Volleyball is a popular team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules, it has been a part of the official program of the Summer Olympic Games since Tokyo 1964. The complete rules are extensive, but play proceeds as follows: a player on one of the teams begins a'rally' by serving the ball, from behind the back boundary line of the court, over the net, into the receiving team's court; the receiving team must not let the ball be grounded within their court. The team may touch the ball up to 3 times, but individual players may not touch the ball twice consecutively; the first two touches are used to set up for an attack, an attempt to direct the ball back over the net in such a way that the serving team is unable to prevent it from being grounded in their court. The rally continues, with each team allowed as many as three consecutive touches, until either: a team makes a kill, grounding the ball on the opponent's court and winning the rally.
The team that wins the rally serves the ball to start the next rally. A few of the most common faults include: causing the ball to touch the ground or floor outside the opponents' court or without first passing over the net; the ball is played with the hands or arms, but players can strike or push the ball with any part of the body. A number of consistent techniques have evolved in volleyball, including spiking and blocking as well as passing and specialized player positions and offensive and defensive structures. In the winter of 1895, in Holyoke, William G. Morgan, a YMCA physical education director, created a new game called Mintonette, a name derived from the game of badminton, as a pastime to be played indoors and by any number of players; the game took some of its characteristics from other sports such as handball. Another indoor sport, was catching on in the area, having been invented just ten miles away in the city of Springfield, only four years before. Mintonette was designed to be an indoor sport, less rough than basketball, for older members of the YMCA, while still requiring a bit of athletic effort.
The first rules, written down by William G Morgan, called for a net 6 ft 6 in high, a 25 ft × 50 ft court, any number of players. A match was composed of nine innings with three serves for each team in each inning, no limit to the number of ball contacts for each team before sending the ball to the opponents' court. In case of a serving error, a second try was allowed. Hitting the ball into the net was considered a foul —except in the case of the first-try serve. After an observer, Alfred Halstead, noticed the volleying nature of the game at its first exhibition match in 1896, played at the International YMCA Training School, the game became known as volleyball. Volleyball rules were modified by the International YMCA Training School and the game spread around the country to various YMCAs; the first official ball used in volleyball is disputed. The rules evolved over time: in 1916, in the Philippines, the skill and power of the set and spike had been introduced, four years a "three hits" rule and a rule against hitting from the back row were established.
In 1917, the game was changed from requiring 21 points to win to a smaller 15 points to win. In 1919, about 16,000 volleyballs were distributed by the American Expeditionary Forces to their troops and allies, which sparked the growth of volleyball in new countries; the first country outside the United States to adopt volleyball was Canada in 1900. An international federation, the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball, was founded in 1947, the first World Championships were held in 1949 for men and 1952 for women; the sport is now popular in Brazil, in Europe, in Russia, in other countries including China and the rest of Asia, as well as in the United States. Beach volleyball, a variation of the game played on sand and with only two players per team, became a FIVB-endorsed variation in 1987 and was added to the Olympic program at the 1996 Summer Olympics. Volleyball is a sport at the Paralympics managed by the World Organization Volleyball for Disabled. Nudists were early adopters of the game with regular organized play in clubs as early as the late 1920s.
By the 1960s, a volleyball court had become standard in all nudist/naturist clubs. Volleyball has been part of the Summer Olympics program for both men and women since 1964. A volleyball court is 9 m × 18 m, divided into equal square halves by a net with a width of one meter; the top of the net is 2.43 m above the center of the court for men's competition, 2.24 m for women's competition, varied for veterans a
Emmanuel Kabeya Mudiay is a Congolese professional basketball player for the New York Knicks of the National Basketball Association. He played high school basketball for Grace Preparatory Academy and Prime Prep Academy in Texas, where he gained much of the media's attention, he committed to play for the SMU Mustangs men's basketball team on August 24, 2013 but made the decision to forgo college and joined the Guangdong Southern Tigers in China. After an injury-riddled season in China, he was selected with the seventh overall pick in the 2015 NBA draft by the Denver Nuggets. Mudiay was born on March 5, 1996 in Kinshasa, Zaire to Therese Kabeya, his father died when he was a toddler, the family was tremendously troubled by the Second Congo War. He lived under the constant threat of the instability in the region, while his mother grew only enough coffee and vegetables to support their needs. In 2001, Kabeya and her sons sought asylum in the United States and escaped, he spoke French upon arriving in the United States, but his older brother said, "We felt like Americans."
In his freshman season, Mudiay attended Grace Preparatory Academy in Arlington, Texas where he played alongside Isaiah Austin, who became an elite college center before being diagnosed with Marfan syndrome. Mudiay scored 16 points in the 2011 TAPPS Class 4A Final, helping the team defeat two-time champions Westbury Christian School with the score of 42-37. Mudiay transferred to Prime Prep Academy in Dallas, Texas with head coach Ray Forsett for his final seasons in high school; the program was put under scrutiny following the ineligibility of Karviar Sheperd and Jordan Mickey, two elite collegiate prospects. Upon excellent seasons with Prime Prep, Mudiay was rated the second-best recruit in his class by Rivals.com. He was touted as a possible number one pick in the 2015 NBA draft, he committed to play for the SMU Mustangs men's basketball team on August 24, 2013 because of the prospect of being coached by Larry Brown, who won an NBA title with the Detroit Pistons. Mudiay selected the school over other possibilities with the likes of Arizona, Baylor and Kentucky.
In the summer of 2014, Mudiay made the decision to forgo college and play overseas after considering playing in the Chinese Basketball Association. The move drew comparisons with Brandon Jennings. On July 22, 2014, Mudiay signed a one-year, $1.2 million contract with the Guangdong Southern Tigers of the Chinese Basketball Association. On December 5, 2014, Will Bynum was signed by Guangdong as an injury replacement for Mudiay. Mudiay managed just 10 regular season games for Guangdong, only returning to action for the team on March 1, 2015 in Game 3 of their semi-final series against the Beijing Ducks, he played in Game 4 as well, but Guangdong lost the best-of-five series 3–1. In 12 total games, Mudiay averaged 18.0 points, 6.3 rebounds, 5.9 assists, 1.6 steals per game. On June 25, 2015, Mudiay was selected by the Denver Nuggets with the seventh overall pick in the 2015 NBA draft. Mudiay played with the Nuggets in the 2015 NBA Summer League in Las Vegas, where he was named to the All-NBA Summer League second team.
On July 31, he signed his rookie scale contract with the Nuggets. He made his debut for the Nuggets in the team's season opener against the Houston Rockets on October 28, recording 17 points and nine assists in a 105–85 win. On November 20, he scored 26 points in a 114–107 loss to the Phoenix Suns. Mudiay started in all 23 games for the Nuggets to begin the season before a sprained right ankle suffered on December 11 ruled him out for 14 straight games, he returned to action on January 10 against the Charlotte Hornets, recording 11 points and six assists in a 95–92 win. On February 11, he was selected to replace injured defending champion Patrick Beverley in the NBA All-Star Weekend Skills Challenge. On March 10, he scored a career-high 30 points in a 116–98 win over the Phoenix Suns. On March 23, he recorded 27 points and 11 rebounds, hit the game-winning 35-foot "rainbow" shot at the buzzer to give the Nuggets a 104–103 win over the Philadelphia 76ers. At the season's end, he earned. During the 2016 off-season, he was part of the USA Men's Select Team, a team selected to train with the USA Basketball Men's National Team in preparation for the 2016 Rio Summer Olympics.
On November 6, 2016, Mudiay scored 24 of his career-high-tying 30 points in the first quarter of the Nuggets' 123–107 win over the Boston Celtics. On January 16, 2017, he had a career-high 13 assists in a 125–112 win over the Orlando Magic. Mudiay made 41 starts over the first half of the 2016–17 season before being moved to the bench and dropping out of the rotation in late January. On February 8, 2018, Mudiay was acquired by the New York Knicks in exchange for Doug McDermott and a second-round pick, as part of a three-team trade with the Nuggets and the Dallas Mavericks. In his debut for the Knicks three days Mudiay had 14 points and 10 assists in a 121–113 loss to the Indiana Pacers. Two days prior to the start of the 2018–19 season, Mudiay sprained his right ankle in practice. On December 14, he scored a career-high 34 points in a 126–124 overtime win over the Charlotte Hornets. Three days he had 32 points, six rebounds and six assists in a 128–110 loss to the Phoenix Suns. On January 25, he was diagnosed with a left shoulder strain and was ruled out for at least two weeks.
He returned from a 12-game absence on February 22 against the Minnesota Timberwolves. Mudiay missed the final two games of the season because of a sore left shoulder. Career statistics and player i
1990–91 NBA season
The 1990–91 NBA season was the 45th season of the National Basketball Association. The season ended with the Chicago Bulls winning their first NBA Championship, eliminating the Los Angeles Lakers 4 games to 1 in the NBA Finals; the Trent Tucker Rule was adopted. When Trent Tucker hit a trey at the buzzer last season, the clock had started with 0.1 left. It prevents any shot to be taken with up to 0.2 seconds left in the period. The Los Angeles Lakers failed to win their division for the first time in ten years; the Orlando Magic moved to the Midwest Division of the Western Conference, but like the Miami Heat two seasons ago, experienced long road trips back and forth out west. They would move to the Atlantic Division the next season; the 1991 NBA All-Star Game was played at the Charlotte Coliseum in Charlotte, North Carolina, with the East defeating the West 116-114. Charles Barkley of the Philadelphia 76ers won the game's MVP award. In the Three-Point Shootout, Chicago Bulls guard Craig Hodges set a record by making 19 consecutive shots, en route to winning his second straight shootout title, Boston Celtics guard Dee Brown won the Slam Dunk Contest.
The Minnesota Timberwolves played their first game at the Target Center. They had played their first season at Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome while Target Center was being built; the NBA on NBC began when the National Broadcasting Company signed a 4-year, US$600 million deal with the NBA. The relationship lasted 12 years, until The NBA on ABC returned in 2002–03. On December 30, the last game of 1990, Scott Skiles of Orlando recorded 30 assists in a game against the Denver Nuggets to set a new NBA record; the Utah Jazz played their final season at the Salt Palace. The flagrant foul was instituted. For the first time since 1981, the Los Angeles Lakers were not the Number 1 seed in the Western Conference; however they still reached the NBA Finals by upsetting the favored Portland Trail Blazers in six games. They would go on to lose to the Chicago Bulls in five games, their last NBA Finals appearance until 2000. During the season, all NBA teams sport patches featuring the American flag on their warmups as an honor to the American soldiers fighting during the Persian Gulf War.
Champion became the league's official outfitter. The Golden State Warriors became the only seventh seeded team to beat the second seed twice since the 16-team playoff field was introduced seven years earlier; the Warriors ousted the San Antonio Spurs in four games. The NBA becomes the first major professional sports league to play outside North America, as the Phoenix Suns and Utah Jazz open the season against each other in Tokyo, Japan. On March 9, 1991, the Houston Rockets' Akeem Olajuwon changed the spelling of his first name to Hakeem; the Indiana Pacers changed their logo and uniforms. The New Jersey Nets changed their logo and uniforms; the Sacramento Kings changed their uniforms, adding a darker blue color from their primary logo
Poway is a city in San Diego County, United States. An unincorporated community in the county, Poway became a city on December 12, 1980. Poway's rural roots gave rise to its slogan "The City in the Country"; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 47,811. The ZIP Code is 92064. Poway is located at 32°58′12″N 117°2′19″W, which lies north of the city of San Diego and south of the city of Escondido; some nearby communities are Rancho Bernardo, Sabre Springs, Scripps Ranch, Rancho Peñasquitos, Ramona to the East. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 39.3 square miles, of which 0.1 square miles is water. Artifacts such as arrowheads, spear points, grinding stones, pottery found along the bed of Poway Creek all indicate an early Diegueño presence. Various pictographs adorn many of Poway's boulders, modern dating techniques suggest these paintings date to the 16th century and earlier; the original name of the valley is derived from the Kumeyaay language of the Kumeyaay people who roamed the area for several hundred years before the Spaniards colonised the region.
Traces of these Native Americans still remain in Diegueño. Poway's contemporary history began in the late 18th century, when missionaries from the Mission San Diego de Alcalá kept cattle in the valley. Documents of Mission San Diego de Alcala record the name of the valley as "Paguay" as early as 1828. Though there is a discrepancy on the exact translation of "Paguay," the accepted version indicates "the meeting of little valleys" or "end of the valley." Some controversy surrounds the proper spelling. It has been written as Paui, Pauai and Powaii. For a century, Poway served as a stock range for the mission and local ranchos. In September 1839, Corporal Rosario Aguilar was granted Rancho Paguai a ranch in the valley and it was confirmed on May 22, 1840, but he refused it, becoming Juez de paz in 1841 and moving instead to San Juan Capistrano. American settlers began to come to the valley for farming purposes in the late antebellum period. Few records of this time have survived, not until 1894 and the inception of the Poway Progress did the town's history become a thing of record.
In 1887, about 800 people farmed in Poway. Around the start of the 20th century, Poway farmers had moderate success in the production and vending of fruit and dairy products; the expansion, failed to follow agricultural success. Though the farmers prospered, the town existed in a static state for decades, varying only in population, crop selection, the like. Poway has a creek and fertile soil, but the lack of available water prevented the settlement from attracting large-scale farmers and the accompanying population growth. Not until 1954 did the town establish the Poway Municipal Water District, which utilizes water from the Colorado River Aqueduct to irrigate all of Poway's 10,000 acres; when water came to the town, people did as well. In 1957, following the sewer system's completion, developers built housing tracts, modern Poway grew from there. In 1980 Poway incorporated and became the City of Poway rather than a neighborhood of San Diego itself. Poway no longer relies on agriculture for its primary source of income and has instead transitioned into a residential community for those who work for employers in and around the San Diego area.
According to a recent state government estimate, the population of Poway has grown since that last census to 50,542. It justifies its nickname of the "City in the Country" despite its burgeoning population because it has been designated a "Tree City" for the last decade. Major portions of the town were evacuated during both 2007 Witch Creek Fire. In 2004, the City of Poway adopted the 1st Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion, 1st Marine Division, based out of nearby Camp Pendleton; the Fred L. Kent Post 7907 of the Veterans of Foreign Wars has been the official go-between with the battalion, redeployed at least once to Iraq since its adoption; the pop-punk band Blink-182, Unwritten Law, The Frights originated in Poway, California. Though many residents today mistake Poway for an old Western-style cowboy town, its original roots lie in agriculture; the Homestead Act of 1862 encouraged Westward migration, accordingly many of Poway's first white settlers came to farm. The fecund soil proved well-suited to a variety of crops, including peaches, Muscat grapes, pears and alfalfa.
Some farmers captured swarms of cultivated honey. Dairying proved lucrative. Most families kept a cow for milk and butter, chickens for eggs and meat, a hog to sustain them while they farmed. Crops sold well around the San Diego area. Between the seasons of 1894 and 1896, the Poway Progress reported bits of agricultural information such as: Muscat grapes are beginning to ripen, the San Diego market is getting a supply of the fine article Poway always produces.... The season has been a prolific one for bees, thirty of forty stands the present season from a single captured swarm a year or two ago.... The peach is a good article, Poway produces it to perfection. Poway pears will compare with any grown in the state; the success of these crops depended on the annual winter rainfall, so remained subject to variations in precipitation until the establishment of the Poway Municipal Water District in 1954. With water available, the town's farming interest shifted to two principal crops and citrus fruits.
1992–93 NBA season
The 1992–93 NBA season was the 47th season of the National Basketball Association. The season ended with the Chicago Bulls winning their third-straight NBA Championship, beating the Phoenix Suns 4 games to 2 in the NBA Finals; the 1993 NBA All-Star Game was played at the Delta Center in Salt Lake City, with the West defeating the East 135–132 in overtime. Much to delight of the local fans, Karl Malone and John Stockton of the Utah Jazz were named co-MVPs of the game; the Phoenix Suns played their first season at America West Arena. The San Antonio Spurs played their final season in the HemisFair Arena; the Charlotte Hornets became the first of the four late-1980s expansion franchises to win a playoff series on Alonzo Mourning's 20-foot jumper at the buzzer in Game 4 of their first round playoff series against the Boston Celtics. Michael Jordan scored his 20,000th career point and tied Wilt Chamberlain's record of seven scoring titles. In Game 3 of the NBA Finals, the Suns defeated the Bulls in triple overtime, 129–121.
This marked the second time a Finals game lasted three overtimes, along with Game 5 of the 1976 Finals, which involved the Suns. Coincidentally, in the 1976 game, Paul Westphal played for the Suns, in the 1993 game, he coached the Suns. Michael Jordan scored 40 or more points in 4 consecutive games of the NBA Finals, setting a record, averaged an NBA Finals record 41.0 points per game for the series. The Chicago Bulls defeated the Phoenix Suns in the NBA Finals to become the first team in 30 years to win three consecutive championships. New Jersey Nets guard Dražen Petrović was killed in an automobile accident in Munich, Germany on June 7. Two months on July 27, Boston Celtics guard Reggie Lewis died of a heart attack during practice. Both were honored by their respective teams by retiring their numbers, Petrovic would be inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame; the Dallas Mavericks became the third team to lose 70 games in a season, after the 1972–73 Philadelphia 76ers and the 1986–87 Los Angeles Clippers, they finished 11–71.
They would be joined by the 1997–98 Denver Nuggets, the 2009–10 New Jersey Nets and the 2015-16 Philadelphia 76ers. During the regular season, three backboards were broken. Two were done by Orlando's Shaquille O'Neal, once against Phoenix where he dunked the ball so hard the entire goal collapsed and once against New Jersey when he pulled the entire backboard off of the goal; the other was by New Jersey's Chris Morris, who dunked with such force during a game against Chicago that the backboard glass shattered. This led the league to provide stronger shatterproof backboards. However, every team is still required to have a spare backboard in their home arenas just in case; the Atlanta Hawks changed their uniforms. The Dallas Mavericks changed their road uniforms from green to blue; the New York Knicks changed their logo. The Phoenix Suns changed their logo and uniforms, moved into the America West Arena
The Detroit Pistons are an American professional basketball team based in Detroit, Michigan. The Pistons compete in the National Basketball Association as a member of the league's Eastern Conference Central Division and plays its home games at Little Caesars Arena; the team was founded in Fort Wayne, Indiana as the Fort Wayne Pistons in 1941, a member of the National Basketball League where it won two NBL championships: in 1944 and 1945. The Pistons joined the Basketball Association of America in 1948; the NBL and BAA merged to become the NBA in 1949, the Pistons became part of the merged league. Since moving to Detroit in 1957, the Pistons have won three NBA championships: in 1989, 1990 and 2004; the Detroit Pistons franchise was founded as the Fort Wayne Zollner Pistons, a National Basketball League team, in Fort Wayne, Indiana. Owner Fred Zollner's Zollner Corporation was a foundry that manufactured pistons for car and locomotive engines; the Zollner Pistons were NBL champions in 1944 and 1945.
They won the World Professional Basketball Tournament in 1944, 1945 and 1946. In 1948, the team became the Fort Wayne Pistons. In 1949, Fred Zollner brokered the formation of the National Basketball Association from the BAA and the NBL at his kitchen table. There are suggestions that Pistons players conspired with gamblers to shave points and throw various games during the 1953–54 and 1954–55 seasons. In particular, there are accusations that the team may have intentionally lost the 1955 NBA Finals to the Syracuse Nationals. In the decisive Game 7, the Pistons led 41–24 early in the second quarter before the Nationals rallied to win the game; the Nationals won on a free throw by George King with twelve seconds left in the game. The closing moments included a palming turnover by the Pistons' George Yardley with 18 seconds left, a foul by Frank Brian with 12 seconds left that enabled King's winning free throw, a turnover by the Pistons' Andy Phillip in the final seconds which cost them a chance to attempt the game winning shot.
Though the Pistons enjoyed a solid local following, Fort Wayne's small size made it difficult for them to be profitable as other early NBA teams based in smaller cities started folding or relocating to larger markets. After the 1956–57 season, Zollner decided that Fort Wayne was too small to support an NBA team and announced the team would be playing elsewhere in the coming season, he settled on Detroit. Although it was the fifth largest city in the United States at the time, Detroit had not seen professional basketball in a decade, they lost the Detroit Eagles due to World War II, both the Detroit Gems of the NBL and the Detroit Falcons of the BAA in 1947, the Detroit Vagabond Kings in 1949. Zollner decided to keep the Pistons name, believing it made sense given Detroit's status as the center of the automobile industry; the Pistons played in Olympia Stadium for their first four seasons moved to Cobo Arena. During the 1960s and 1970s, the Pistons were characterized by strong individuals and weak teams.
Some of the superstars who played for the team included Dave DeBusschere, Dave Bing, Bob Lanier. At one point, DeBusschere was the youngest player-coach in the history of the NBA. A trade during the 1968–69 season sent DeBusschere to the New York Knicks for Howard Komives and Walt Bellamy, both of whom were in the stages of their careers. DeBusschere became a key player in leading the Knicks to two NBA titles. In 1974, Zollner sold the team to glass magnate Bill Davidson, who remained the team's principal owner until his death in 2009. While the Pistons did qualify for the postseason in four straight seasons from 1974 to 1977, they never had any real sustained success. In 1978, Davidson became displeased with Cobo Arena, but opted not to follow the Red Wings to the under-construction Joe Louis Arena. Instead, he moved the team to the suburb of Pontiac, where they played in the 82,000 capacity Silverdome, a structure built for professional football; the Pistons stumbled their way out of the 1970s and into the 1980s, beginning with a 16–66 record in 1979–80 and following up with a 21–61 record in 1980–81.
The 1979–80 team lost its last 14 games of the season which, when coupled with the seven losses at the start of the 1980–81 season, comprised a then-NBA record losing streak of 21 games. The franchise's fortunes began to turn in 1981, when they drafted point guard Isiah Thomas from Indiana University. In November 1981, the Pistons acquired Vinnie Johnson in a trade with the Seattle SuperSonics, they would acquire center Bill Laimbeer in a trade with the Cleveland Cavaliers in February 1982. Another key move by the Pistons was the hiring of head coach Chuck Daly in 1983; the Pistons had a tough time moving up the NBA ladder. In 1984, the Pistons lost a tough five-game series to the underdog New York Knicks, 3–2. In the 1985 playoffs, Detroit won its first-round series and faced the defending champion Boston Celtics in the conference semifinals. Though Boston would prevail in six games, Detroit's surprise performance promised that a rivalry had begun. In the 1985 NBA draft, the team selected Joe Dumars 18th overall, a selection that would prove to be wise.
They acquired Rick Mahorn in a trade with the Washington Bullets. However, the team took a step backwards, losing in the first round of the 1986 playoffs to the more athletic Atlanta Hawks. After the series, changes were made in order to make the team more defensive-minded. Prior to the 1986–87 season, the Pistons acquired more key players: John Salley (
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is a men's professional basketball league in North America. It is considered to be the premier men's professional basketball league in the world; the NBA is an active member of USA Basketball, recognized by FIBA as the national governing body for basketball in the United States. The NBA is one of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. NBA players are the world's best paid athletes by average annual salary per player; the league was founded in New York City on June 1946, as the Basketball Association of America. The league adopted the name National Basketball Association on August 3, 1949, after merging with the competing National Basketball League; the league's several international as well as individual team offices are directed out of its head offices located in the Olympic Tower at 645 Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. NBA Entertainment and NBA TV studios are directed out of offices located in New Jersey; the Basketball Association of America was founded in 1946 by owners of the major ice hockey arenas in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States and Canada.
On November 1, 1946, in Toronto, Canada, the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers at Maple Leaf Gardens, in a game the NBA now refers to as the first game played in NBA history. The first basket was made by Ossie Schectman of the Knickerbockers. Although there had been earlier attempts at professional basketball leagues, including the American Basketball League and the NBL, the BAA was the first league to attempt to play in large arenas in major cities. During its early years, the quality of play in the BAA was not better than in competing leagues or among leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters. For instance, the 1948 ABL finalist Baltimore Bullets moved to the BAA and won that league's 1948 title, the 1948 NBL champion Minneapolis Lakers won the 1949 BAA title. Prior to the 1948–49 season, however, NBL teams from Fort Wayne, Indianapolis and Rochester jumped to the BAA, which established the BAA as the league of choice for collegians looking to turn professional.
On August 3, 1949, the remaining NBL teams–Syracuse, Tri-Cities, Sheboygan and Waterloo–merged into the BAA. In deference to the merger and to avoid possible legal complications, the league name was changed to the present National Basketball Association though the merged league retained the BAA's governing body, including Podoloff. To this day, the NBA claims the BAA's history as its own, it now reckons the arrival of the NBL teams as an expansion, not a merger, does not recognize NBL records and statistics. The new league had seventeen franchises located in a mix of large and small cities, as well as large arenas and smaller gymnasiums and armories. In 1950, the NBA consolidated to eleven franchises, a process that continued until 1953–54, when the league reached its smallest size of eight franchises: the New York Knicks, Boston Celtics, Philadelphia Warriors, Minneapolis Lakers, Rochester Royals, Fort Wayne Pistons, Tri-Cities Blackhawks, Syracuse Nationals, all of which remain in the league today.
The process of contraction saw. The Hawks shifted from the Tri-Cities to Milwaukee in 1951, to St. Louis in 1955; the Rochester Royals moved from Rochester, New York, to Cincinnati in 1957 and the Pistons relocated from Fort Wayne, Indiana, to Detroit in 1957. Japanese-American Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier in the 1947–48 season when he played for the New York Knicks, he remained the only non-white player in league history prior to the first African-American, Harold Hunter, signing with the Washington Capitols in 1950. Hunter was cut from the team during training camp, but several African-American players did play in the league that year, including Chuck Cooper with the Celtics, Nathaniel "Sweetwater" Clifton with the Knicks, Earl Lloyd with the Washington Capitols. During this period, the Minneapolis Lakers, led by center George Mikan, won five NBA Championships and established themselves as the league's first dynasty. To encourage shooting and discourage stalling, the league introduced the 24-second shot clock in 1954.
If a team does not attempt to score a field goal within 24 seconds of obtaining the ball, play is stopped and the ball given to its opponent. In 1957, rookie center Bill Russell joined the Boston Celtics, which featured guard Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, went on to lead the club to eleven NBA titles in thirteen seasons. Center Wilt Chamberlain entered the league with the Warriors in 1959 and became a dominant individual star of the 1960s, setting new single game records in scoring and rebounding. Russell's rivalry with Chamberlain became one of the greatest rivalries in the history of American team sports; the 1960s were dominated by the Celtics. Led by Russell, Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, Boston won eight straight championships in the NBA from 1959 to 1966; this championship streak is the longest in NBA history. They did not win the title in 1966–67, but regained it in the 1967–68 season and repeated in 1969; the domination totaled nine of the ten championship banners of the 1960s.
Through this period, the NBA continued to evolve with the shift of the Minneapolis Lakers to Los Angeles, the Philadelphia Warriors to San Francisco, the Syracuse Nationals to Philadelphia to become the Philadelphia 76ers, the St. Louis Hawks moving to Atlanta, as well as the addition of its first expansion franchises; the Chicago Packers (now Wa