jan 2012, a brief scholarly biography Nomura, Chikayoshi.
"Selling steel in the 1920s: TISCO in a period of transition," Indian Economic & Social History Review 48: pp 83–116, doi:10.1177/001946461004800104 Biography at the Dorabji Tata Trust Biography at Tata Central Archives Tata family tree