The British Council is a British organisation specialising in international cultural and educational opportunities. It works in over 100 countries: promoting a wider knowledge of the United Kingdom and the English language; the British Council is governed by a Royal Charter. It is a public corporation and an executive nondepartmental public body, sponsored by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, its headquarters are near Trafalgar Square. Its chairman is Christopher Rodrigues, its CEO is Sir Ciarán Devane and its chief operating officer is Adrian Greer. 1934: British Foreign Office officials created the "British Committee for Relations with Other Countries" to support English education abroad, promote British culture and fight the rise of fascism. The name became British Council for Relations with Other Countries. 1936: The organisation’s name was shortened to the British Council. 1938: The British Council opens its first four offices in Bucharest, Cairo and Warsaw. The offices in Portugal are the oldest in continuous operation in the world.
1940: King George VI granted the British Council a Royal Charter for promoting "a wider knowledge of and the English language abroad and developing closer cultural relations between and other countries". 1942: The British Council undertook a promotion of British culture overseas. The music section of the project was a recording of significant recent compositions by British composers: E. J. Moeran's Symphony in G minor was the first work to be recorded under this initiative, followed by recordings of Walton's Belshazzar's Feast, Bliss's Piano Concerto, Bax's Third Symphony, Elgar's The Dream of Gerontius. 1944: In August, after the liberation of Paris, Austin Gill was sent by the council to reestablish the Paris office, which soon had tours by the Old Vic company, Julian Huxley and T. S. Eliot. 2007: The Russian Foreign Ministry ordered the British Council to close its offices outside Moscow. The Ministry alleged that it had violated Russian tax regulations, a move that British officials claimed was a retaliation over the British expulsion of Russian diplomats involved with the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko.
This caused the British Council to cease carrying out all English-language examinations in Russia from January 2008. In early 2009, a Russian arbitration court ruled that the majority of the tax claims, valued at $6.6 million, were unjustified. 2011: On 19 August, a group of armed men attacked the British Council office in the Afghanistan capital, killing at least 12 people – none of them British – and temporarily took over the compound. All the attackers were killed in counter-attacks by forces guarding the compound; the British Council office was relocated to the British Embassy compound, as the British Council compound was destroyed in the suicide attack. 2013: The British Council in Tripoli, was targeted by a car bomb on the morning of 23 April. Diplomatic sources were reported as saying that "the bombers were foiled as they were preparing to park a rigged vehicle in front of the compound gate"; the attempted attack was simultaneous with the attack on the French Embassy in Tripoli on the same day that injured two French security guards and wounded several residents in neighbouring houses.
A jihadist group calling itself the Mujahedeen Brigade was suspected linked to Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb. The British Council is organised into seven Regions; the British Council has offices in: Argentina, Canada, Colombia, Jamaica, Peru, The United States of America, Uruguay and Costa Rica. The British Council has offices in: Nepal, Brunei, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand and New Zealand; the British Council has offices in: Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, France, Greece, Ireland, Latvia, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Spain. The British Council has offices in: Egypt, Bahrain, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen; the British Council has offices in: Afghanistan, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. The British Council has offices in: Botswana, Eritrea, Ghana, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, South Sudan, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Uganda; the British Council has offices in: Albania, Azerbaijan and Herzegovina, Israel, Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia, Turkey and Uzbekistan.
The British Council is a charity governed by Royal Charter. It is a public corporation and an executive nondepartmental public body, sponsored by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, its headquarters are off London. Its chair is Christopher Rodrigues, its CEO is Sir Ciarán Devane and chief operating officer Adrian Greer; the British Council’s total income in 2014–15 was £973 million principally made up of £154.9 million grant-in-aid received from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. The British Council works in more than 100 countries: promoting a wider knowledge of the UK and the English language.
Seven Brides for Seven Brothers (musical)
Seven Brides for Seven Brothers is a musical with a book by Lawrence Kasha and David Landay, music by Gene de Paul, Al Kasha and Joel Hirschhorn, lyrics by Johnny Mercer, Al Kasha and Joel Hirschhorn. It is based on the 1954 Stanley Donen film of the same name which is, itself, an adaption of the short story "The Sobbin' Women," by Stephen Vincent Benét, based on the Ancient Roman legend of The Rape of the Sabine Women; the show's 1978-79 premiere tour was canceled without reaching Broadway: after touring for eighteen months from 1981 a subsequent production opened on Broadway in July 1982 to close three days and five performances after its official opening. In 1985 a West End production had a six week limited engagement run, with a further five and a half week West End run at The Prince of Wales Theatre. Revised versions of the musical have met with success in U. S. regional theatres and in amateur productions on both sides of the Atlantic. Act 1In 1850s Oregon, Adam goes into town seeking a wife to run the household that consists of just himself and his six brothers.
There he meets a waitress at a local restaurant. Milly and Adam rush into marriage and return to Adam's remote ranch in the mountains; as soon as they return home, Adam reverts to his true self: an inconsiderate slob. Milly meets his six brothers, Caleb, Ephraim and Gideon, all of whom share Adam's love for all things disorderly. Milly decides to help them change their ways, she teaches them to dance and takes them to a barn-raising. There, the six brothers meet six girls they start courting them. Conflicts arise. Upon returning home Adam reads his brothers the story of The Rape of the Sabine Women, inciting them to kidnap the girls and bring them back home with them. Act 2The brothers kidnap the girls and cause an avalanche to fall and block the suitors' way, making the brothers' house unreachable until spring; the girls are furious by the time they reach the house. An angry Milly scolds the boys and sends them all to live in the barn, Adam flees up to their hunting cabin in the mountains to live by himself.
They live there all through the Winter, but by the time Spring arrives, the girls miss the brothers' attention and find themselves to be in love. Gideon goes to the cabin and attempts to get Adam to return home by telling him that Milly had a baby girl. A changed Adam returns home to find his wife and newborn daughter waiting for him; the snow clears up and the angry suitors make their way up to the house in the mountains to find that the girls are happy and want to marry the brothers. The story ends with a shotgun wedding of the six remaining couples. U. S. national tours and BroadwayThe stage musical version of Seven Brides for Seven Brothers was first performed in June 1978 in the Dallas Summer Musicals season with Howard Keel and Jane Powell reprising the lead roles they had played in the original movie 24 years earlier. The production - with Keel and Powell still attached - proceeded on what was touted as a pre-Broadway tour playing limited engagements in St Louis, Kansas City and Atlanta.
An engagement at the Pantages Theatre in Los Angeles was announced for November 1978 but instead the production went on hiatus until January 1979, revived to play three Florida venues with the tour's end announced during its February 1979 Parker Playhouse engagement, future engagements being canceled. Columnist Liz Smith had in September 1978 shared "the story from the road" that Keel and Powell "are both saying that unless director-producer and script co-author Larry Kasha withdraws will never come into New York ", in February 1978 columnist Earl Wilson attributed the show's folding to "squabbling between the stars...and the producers": Kasha's co-producer Zev Bufman would attribute the tour's preemption to the financial backer, subsequent to a "corporate shuffle", no longer making theatrical investments. The musical was revived in 1981 as a vehicle for singer Debby Boone, a June showcase engagement in the Akron-based Kenley Players season of 1981 being followed by an eighteen month US tour launched with a December 1981 engagement at the Fox Theater.
Seven Brides for Seven Brothers would open on Broadway at the Alvin Theatre on 8 July 1982 subsequent to fifteen preview performances: directed by Lawrence Kasha and choreographed by Jerry Jackson, the cast included Debby Boone as Milly and David-James Carroll as Adam as well as Jeff Calhoun, Lara Teeter, Craig Peralta, Nancy Fox. Despite faring well with audiences and critics while on tour, the show did not impress the Broadway critics, with a scathing New York Times critique by Frank Rich being blamed for the show's 11 July 1982 closure after five performances. Seven Brides for Seven Brothers would receive a Tony Award nomination for Best Original Score. 1985 West EndThe musical premiered in the West End at the Old Vic, starting on July 2, 1985 and running for 41 performances. It included Michaela Strachan as the bride Liza; the show played at The Prince of Wales Theatre, Leicester Square produced by Michael Winter, had a unique North American engagement playing for five weeks at the Royal Alexandra Theatre in Toronto.
A cast recording of th
An international school is a school that promotes international education, in an international environment, either by adopting a curriculum such as that of the International Baccalaureate, Edexcel or Cambridge International Examinations, or by following a national curriculum different from that of the school's country of residence. These schools cater to students who are not nationals of the host country, such as the children of the staff of international businesses, international organizations, foreign embassies, missions, or missionary programs. Many local students attend these schools to learn the language of the international school and to obtain qualifications for employment or higher education in a foreign country; the first international schools were founded in the latter half of the 19th century in countries such as Japan and Turkey. Early international schools were set up for families who traveled, like children of personnel of international companies, international organisations ons, non-governmental organisationss, embassy staff.
The schools were established with the people and organisations having large interests in the hosting nation: for instance, American diplomats and missionaries set up schools to educate their children. Over time globalisation has created a market for international education. "In a global economy, it is no longer improvement by national standards alone. The best performing education systems internationally provide the benchmark for success," said Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Secretary-General José Ángel Gurría when launching the annual Education at a Glance report in Paris. Increased movement of people around the globe has created a generation of children growing up and residing in foreign countries and expanding this market for international schools that can cater for their educational needs. In April 2007 there were 4,179 English-speaking international schools, expected to set to rise with globalisation. In New Delhi worldwide entries for the University of Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education June 2009 examination session are up by 20% on the same session last year.
The strong growth confirms the status of Cambridge IGCSE as the world's, India's, most popular international curriculum for 14- to 16-year-olds, indicating that despite the global financial crises education is still a valued investment. International schooling allows children to become global citizens by providing a rigorous and comprehensive education with full immersion into multiple languages and cultures. At a conference in Italy in 2009 the International Association of School Librarianship came up with a list of criteria for describing an international school, including: Transferability of the student's education across international schools. A moving population. Multinational and multilingual student body An international curriculum. International accreditation. A transient and multinational teacher population. Non-selective student enrollment. English or French language of instruction, plus the obligation to take on at least one additional language; the most common international schools represent Education in the United Kingdom, Education in the United States or are based on curricula specially designed for international schools such as the International General Certificate of Secondary Education or the IB Diploma Programme.
These international curriculae are committed to internationalism, developing the global citizen, providing an environment for optimal learning, teaching in an international setting that fosters understanding, independence and cooperation. Like other schools, international schools teach language arts, the sciences, the arts, physical education, information technology, design technology. More recent developments for primary school include the IB Primary Years Programme. There are 3063 schools offering the international baccalaureate curriculum in the world. For expatriate families, international schools allow some continuity in education and most prefer to stay in the same curriculum for older children. Relocation services and institutions like School Choice International can help families choose the right school and curriculum for their child; the United Nations International School was established in 1947 by a group of United Nations parents to promote an international education for their children, while preserving their diverse cultural heritages.
The school was one of twelve schools who trialled the pilot International Baccalaureate Program and the school has offered it since. The school promotes the appreciation of the diversity of persons and cultures, provides an optimal environment for learning and teaching, offers a global curriculum that inspires in its students the spirit and ideals of the United Nations Charter. Following the establishment of UNIS, three other international schools around the globe were opened with a direct connection to the United Nations: Vienna International School in 1959, United Nations International School of Hanoi in 1988 and NIST International School in 1992. An international school teacher or educator is someone engaged in the education of pupils in schools other than their country of citizenship; the term refers to teachers who are teaching in pri
Mixed-sex education known as mixed-gender education, co-education or coeducation, is a system of education where males and females are educated together. Whereas single-sex education was more common up to the 19th century, mixed-sex education has since become standard in many cultures in Western countries. Single-sex education, remains prevalent in many Muslim countries; the relative merits of both systems have been the subject of debate. The world's oldest co-educational day and boarding school is Dollar Academy, a junior and senior school for males and females from ages 5 to 18 in Scotland, United Kingdom. From its opening in 1818 the school admitted both boys and girls of the parish of Dollar and the surrounding area; the school continues in existence to the present day with around 1,250 pupils. The first co-educational college to be founded was Oberlin Collegiate Institute in Ohio, it opened on December 3, 1833, including 29 men and 15 women. Equal status for women did not arrive until 1837, the first three women to graduate with bachelor's degrees did so in 1840.
By the late 20th century, many institutions of higher learning, for people of one sex had become coeducational. In early civilizations, people were educated informally: within the household; as time progressed, education became more formal. Women had few rights when education started to become a more important aspect of civilization. Efforts of the ancient Greek and Chinese societies focused on the education of males. In ancient Rome, the availability of education was extended to women, but they were taught separately from men; the early Christians and medieval Europeans continued this trend, single-sex schools for the privileged classes prevailed through the Reformation period. In the 16th century, at the Council of Trent, the Roman Catholic church reinforced the establishment of free elementary schools for children of all classes; the concept of universal elementary education, regardless of sex, had been created. After the Reformation, coeducation was introduced in western Europe, when certain Protestant groups urged that boys and girls should be taught to read the Bible.
The practice became popular in northern England and colonial New England, where young children, both male and female, attended dame schools. In the late 18th century, girls were admitted to town schools; the Society of Friends in England, as well as in the United States, pioneered coeducation as they did universal education, in Quaker settlements in the British colonies and girls attended school together. The new free public elementary, or common schools, which after the American Revolution supplanted church institutions, were always coeducational, by 1900 most public high schools were coeducational as well. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, coeducation grew much more accepted. In Great Britain and the Soviet Union, the education of girls and boys in the same classes became an approved practice. In Australia there is a trend towards increased coeducational schooling with new coeducational schools opening, few new single sex schools opening and existing single sex schools combining or opening their doors to the opposite gender.
The first mixed-sex institution of higher learning in China was the Nanjing Higher Normal Institute, renamed National Central University and Nanjing University. For millennia in China, public schools public higher learning schools, were for men. Only schools established by zongzu were for both male and female students; some schools such as Li Zhi's school in Ming Dynasty and Yuan Mei's school in Qing Dynasty enrolled both male and female students. In the 1910s women's universities were established such as Ginling Women's University and Peking Girls' Higher Normal School, but there were no coeducation in higher learning schools. Tao Xingzhi, the Chinese advocator of mixed-sex education, proposed The Audit Law for Women Students at the meeting of Nanjing Higher Normal School held on December seventh, 1919, he proposed that the university recruit female students. The idea was supported by the president Guo Bingwen, academic director Liu Boming, such famous professors as Lu Zhiwei and Yang Xingfo, but opposed by many famous men of the time.
The meeting decided to recruit women students next year. Nanjing Higher Normal School enrolled eight Chinese female students in 1920. In the same year Peking University began to allow women students to audit classes. One of the most notable female students of that time was Jianxiong Wu. In 1949, the People's Republic of China was founded; the Chinese government has provided more equal opportunities for education since and all schools and universities have become mixed-sex. In recent years, many female and/or single-sex schools have again emerged for special vocational training needs but equal rights for education still apply to all citizens. In China Muslim Hui and Muslim Salars are against coeducation, due to Islam, Uyghurs are the only Muslims in China that do not mind coeducation and practice it. Admission to the Sorbonne was opened to girls in 1860; the baccalaureat became gender-blind in 1924, giving equal chances to all girls in applying to any universities. Mixed-sex education became mandatory for primary schools in 1957 and for all universities in 1975.
St. Paul's Co-educational College was the first mixed-sex secondary school in Hong Kong, it was founded in 1915 as St. Paul's Girls' College. At the end of World War II it was temporarily merged with St. Paul's College, a boys' school; when classes at the campus of St. Paul'
Chertsey is a town in the Runnymede borough of Surrey, England on the right bank of the River Thames where it is met by a corollary, the Abbey River and a tributary, the River Bourne or Chertsey Bourne. It is within a narrow projection of the Greater London Urban Area, aside from the Thames bordered by Thorpe Park, junction 11 of the M25 London orbital motorway, the town of Addlestone and south-western semi-rural villages that were within Chertsey. Chertsey is centred 29 kilometres southwest of central London, has a branch line railway station and less than 1 mile north of its developed centre is the M3. Chertsey's built environment has the medieval tower and chancel roof of its Anglican church and 18th century listed buildings including the stone Chertsey Bridge, Botleys Mansion within a public-access park, many of the buildings along its two right-angled streets forming a church/museum/café/hotel/private housing and general high street respectively. A curfew bell is run at 8pm on weekdays from Michaelmas to Lady Day and is associated with the romantic local legend of Blanche Heriot, celebrated by a statue of the heroine at Chertsey Bridge.
Its green spaces include sports fields, the Thames Path National Trail, Chertsey Meads and a round knoll with remains of a prehistoric hill fort known as Eldebury Hill. The area has much expensive domestic property such as Pyrcroft House from the 18th century and the replacement of'Tara' from the late 20th century. Adjoining are the main areas of woodland and a few remaining agricultural and equestrian fields to the south-west and north; this place appears in the endowment charter of its abbey in the 7th century as Cirotisege or Cerotesege – that is, the island of Cirotis. Chertsey was one of the oldest market towns in England, its Church of England parish church dates to the 12th century and the farmhouse of the'Hardwick' in the elevated south-west is of 16th century construction. It grew to all sides but the north around Chertsey Abbey, founded in 666 A. D by Eorcenwald, Bishop of London on a donation by Frithwald. Accordingly, until the end of use of the hundreds, used in the feudal system until the establishment of Rural Districts and Urban District Councils, the name chosen for the wider Chertsey area hundred was Godley Hundred.
In the 9th century the Abbey and town were sacked by the Danes, leaving a mark today in the name of the neighbouring village and refounded as a subsidiary abbey from Abingdon Abbey by King Edgar in 964. Chertsey appears in the Domesday Book as Certesi, it was held by Chertsey Abbey and by Richard Sturmid from the abbey. Its Domesday assets were: 5 hides, 1 mill and 1 forge at the hall, 20 ploughs, 80 hectares of meadow, woodland worth 50 hogs, it rendered a larger than average sum for the book of manor and ecclesiastical parish entries, £22. The Abbey grew to become one of the largest Benedictine abbeys in England, supported by large fiefs in the northwest corner of Sussex and Surrey until it was dissolved by Henry VIII in 1536; the King took stone from the Abbey to construct his palace at Oatlands Palace. By the late 17th century, only some outer walls of the Abbey remained. During this period until at least 1911 a wider area was included in Chertsey: Ottershaw was an ecclesiastical district.
Today the history of the abbey is reflected in local place names and the surviving former fishponds that fill with water after heavy rain. The nearby Hardwick Court Farm, now much reduced in size and cut off from the town by the M25, has the successor to the abbey's large and well-supported 15th century tithe barn rebuilt in the 17th century; the eighteenth-century Chertsey Bridge provides an important cross-river link, Chertsey Lock is a short distance above it on the opposite side. On the south west corner of the bridge is a bronze statue of local heroine Blanche Heriot striking the bell by Sheila MitchellFRBS; the summit of St Ann's Hill in Chertsey was a vital viewing point for the Anglo-French Survey, which calculated the distance between the Royal Greenwich Observatory and the Paris Observatory using trigonometry. A grid of triangles was measured all the way to the French coast. In the 18th century Chertsey Cricket Club was one of the strongest in the country and beat the rest of England by more than an innings in 1778.
The Duke of Dorset, was appointed Ambassador to France in 1784. He arranged to have the Chertsey cricket team travel to France in 1789 to introduce cricket to the French nobility. However, the team, on arriving at Dover, met the Ambassador returning from France at the outset of the French Revolution and the opportunity was missed; the original Chertsey railway station was built by the London and Southampton Railway and opened on 14 February 1848. The present station, across the level crossing from the site of the original one, was opened on 10 October 1866 by the London and South Western Railway; the Southern Railway completed electrification of the line on 3 January 1937. Samuel Lewis devotes one of his longest entries to small town in his 1848 topographical guide to England: Chertsey Regatta has been held on the river for over 150 years, in the non-Olympic regional sport of skiffing which has a club on this reach of river; the Olympic sport of rowing has an annual Burway Regatta above Chertsey Lock, an area of former flood meadow and golf course.
The Burway was in the m
Academy (English school)
Academy schools are state-funded schools in England which are directly funded by the Department for Education and independent of local authority control. The terms of the arrangements are set out in individual Academy Funding Agreements. Most academies are secondary schools; however more than 25% of primary schools, as well as some of the remaining first and secondary schools, are academies. Academies are self-governing non-profit charitable trusts and may receive additional support from personal or corporate sponsors, either financially or in kind, they do not have to follow the National Curriculum, but do have to ensure that their curriculum is broad and balanced, that it includes the core subjects of mathematics and English. They are subject to inspection by Ofsted; the following are all types of academy: Sponsored academy: A maintained school, transformed to academy status as part of a government intervention strategy. They are run by a Government-approved sponsor, they are sometimes referred to as traditional academies.
Converter academy: A maintained school that has voluntarily converted to academy status. It is not necessary for a converter academy to have a sponsor. Free school: Free schools are new academies established since 2011 via the Free School Programme. From May 2015, usage of the term was extended to new academies set up via a Local Authority competition; the majority of free schools are similar in shape to other types of academy. However, the following are distinctive sub-types of free school:Studio school: A small free school with around 300 pupils, using project-based learning University Technical College: A free school for the 14-18 age group, specialising in practical, employment focused subjects, sponsored by a university, employer or further education college. Faith academy:An academy with an official faith designation. Co-operative academy: An academy that uses an alternative co-operative academy agreement. An academy trust that operates more than one academy is known as an Academy Chain, although sometimes the terms Academy Group or Academy Federation are used instead.
An Academy Chain is a group of schools working together under a shared academy structure, either an Umbrella Trust or a Multi-Academy Trust. An academy is governed by the Academy Agreement it makes with the Department for Education, at that point it severs connections with the local education authority; the current advisory text is the Academy and free school: master funding agreement dated March 2018. The governors of the academy are obliged to publish an annual report and accounts, that are open to scrutiny. All academies are expected to follow a broad and balanced curriculum but many have a particular focus on, or formal specialism in, one or more areas such as science. Although academies are required to follow the National Curriculum in the core subjects of maths and science, they are otherwise free to innovate. Like other state-funded schools, academies are required to adhere to the National Admissions Code, although newly established academies with a faith designation are subject to the 50% Rule requiring them to allocate at least half of their places without reference to faith.
In terms of their governance, academies are established as companies limited by guarantee with a Board of Directors that acts as a Trust. The Academy Trust has exempt charity status, regulated by the Department for Education; the trustees are but not financially, accountable for the operation of the academy. The Trust serves as the legal entity; the trustees oversee the running of the school, sometimes delegating responsibility to a local governing body which they appoint. The day-to-day management of the school is, as in most schools, conducted by the Head Teacher and their senior management team. In Sponsored Academies, the sponsor is able to influence the process of establishing the school, including its curriculum, ethos and building; the sponsor has the power to appoint governors to the academy's governing body. The Labour Government under Tony Blair established academies through the Learning and Skills Act 2000, which amended the section of the Education Act 1996 relating to City Technology Colleges.
They were first announced in a speech by David Blunkett Secretary of State for Education and Skills, in 2000. He said that their aim was "to improve pupil performance and break the cycle of low expectations." As of 2018 many academies are running deficits. The chief architect of the policy was Andrew Adonis in his capacity as education advisor to the Prime Minister in the late 1990s. Academies were known as City Academies for the first few years, but the term was changed to Academies by an amendment in the Education Act 2002; the term Sponsored Academies was applied retrospectively to this type of academy, to distinguish it from other types of academy that were enabled later. Sponsored Academies needed a private sponsor who could be an individual, organisations such as the United Learning Trust, mission-driven businesses such as The Co-operative Group or outsourcing for-profit businesses such as Amey plc); these sponsors were expected to bring "the best o
Department for Education and Skills (United Kingdom)
The Department for Education and Skills was a United Kingdom government department between 2001 and 2007, responsible for the education system as well as children's services in England. The department was led by Secretary of State for Skills; the DfES had offices at four main locations: London, Sheffield and Runcorn. The DfES was represented in regional Government Offices; the DfES had jurisdiction only in England as education was the responsibility of the Scottish Government, Welsh Assembly Government and the Northern Ireland Assembly. On 28 June 2007, the DfES was split up into the Department for Children and Families and the Department for Innovation and Skills; the DCSF was reorganised as the Department for Education in 2010. The Department of Education and Science was created in 1964 with the merger of the offices of Minister of Education and the Minister of Science, with Quintin Hogg as minister. In 1992 the responsibility for science was transferred to the Cabinet Office's Office of Public Service and the Department of Trade and Industry's Office of Science and Technology, the department was renamed Department for Education.
In 1995, in the reshuffle after the Conservative leadership election of that year, the department merged with the Department of Employment to become the Department for Education and Employment. After the 2001 general election, the employment functions were transferred to the new Department for Work and Pensions, with the DfEE becoming the Department for Education and Skills. In 2007, the responsibilities for adult education, further education, higher education were transferred to the new Department for Innovation and Skills; the remainder of the education system moved to the DCSF. Colour key: Labour The permanent secretary of a UK Department is the senior civil servant. While working under the direction of the political ministers, the PS has many traditional and statutory responsibilities that are aimed at ensuring that government departments are, as far as possible, run in the public interest. Permanent Secretaries: David Bell: Jan 2006 - Jun 2007 Sir David Normington: May 2001 - Dec 2005 Sir Michael Bichard: Jul 1995 - May 2001 Sir Timothy Patrick Lankester: Feb 1994 - Jul 1995 Sir Geoffrey Holland: Jan 1993 - Jan 1994 Sir John Caines: Jul 1989 - Jan 1993 Sir David Hancock: May 1983 - June 1989 Sir James Arnot Hamilton: May 1976 - May 1983 Sir William Pile: Aug 1970 - May 1976 British Educational Communications and Technology Agency Learning and Skills Council United Kingdom budget Official Archived Website Science Learning Centres website The national network of Science Learning Centres provides Continuing Professional Development for everyone involved in science education.
The network is a joint initiative by the Department for Education and Skills and the Wellcome Trust