Jerusalem in Christianity
According to the New Testament, Jerusalem was the city to which Jesus was brought as a child, to be presented at the Temple and to attend festivals. According to the Canonical gospels, Jesus preached and healed in Jerusalem, the events of Pentecost, which are recorded in the New Testament Book of Acts, took place at this location. There is an account of Jesus cleansing of the Temple at the Temple Court, much of this area was uncovered by the excavations conducted by the elder Mazar. Tradition holds that the place of the Last Supper is the Cenacle, archaeologist Bargil Pixner claims to have found three walls of the original structure still extant today. The place of Jesus anguished prayer and betrayal, Gethsemane, is somewhere near the Church of All Nations on the Mount of Olives. Jesus trial before Pontius Pilate may have taken place at the Antonia Fortress, the exterior pavement where the trial was conducted is beneath the Convent of the Sisters of Zion. Other Christians believe that Pilate tried Jesus at Herods Palace on Mount Zion, the Via Dolorosa, or way of suffering, is the traditional route to Golgotha, the place of crucifixion, and is an important pilgrimage.
The route ends at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the Holy Sepulchre is traditionally believed to be the location of Golgotha and Jesus nearby tomb. The original church was built in 336 by Constantine I, the Garden Tomb is a popular pilgrimage site near the Damascus Gate. It was suggested by Charles George Gordon that this site, rather than the Holy Sepulchre, is the place of Golgotha. The Acts of the Apostles and Pauline Epistles show James the Just and he and his successors were the focus for Jewish Christians until the destruction of the city by Emperor Hadrian in 135. The exclusion of Jews from the new city of Aelia Capitolina meant that gentile bishops were appointed under the authority of the Metropolitans of Caesarea and, the Patriarchs of Antioch. Helena is remembered as the Patron Saint of Archaeologists and claimed to have found the Cross of Christ, Jerusalem received special recognition in Canon VII of Nicaea in 325, without yet becoming a metropolitan see. The traditional founding date for the Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre is 313 which corresponds with the date of the Edict of Milan which legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire.
The Council of Chalcedon in 451 raised the Bishop of Jerusalem to the rank of patriarch, together with Rome, Constantinople and Antioch, Byzantine politics meant that Jerusalem simply passed from the Syrian jurisdiction of Antioch to the Greek authorities in Constantinople. For centuries, Greek clergy dominated the Jerusalem church, the Roman church never accepted the Pentarchy and instead claimed primacy, see Papal supremacy and East–West Schism. In 638, Patriarch of Jerusalem, handed over the keys of the city to Calif Umars Muslim forces, the Muslim authorities in Jerusalem were not kind to their Christian subjects, forcing them to live a life of discrimination and humiliation. The mistreatment of Christians would only worsen as the armies of the First Crusade approached Jerusalem, on 15 July 1099, the army of the First Crusade captured Jerusalem
The New Covenant is a biblical interpretation originally derived from a phrase in the Book of Jeremiah, in the Hebrew Bible. It is often thought of as an eschatological Messianic Age or world to come and is related to the concept of the Kingdom of God. Generally, Christians believe that the promised New Covenant was instituted at the Last Supper as part of the Eucharist, based on the Bible teaching that, For where a testament is, there must of necessity be the death of the testator. The commentary to the Roman Catholic New American Bible affirms that Christ is the testator whose death puts his will into effect. Christians thus believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant, there are several Christian eschatologies that further define the New Covenant. 7 For if that first covenant had been faultless, there would have no occasion to look for a second. For they did not continue in my covenant, and so I showed no concern for them, declares the Lord. 11 And they shall not teach, each one his neighbor and each one his brother, Know the Lord, for they all know me.
12 For I will be merciful toward their iniquities, and I will remember their sins no more,13 In speaking of a new covenant, he makes the first one obsolete. And what is becoming obsolete and growing old is ready to vanish away. 33 For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, declares the Lord, I will put my law within them, and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. 34 And no longer shall each one teach his neighbor and each his brother, saying, ‘Know the Lord, ’ for they all know me, from the least of them to the greatest. For I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more, some Christians claim that there are many other passages that speak about the same New Covenant without using this exact wording. The occurrence of the new covenant varies in English translations of the Greek New Testament. Six forms of the text have been identified, for example, the Daniel 9,27 commentary found in the 1599 Geneva Bible connects the verse with the NKJV translation of Matthew 26,28.
29 In those days they shall say no more, The fathers have eaten a sour grape,30 But every one shall die for his own iniquity, every man that eateth the sour grape, his teeth shall be set on edge. See types of Supersessionism for details, the Apostle Paul says that it is not the children of the flesh who are the children of God, but the children of the promise. 6 Not as though the word of God hath taken none effect, for they are not all Israel, which are of Israel,7 Neither, because they are the seed of Abraham, are they all children, but, In Isaac shall thy seed be called
The Septuagint is a Koine Greek translation of an Hebraic textual tradition that included certain texts which were included in the canonical Hebrew Bible and other related texts which were not. As the primary Greek translation of the Old Testament, it is called the Greek Old Testament. This translation is quoted a number of times in the New Testament, particularly in Pauline epistles, the title and its Roman numeral LXX refer to the legendary seventy Jewish scholars who solely translated the Five Books of Moses into Koine Greek as early as the 3rd century BCE. Separated from the Hebrew canon of the Jewish Bible in Rabbinic Judaism, the traditional story is that Ptolemy II sponsored the translation of the Torah. The Septuagint should not be confused with the seven or more other Greek versions of the Old Testament, of these, the most important are those by Aquila and Theodotion. However, it was not until the time of Augustine of Hippo that the Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures came to be called by the Latin term Septuaginta.
This narrative is found in the pseudepigraphic Letter of Aristeas to his brother Philocrates, the story is found in the Tractate Megillah of the Babylonian Talmud, King Ptolemy once gathered 72 Elders. He placed them in 72 chambers, each of them in a separate one and he entered each ones room and said, Write for me the Torah of Moshe, your teacher. God put it in the heart of one to translate identically as all the others did. Philo of Alexandria, who relied extensively on the Septuagint, says that the number of scholars was chosen by selecting six scholars from each of the tribes of Israel. After the Torah, other books were translated over the two to three centuries. It is not altogether clear which was translated when, or where, some may even have been translated twice, into different versions, the quality and style of the different translators varied considerably from book to book, from the literal to paraphrasing to interpretative. The translation of the Septuagint itself began in the 3rd century BCE and was completed by 132 BCE, initially in Alexandria, the Septuagint is the basis for the Old Latin, Syriac, Old Armenian, Old Georgian and Coptic versions of the Christian Old Testament.
Some sections of the Septuagint may show Semiticisms, or idioms and phrases based on Semitic languages like Hebrew, other books, such as Daniel and Proverbs, show Greek influence more strongly. The Septuagint may elucidate pronunciation of pre-Masoretic Hebrew, many nouns are spelled out with Greek vowels in the LXX. However, it is unlikely that all ancient Hebrew sounds had precise Greek equivalents. As the work of translation progressed, the canon of the Greek Bible expanded, the Torah always maintained its pre-eminence as the basis of the canon, but the collection of prophetic writings, based on the Jewish Neviim, had various hagiographical works incorporated into it. In addition, some books were included in the Septuagint
Religious texts are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their religious practice or set of beliefs. It is not possible to create an exhaustive list of religious texts, one of the oldest known religious texts is the Kesh Temple Hymn of Ancient Sumer, a set of inscribed clay tablets which scholars typically date around 2600 BCE. For example, the content of a Protestant Bible may differ from the content of a Catholic Bible, the word canon comes from the Sumerian word meaning standard. Hierographology is the study of sacred texts, the following is an in-exhaustive list of links to specific religious texts which may be used for further, more in-depth study. The writings of Franklin Albert Jones a. k. a, some denominations include the Apocrypha. For Protestantism, this is the 66-book canon - the Jewish Tanakh of 24 books divided differently, some denominations include the 15 books of the Apocrypha between the Old Testament and the New Testament, for a total of 81 books. For Catholicism, this includes seven deuterocanonical books in the Old Testament for a total of 73 books, called the Canon of Trent.
For the Eastern Orthodox Church, this includes the anagignoskomena, which consist of the Catholic deuterocanon, plus 3 Maccabees, Psalm 151, the Prayer of Manasseh,4 Maccabees is considered to be canonical by the Georgian Orthodox Church. Some Syriac churches accept the Letter of Baruch as scripture, christian Scientists The Bible Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures by Mary Baker Eddy. This textbook, along with the Bible, serves as the permanent impersonal pastor of the church, the Community of Christ uses the Joseph Smith Translation, which it calls the Inspired Version, as well as updated modern translations. Seventh-day Adventists The Bible The writings of Ellen White are held to a status, though not equal with the Bible. Also known as the Gospel of Mani and The Living Gospel the Treasure of Life the Pragmateia the Book of Mysteries The Book of Giants the Epistles the Psalms, the Shabuhragan The Arzhang The Kephalaia, found in Coptic translation. Odù Ifá Jaap Verduijns Odu Ifa Collection Primary religious texts, that is, the Avesta collection, The Yasna, the Visperad, a collection of supplements to the Yasna.
The Yashts, hymns in honor of the divinities, the Vendidad, describes the various forms of evil spirits and ways to confound them. Shorter texts and prayers, the Yashts the five Nyaishes, the Sirozeh, there are some 60 secondary religious texts, none of which are considered scripture. The Khordeh Avesta, Zoroastrian prayer book for lay people from the Avesta, religious full text online library Ancient texts library Internet Sacred Text Archive
Eliezer Berkovits, was a rabbi and educator in the tradition of Orthodox Judaism. D. in philosophy from the University of Berlin. He served in the rabbinate in Berlin, in Leeds, England, in Sydney, Australia, in 1958 he became chairman of the department of Jewish philosophy of the Hebrew Theological College in Skokie. At the age of 67, he and his family immigrated to Israel in 1976 where he taught, Berkovits wrote 19 books in English and German, and lectured extensively in those languages. His thought is in essence a philosophy of morality and history for contemporary society, the core of his theology is the encounter as an actual meeting of God and human at Mt. Sinai. The encounter is paradoxical in that it transcends human comprehension, yet it demonstrates that God cares about human beings. He teaches that human beings know God cares for them, they can act in ways that seek meaning, accept responsibility for their actions. This implies the keeping of the commandments, ethical concern for others, on Berkovits analysis, such notions run completely contrary to the foundations of the Jewish faith.
For a religious relationship of any kind to exist, at the very least there must be separation between man and God, in light of this autonomy, a tremendous responsibility is cast on Human beings. Due to the role of Christianity in the Holocaust Berkovits rejected interreligious dialogue with Christians. I am free to any religion as humbug if that is what I think of it. In Not in Heaven he states that in the spiritual realm nothing fails like compulsion Yet, the result is social and international decadence. Berkovits sees Judaism and halakhah as being inextricably intertwined, through Halakhah the Word from Sinai has become the way of life of the Jewish people through history. Related to this is Rabbi Berkovitss view of the Oral Law and this Oral Torah includes both explicit interpretations of certain Pentateuchal laws, as well as the general methods of Rabbinic exegesis. This was necessary to prevent its being forgotten due to the tribulations of Roman rule and exile, in addition, Rabbi Berkovits saw Zionism as a means to revitalize in the Jewish people what was lost with the Oral Laws writing.
His view is almost undoubtedly derived from that of the Dor Revii and his views are exactly the same, set forth in his introduction to his book the Dor Revii. Berkovits was critical of the lack of rights a married Jewish woman has in relation to her husband in issues of marriage and divorce. Rabbi Prof. David Hartman said in a March,2009, lecture about Berkovits that Berkovits was deeply concerned with the treatment of women in Jewish life and practice. He affirmed the equity of women and men within the institution of Jewish marriage, Berkovits called for the ethical courage on the part of Jewish legal authorities to put what already exists in principle into practice
Evangelicalism in the United States
The contemporary North American usage of the term Evangelical reflects the impact of the Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy of the early 20th century. Evangelicalism may sometimes be perceived as the ground between the theological liberalism of the mainline denominations and the cultural separatism of fundamentalism. Evangelicalism has therefore been described as the third of the strands in American Protestantism. In 2004 Andrew Crouch wrote in Christianity Today, The emerging movement is a protest against much of evangelicalism as currently practiced and it is post-evangelical in the way that neo-evangelicalism was post-fundamentalist. It would not be unfair to call it postmodern evangelicalism, D. W. Cloud wrote, In the first half of the 20th century, evangelicalism in America was largely synonymous with fundamentalism. George Marsden in Reforming Fundamentalism writes, There was not a distinction between fundamentalist and evangelical, the words were interchangeable. By the mid-1950s, largely due to the evangelism of Billy Graham.
Fundamentalism aggressively attacked its liberal enemies, Evangelicalism downplayed liberalism and emphasized outreach, as a result, the dichotomy between Evangelical and mainline denominations is increasingly complex, particularly with such innovations as the emergent church movement. Evangelicalism did not take recognizable form until the 18th century, first in Britain, there were earlier developments within the larger Protestant world that preceded and influenced the evangelical revivals. According to religion scholar, social activist, and politician Randall Balmer, Evangelicalism resulted from the confluence of Pietism, historian Mark Noll adds to this list High Church Anglicanism, which contributed to Evangelicalism a legacy of rigorous spirituality and innovative organization. During the 17th century, Pietism emerged in Europe as a movement for the revival of piety, as a protest against cold orthodoxy or an overly formal and rational Christianity, Pietists advocated for an experiential religion that stressed high moral standards for both clergy and lay people.
The movement included both Christians who remained in the liturgical, state churches as well as separatist groups who rejected the use of fonts, pulpits. As Pietism spread, the ideals and aspirations influenced and were absorbed into early Evangelicalism. The Presbyterian heritage not only gave Evangelicalism a commitment to Protestant orthodoxy but contributed a revival tradition that stretched back to the 1620s in Scotland, central to this tradition was the communion season, which normally occurred in the summer months. For Presbyterians, celebrations of Holy Communion were infrequent but popular events preceded by several Sundays of preparatory preaching and accompanied with preaching, Puritanism combined Calvinism with teaching that conversion was a prerequisite for church membership and a stress on the study of Scripture by lay people. It took root in New England, where the Congregational church was an established religion, the Half-Way Covenant of 1662 allowed parents who had not testified to a conversion experience to have their children baptized, while reserving Holy Communion for converted church members alone.
By the 18th century, Puritanism was in decline and many ministers were alarmed at the loss of religious piety and this concern over declining religious commitment led many people to support evangelical revival. High Church Anglicanism exerted influence on early Evangelicalism, High Churchmen were distinguished by their desire to adhere to primitive Christianity
National Conference for Community and Justice
The NCCJ was founded in 1927 as the National Conference of Christians and Jews, in response to anti-Catholic sentiment being expressed during Al Smiths run for the Democratic nomination. Several years later, the NCCJ expanded its work to all issues of social justice including race, gender equity, sexual orientation. Their stated mission is promoting inclusion and acceptance by providing education and advocacy while building communities that are respectful, ANYTOWN is the NCCJs premiere youth program, and has existed for over 50 years in America. Many similar programs emerged across the country, including Metrotown and Unitown, ANYTOWN is designed to educate and empower youth participants to become effective, responsible leaders and community builders in a global society. The year-long program launches with a social justice residential experience focusing on prejudice reduction, community building. Bridges is a two-day anti-bullying, prejudice reduction, self-esteem building program for middle, the Youth Action Coalition is a group run by and for youth to increase their understanding and develop action around social justice issues.
Different and the Same is a school program where teachers are trained to use curriculum consisting of videos and activities to address the challenging issues of bias. NCCJ’s interfaith programs are designed to promote understanding and respect all religions. Topics include, but are not limited to, Gender, LGBTQ, Class, walk as One is an annual community walk-a-thon. Each walk-a-thon is held in an urban area, and serves to spotlight NCCJs efforts in each community in which it serves. Preceding and following the walk-a-thon itself is a one- to two-hour open air gathering which involves area vendors, music performances, side entertainment, the Trio covered over 9,000 miles, visiting 129 audiences around the country. One year later, President Franklin D. Roosevelt launched the precursor of Brotherhood/Sisterhood Week, held annually during the week in February. NCCJ sponsored the event from the 1940s through the 1980s. Tom Lehrer satirized the idea in his song of the same name, during the second World War, the NCCJ religious trio provided spiritual guidance to the armed forces, reaching over eight million enlistees.
In the 1950s, the NCCJ began its award-winning residential youth leadership institutes, including their ANYTOWN program, President John F. Kennedy commended the NCCJ in 1961 for doing more than perhaps any other factor in our national life to provide for harmonious living among our different religious groups. In 1977, the NCCJ led a series of institutes on the Holocaust. Nearly a decade later, the established the precursor to todays Seminarians Interacting initiative. In 1994, the NCCJ issued a nationwide survey of attitudes on intergroup relations called Taking Americas Pulse
Supersessionism, called replacement theology or fulfillment theology, is a Christian theological view on the current status of the church in relation to the Jewish people and Judaism. It holds that the Christian Church has succeeded the Israelites as the people of God or that the New Covenant has replaced or superseded the Mosaic covenant. From a supersessionists point of view, just by continuing to exist and this view directly contrasts with dual-covenant theology which holds that the Mosaic covenant remains valid for Jews. Supersessionism formed a core tenet of the Church for the majority of its existence, subsequent to and because of the Holocaust, some mainstream Christian theologians and denominations have rejected supersessionism. The word supersessionism comes from the English verb to supersede, from the Latin verb sedeo, sedi, sessum, to sit, plus super and it thus signifies one thing being replaced or supplanted by another. The word supersession is used by Sydney Thelwall in the title of three of his 1870 translation of Tertullians Adversus Iudaeos.
The title is provided by Thelwall, it is not in the original Latin, many Christian theologians saw the New Covenant in Christ as a replacement for the Mosaic Covenant. Historically, statements on behalf of the Roman Catholic Church have claimed its ecclesiastical structures to be a fulfillment and replacement of Jewish ecclesiastical structures. As recently as 1965 Vatican Council II affirmed, the Church is the new people of God, without intending to make Israel according to the flesh, modern Protestants hold to a range of positions on the topic. In the wake of the Holocaust, mainstream Christian communities began the work of undoing supersessionism, Paul himself was born a Jew, but after a conversion experience he came to accept Jesus divinity in his life. In the opinion of Roman Catholic reformer James Carroll, accepting Jesus divinity and his personal conversion and his understanding of the dichotomy between being Jewish and accepting Jesus divinity, was the religious philosophy he wanted to see adopted among other Jews of his time.
The text most often quoted in favor of the supersessionist view is Hebrews 8,13, many Early Christian commentators taught that the Old Covenant was fulfilled and replaced by the New Covenant in Christ, for instance, Justin Martyr, For the true spiritual Israel. Are we who have led to God through this crucified Christ. Hippolytus of Rome, have been darkened in the eyes of your soul with an utter and everlasting. ”Augustine follows these views of the earlier Church Fathers. Are thus by their own Scriptures a testimony to us that we have not forged the prophecies about Christ, the Catholic church built its system of eschatology on his theology, where Christ rules the earth spiritually through his triumphant church. And bring them down O Lord, Augustine mentioned to love the Jews but as a means to convert them to Christianity. Jeremy Cohen, followed by John Y. B, in this Torah, which is Jesus himself, the abiding essence of what was inscribed on the stone tablets at Sinai is now written in living flesh, the twofold commandment of love.
To imitate him, to him in discipleship, is therefore to keep Torah
Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary is a descriptive dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press. The second edition came to 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, in 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, and in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary fully replaced the name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989, when the edition was published. Since 2000, an edition of the dictionary has been underway. The first electronic version of the dictionary was available in 1988. The online version has been available since 2000, and as of April 2014 was receiving two million hits per month. The third edition of the dictionary will probably appear in electronic form, Nigel Portwood, chief executive of Oxford University Press. As a historical dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary explains words by showing their development rather than merely their present-day usages, therefore, it shows definitions in the order that the sense of the word began being used, including word meanings which are no longer used.
The format of the OEDs entries has influenced numerous other historical lexicography projects and this influenced volumes of this and other lexicographical works. As of 30 November 2005, the Oxford English Dictionary contained approximately 301,100 main entries, the dictionarys latest, complete print edition was printed in 20 volumes, comprising 291,500 entries in 21,730 pages. The longest entry in the OED2 was for the verb set, as entries began to be revised for the OED3 in sequence starting from M, the longest entry became make in 2000, put in 2007, run in 2011. Despite its impressive size, the OED is neither the worlds largest nor the earliest exhaustive dictionary of a language, the Dutch dictionary Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal is the worlds largest dictionary, has similar aims to the OED and took twice as long to complete. Another earlier large dictionary is the Grimm brothers dictionary of the German language, begun in 1838, the official dictionary of Spanish is the Diccionario de la lengua española, and its first edition was published in 1780.
The Kangxi dictionary of Chinese was published in 1716, trench suggested that a new, truly comprehensive dictionary was needed. On 7 January 1858, the Society formally adopted the idea of a new dictionary. Volunteer readers would be assigned particular books, copying passages illustrating word usage onto quotation slips, the same year, the Society agreed to the project in principle, with the title A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. He withdrew and Herbert Coleridge became the first editor, on 12 May 1860, Coleridges dictionary plan was published and research was started
Abraham, originally Abram, is the first of the three patriarchs of Judaism. His story features in the texts of all the Abrahamic religions and Abraham plays a prominent role as an example of faith in Judaism, Christianity. The biblical narrative revolves around the themes of posterity and land, Abraham is called by God to leave the house of his father Terah and settle in the land originally given to Canaan, but which God now promises to Abraham and his progeny. Various candidates are put forward who might inherit the land after Abraham, Abraham marries Keturah and has six more sons, but on his death, when he is buried beside Sarah, it is Isaac who receives all Abrahams goods, while the other sons receive only gifts. Terah, the ninth in descent from Noah, was the father of three sons, Abram and Haran, Haran was the father of Lot, and died in his native city, Ur of the Chaldees. Abram married Sarah, who was barren, with Abram and Lot, departed for Canaan, but settled in a place named Haran, where Terah died at the age of 205.
Abram was 75 years old when he left Haran with his wife Sarai, his nephew Lot, and the substance and souls that they had acquired, and traveled to Shechem in Canaan. There was a famine in the land of Canaan, so that Abram and Lot and their households. On the way Abram told his wife Sarai to say that she was his sister, God afflicted Pharaoh and his household with great plagues, for which he tried to find the reason. Upon discovering that Sarai was a woman, Pharaoh demanded that they and their household leave immediately. When they came back to the Bethel and Hai area and this became a problem for the herdsmen who were assigned to each familys cattle. But Lot chose to go east to the plain of Jordan where the land was well watered everywhere as far as Zoar, Abram went south to Hebron and settled in the plain of Mamre, where he built another altar to worship God. During the rebellion of the Jordan River cities against Elam, Abrams nephew, the Elamite army came to collect the spoils of war, after having just defeated the king of Sodoms armies.
Lot and his family, at the time, were settled on the outskirts of the Kingdom of Sodom which made them a visible target, one person who escaped capture came and told Abram what happened. Once Abram received this news, he immediately assembled 318 trained servants, Abrams force headed north in pursuit of the Elamite army, who were already worn down from the Battle of Siddim. When they caught up with them at Dan, Abram devised a plan by splitting his group into more than one unit. Not only were able to free the captives, Abrams unit chased and slaughtered the Elamite King Chedorlaomer at Hobah. They freed Lot, as well as his household and possessions, upon Abrams return, Sodoms king came out to meet with him in the Valley of Shaveh, the kings dale