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Judeo-Arabic languages

The Judeo-Arabic languages are a continuum of Jewish varieties of Arabic spoken by the Jews of the Middle East and North Africa. The term Judeo-Arabic can refer to Classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script in the Middle Ages. Many significant Jewish works, including a number of religious writings by Saadia Gaon and Judah Halevi, were written in Judeo-Arabic as this was the primary vernacular language of their authors; the Arabic spoken by Jewish communities in the Arab world differed from the Arabic of their non-Jewish neighbours. These differences were due to the incorporation of some words from Hebrew and other languages and geographical, in a way that may reflect a history of migration. For example, the Judeo-Arabic of Egypt, including in the Cairo community, resembled the dialect of Alexandria rather than that of Cairo. Baghdad Jewish Arabic is reminiscent of the dialect of Mosul. Many Jews in Arab countries were bilingual in Judeo-Arabic and the local dialect of the Muslim majority. Like other Jewish languages and dialects, Judeo-Arabic languages contain borrowings from Hebrew and Aramaic.

This feature is less marked in translations of the Bible, as the authors took the view that the business of a translator is to translate. Judeo-Iraqi Judeo-Baghdadi Judeo-Moroccan Judeo-Tripolitanian Judeo-Tunisian Judeo-Yemeni Jews in Arabic, Muslim majority countries wrote—sometimes in their dialects, sometimes in a more classical style—in a mildly adapted Hebrew alphabet rather than using the Arabic script including consonant dots from the Arabic alphabet to accommodate phonemes that did not exist in the Hebrew alphabet; some of the most important books of medieval Jewish thought were written in medieval Judeo-Arabic, as well as certain halakhic works and biblical commentaries. They were translated into medieval Hebrew so that they could be read by contemporaries elsewhere in the Jewish world, by others who were literate in Hebrew; these include: Saadia Gaon's Emunoth ve-Deoth, his tafsir and siddur Solomon ibn Gabirol's Tikkun Middot ha-Nefesh Bahya ibn Paquda's Kitab al-Hidāya ilā Fara'id al-Qulūb, translated by Judah ben Saul ibn Tibbon as Chovot HaLevavot Judah Halevi's Kuzari Maimonides' Commentary on the Mishnah, Sefer Hamitzvot, The Guide for the Perplexed, many of his letters and shorter essays.

Most communities had a traditional translation of the Bible into Judeo-Arabic, known as a sharḥ: for more detail, see Bible translations into Arabic. The term sharḥ sometimes came to mean "Judeo-Arabic" in the same way that "Targum" was sometimes used to mean the Aramaic language. In the years following the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the end of the Algerian War, Moroccan and Tunisian independence, most Mizrahi and Sephardi Jews in Arab countries left for mainland France and for Israel, their distinct Arabic dialects in turn did not thrive in either country, most of their descendants now speak French or Modern Israeli Hebrew exclusively. This stands in stark contrast with the historical status of Judeo-Arabic: in the early Middle Ages, speakers of Judeo-Arabic far outnumbered the speakers of Yiddish. There remain small populations of speakers in Algeria, Tunisia, Yemen and the United States. Arabic language in Israel Judeo-Berber language Judeo-Iraqi Arabic Baghdad Jewish Arabic Judeo-Moroccan Arabic Judeo-Tunisian Arabic Judeo-Yemeni Arabic Judeo-Syrian Arabic Letter of the Karaite elders of Ascalon Arab Jews Haketia Alan Corré's Judeo-Arabic Literature site, via the Internet Archive Judeo-Arabic Literature Reka Kol Yisrael, a radio station broadcasting a daily program in Judeo-Moroccan Arabic Jewish Language Research Website Tafsir Rasag, a translation of the Torah into literary Judeo-Arabic, at Sefaria


Zanaka is the first studio album by French singer-songwriter Jain, released on 6 November 2015. The album's title means "child" in Malagasy, is a tribute to her mother, of Franco-Malagasy origin. A deluxe edition was released on 25 November 2016 adding six more songs, including the single "Dynabeat". "Come" was released as the first single from Zanaka on 11 May 2015. A music video was uploaded to Jain's official YouTube channel on 2 June 2015; the song was included on the Hope EP released on 22 June 2015. The song peaked at number one on the French singles chart and in November 2016 was certified Diamond. "Come" reached number 18 on the French end of year singles chart in 2016. The song has been used in advertising by the Polish television channel Polsat and in 2017 was featured in the American horror comedy web television series Santa Clarita Diet. "Makeba" was first released as part of the Hope EP, released in 2015. In September 2016, a lyric video was uploaded to Jain's official YouTube channel.

A music video was uploaded on 30 November 2016. The video was filmed in the birthplace of the song's inspiration Miriam Makeba; the music video was nominated for Best Music Video at the 60th Annual Grammy Awards in 2018. The song peaked at number seven on the French singles chart and was certified gold in November 2016. Makeba reached number 161 in 2017 on the French end of year singles chart. "Dynabeat" was released on the deluxe re-release of Zanaka on 25 November 2016. A music video was uploaded to Jain's official YouTube channel on 10 July 2017; the song peaked at number 98 on the French singles chart


The ʻakekeʻe is a bird species in the family Fringillidae, where it is placed in the Hawaiian honeycreeper genus Loxops. It is endemic to the island of Kauaʻi; because of their similar size and unusual bill, the ʻakekeʻe and the ʻakepa were for some time classified as a single species. This was changed, because of differences in their color, nesting behavior, calls; the ʻakekeʻe is a greenish-yellow bird with a black mask around the eye and a bluish bill, unlike the ʻakepa, red, canary-yellow or orange, without black, has a horn-colored bill. The bill-tips are crossed over; the ʻakekeʻe uses its bill like scissors to cut open buds in search of insects to eat. It feeds on the nectar of some trees; this bird builds nests of twigs high up in trees, while the ʻakepa uses tree cavities as nest sites. The ʻakekeʻe is found only in the Waimea Canyon State Park, Alakaʻi Wilderness Preserve and Kōkeʻe State Park, it has been heading toward extinction because of its lack of tolerance to alteration of its habitat, based on mesic and wet forests ʻōhiʻa lehua trees.

The ʻakekeʻe is threatened by the introduction of plants like the banana pōka, a passionflower vine, that displace the native plants. Feral pigs and feral goats destroy native growth; the lack of native host plants leads to the decline of the insects. Avian malaria and fowlpox transmitted by accidentally introduced mosquitoes continues to affect the ʻakekeʻe, limiting its populations to habitat above 1,100 meters ASL, where mosquitoes do not occur. Forest clearing in different parts of the island of Kauaʻi has caused the loss of habitat for this and many other bird species; the conservation status for this species was updated to critically endangered in 2008 due to a rapid decrease in population over the preceding decade. The 2012 population was estimated under 5,000 individuals and in 2016 fewer than 1,000

Deon Moore

Deon Ryan Moore, is an English professional footballer who plays as a forward for Hemel Hempstead Town. Born in the London Borough of Croydon, Moore started his career with the youth side at Carshalton Athletic in 2011 at under-13 age level, staying with the club four years until under-16 level. In the summer of 2015, he signed a two-year scholarship with Peterborough United. In August 2016, despite still a scholar he was promoted to the first team, making his debut as a 17-year-old in the 6–1 defeat to Norwich City U23 in the EFL Trophy, replacing Shaq Coulthirst as a substitute. After spending time on trial at Sheffield Wednesday and Hull City, Moore joined Isthmian League side Merstham in March 2018. On 24 August 2018, Moore joined League One side Bristol Rovers, making his debut two months as a late substitute in a 2-0 win over Yeovil Town in the EFL Trophy. On 16 November 2018, he joined National League South side Bath City on a one-month loan deal, he was offered a new contract by Bristol Rovers at the end of the 2018–19 season and after a successful start to pre-season, signed an extension on 19 July 2019.

In January 2020, Moore joined National League South side Hemel Hempstead Town, making his debut on 7 January against Chippenham Town. As of end of 2018-19 season Deon Moore at Soccerbase

EDRA Aeronautica Super Pétrel

The EDRA Aeronautica Super Pétrel is an amphibious pusher configuration biplane, seating two side-by-side, brought into production in Brazil in 2002 though with a French parentage. It remained in production in kit and flyaway forms; the design of the Super Pétrel has its origins in Claude Tisserand's Hydroplum, a single-seat, wooden amphibian intended for kit building first flown in 1983 and its two-seat, Rotax 532-powered development, the 1986 Hydroplum II. The Société Morbihannaise d'Aéro Navigation acquired production rights to the latter in 1987, marketing it as the Pétrel, passed them on to Billie Marine when SMAN ceased trading. Rights were bought outside France. In 1991 they began producing the improved Paturi, which replaced the Pétrel in 1996 but was itself replaced by the Super Pétrel in 2001. By 2014 the design was being produced by Scoda Aeronáutica of São Paulo, Brazil; the Super Pétrel is of mixed construction, though with much use of composite materials. The wings have tubular aluminium alloy spars combined with PVC foam ribs.

The leading edges and wingtips are formed from glass fibre composite, with fabric covering elsewhere. The wings have zero sweep, with angled winglet tips. There is slight stagger; the Super Pétrel is a single bay biplane with N-form aluminium interplane struts with an additional diagonal strut in each bay from the lower fuselage to the top of the interplane struts. The centre section is supported by a pylon or cabane which contains the engine mounting. Ailerons are carried only by the upper wings; the wings can be disassembled in about 30 minutes for transportation by trailer. The single-step hull is an epoxy/carbon fibre foam monocoque, with a carbon fibre boom supporting the all-composite and wire braced tail unit; the rear control surfaces are balanced. The cockpit seats two side-by-side with dual controls, it may be flown open, with just a windscreen, or enclosed by the single piece, forward-hinged canopy. There is a baggage compartment behind the seating; the Super Pétrel has a short legged tricycle undercarriage for land operation.

The steerable nosewheel retracts forward, leaving the tyre exposed as a docking fender. A pair of small, stepped floats on the lower wings below the interplane struts stabilise the aircraft on water; the Super Pétrel is powered by a 73.5 kW Rotax 912ULS flat-four engine mounted in pusher configuration on the central pylon just below the upper wing. It drives a three-blade Airplast propeller, either a fixed pitch model 175 or an electrically controlled, variable pitch model PV 50. Seven Super Pétrels appeared on the civil aircraft registers of European countries, excluding Russia in mid-2010. There have been sales in North America, Africa and New Zealand as well as in Brazil where there were 50 registered by December 2009. Super Pétrel Superseded Paturi after 2002. Lowered engine line, revised undercarriage and controls. Structural alterations with more carbon fibre. Super Pétrel LS 280 mm longer and with a 25 km/h increase in cruising speed. AAC SeaStar SP North American version marketed by Amphibian Airplanes of Canada.

Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 2010/11General characteristics Capacity: two Length: 6.25 m Upper wingspan: 8.90 m Height: 2.33 m Wing area: 15.00 m2 Airfoil: NACA 2412 Empty weight: 320 kg Max takeoff weight: 600 kg Fuel capacity: 90 L Powerplant: 1 × Rotax 912 ULS flat four, air- and water-cooled, 73.5 kW Propellers: 3-bladed Airplast 175, 1.65 m diameterPerformance Maximum speed: 190 km/h Cruise speed: 180 km/h maximum Stall speed: 56 km/h Never exceed speed: 210 km/h Range: 950 km with maximum fuel Service ceiling: 3,050 m service g limits: +4/-2 Rate of climb: 5.08 m/s maximum at sea level Wing loading: 40.0 kg/m2 maximum Take-off run on land: 80 m Take-off run on water: 120 m Landing run on land: 120 m Landing run on water: 100 m Official website NACA 2412 airfoil

Wacky Races: Starring Dastardly and Muttley

Wacky Races/Wacky Races: Starring Dastardly and Muttley is a 2000 racing video game developed and published by Infogrames for the Dreamcast and for PlayStation 2 in 2001. The game is based on the cartoon series Wacky Races which features 11 vehicles all racing over various landscapes to win first place; the vehicles featured include the most infamous vehicle in the series, The Mean Machine driven by Dick Dastardly and Muttley. The game includes two modes: Adventure. Arcade mode features normal racing across various tracks. In Adventure mode, the player races on tracks to win gold stars or Wacky Trial clocks to unlock more tracks and challenges. Wacky Trial clocks are rewarded; these are needed to unlock boss challenges as well. Gold stars are needed to unlock various things such as areas, they are gained by winning various events. Once 10 gold stars have been rewarded the Boss Area is unlocked, in which the player must compete against 3 elite cars: Convert-a-Car, Crimson Haybailer, Mean Machine.

Dastardly and Muttley are the bosses of the game, with many of their power-ups geared towards attack. Gadgets include an explosive mine that can be placed along the road, turbo speed, a temporary flying ability, temporary invincibility. Pink discs known as "Tokens" float along the track; when picked up they fuel gadgets and give the player the option to perform one. Once they are used, they are left for other drivers to pick up. All vehicles from the cartoon are featured in the game but unfortunately/weirdly/annoyingly there is only an eight car grid; the vehicles are put into 5 groups, based on their acceleration and handling. The game features four themed levels, including a desert with Wild West towns and coal mines. Gregg Berger - Narrator Greg Burson - Red Max, Sergeant Blast, Peter Perfect, Rufus Ruffcut Jim Cummings - Dick Dastardly, Rock Slag, Gravel Slag, Big Gruesome, Private Meekly, Clyde Janet Waldo - Penelope Pitstop Billy West - Muttley, Little Gruesome Scott Innes - Professor Pat Pending John Stephenson - Luke The game was only released in PAL Regions.

The Game revived positive reviews. Wacky Races at GameFAQs