Puck was the first successful humor magazine in the United States of colorful cartoons and political satire of the issues of the day. It was founded in 1871 as a German-language publication by Joseph Keppler, an Austrian-born cartoonist, it was published from 1871 until 1918. Puck's first English-language edition was published in 1877, covering issues like New York City's Tammany Hall, presidential politics, social issues of late 19th century to early 20th centuries. A collection of Puck cartoons dating from 1879 to 1903 is maintained by the Special Collections Research Center within the Gelman Library of The George Washington University; the Library of Congress has an extensive collection of Puck Magazine prints online. The Florida Atlantic University Libraries Special Collections Department maintains a collection of both English and German edition Puck cartoons dating from 1878 to 1916; the weekly magazine was founded by Joseph Keppler in St. Louis, it began publishing German language periodicals in March 1871, though the German-language periodical publication failed.
After working with Leslie's Illustrated Weekly in New York--a well-established magazine at the time--Keppler created a satirical magazine called Puck published in German. In 1877, after gaining wide support for an English version of Puck, Keppler published its first issue in English; the first English edition was sold for 16 cents. Puck gained notoriety for its witty, humorous cartoons and was the first to publish weekly cartoons using chromolithography in place of wood engraving, offering three cartoons instead of one. In its early years of publication, Puck's cartoons were printed in black and white, though editions featured colorful, eye-catching lithographic prints in vivid color; the English language magazine continued in operation for more than 40 years under several owners and editors, until it was bought by the William Randolph Hearst company in 1916, involved with the magazine for years. The publication lasted two more years. A typical 32-page issue contained a full-color political cartoon on the front cover and a color non-political cartoon or comic strip on the back cover.
There was always a double-page color centerfold on a political topic. There were numerous black-and-white cartoons used to illustrate humorous anecdotes. A page of editorials commented on the issues of the day, the last few pages were devoted to advertisements. "Puckish" means "childishly mischievous". This led Shakespeare's Puck character to be recast as a charming near-naked boy and used as the title of the magazine. Puck was the first magazine to carry illustrated advertising and the first to adopt full-color lithography printing for a weekly publication; the magazine consisted of 16 pages measuring 10 inches by 13.5 inches with front and back covers in color and a color double-page centerfold. The cover always quoted Puck saying, "What fools these mortals be!" The jaunty symbol of Puck is conceived as a putto in a top hat. He appears not only on the magazine covers but over the entrance to the Puck Building in New York's Nolita neighborhood, where the magazine was published, as well. In May 1893, Puck Press published A Selection of Cartoons from Puck by Joseph Keppler featuring 56 cartoons chosen by Keppler as his best work.
During 1893, Keppler temporarily moved to Chicago and published a smaller-format, 12-page version of Puck from the Chicago World's Fair grounds. Shortly thereafter, Joseph Keppler died, Henry Cuyler Bunner, editor of Puck since 1877 continued the magazine until his own death in 1896. Harry Leon Wilson replaced Bunner and remained editor until he resigned in 1902. Joseph Keppler Jr. became the editor. Years after its conclusion, the "Puck" name and slogan were revived as part of the Comic Weekly Sunday comic section that ran on Hearst's newspaper chain beginning in September 1931 and continuing until 1989, when the Los Angeles Herald-Examiner, the last paper running a comic section under that name, folded. Over the years, Puck employed many early cartoonists of note, Louis Dalrymple, Bernhard Gillam, Livingston Hopkins, Frederick Burr Opper, Louis Glackens, Michael Alexander Kahn und Richard Samuel West: What Fools These Mortals Be!: The Story of Puck. As Thomas explains: n an age of partisan politics and partisan journalism, Puck became the nation's premier journal of graphic humor and political satire, played an important role as a non-partisan crusader for good government and the triumph of American constitutional ideals.
Its prime targets, were not just corrupt machine politicians. The magazine included as well what it, like the letterpress, condemned as the nefarious political agenda of the Catholic Church its new Pope, Leo XIII. Indeed, New York's infamous Irish Tammany Hall, committed to spoils and patronage as the means of dominating the body politic, was all the more dangerous to Puck because, beginning in the 1870s, Irish Catholics dominated it; the hall's Irish Catholic base enabled the magazine to rationalize more its conviction that the Catholic Church, ruled by a foreign potentate dressed in the irrational garb of infallibility, was a menace not only to the nation's body politic but to its democratic soul. If allowed to proceed unimpeded
Frank Tousey was among the top five publishers of dime novels in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Based in New York, his sensationalism drew a large audience of youth hungry for scenes of daring and tormented heroes and damsels in distress. Of particular notice in his approach to the ‘blood and thunder’ genre were the vivid cover illustrations of his dime novels, which were larger and more thrilling than previous publications. Although focused on fictional weeklies, Tousey managed a variety of materials over time, including some handbooks, gossip sheets, a newspaper on current events in the Spanish–American War. Frank Tousey was born in Brooklyn, New York on May 24, 1853. Son of George G. Tousey and Elizabeth Corks, Frank was one of six children, with two older brothers and three younger, his uncle, Sinclair Tousey, poses some significance to Frank's career in publishing. Sinclair Tousey is best known as the founder and president of the American News Company and as an extraordinarily powerful and rich player in the field of American publishing, based on his quasi-monopoly over text distribution in the country.
Frank began his career in publishing in 1872 by working with Norman Munro, a Canadian-born publisher with questionable principles. In 1877, Tousey split from Munro and relocated to no. 116 Nassau Street, taking with him Munro's successful editor, George Small, whom Norman had stolen from his brother and publishing rival, George Munro. So begins yet another competitor for Norman L. Munro. Tousey and Small gained much success with their newly founded papers New York Boys Weekly and Young Men of America. Much of this success could be attributed to the large, sensational front page image, which at 7 inches deep to covering the full page, was more eye-catching than the former 5 inch deep images used in Munro and other papers; the images themselves used the same technique which had earlier granted Munro's stories superiority: a divergence from good and safe to dreadful and shocking. While Munro's novels featured a shift to more criminal, youthful protagonists and Small's front-page pictures exhibited terrifying scenes of aliens, monsters and overall horror.
Facing a variety of financial troubles and bankruptcy, Munro sold his popular papers Our Boys and Boys of New York, along with 138 issues of the New York Boys’ Library to Tousey and Small in 1878. Starting with the first issue under management of Tousey and Small, Boys of New York incorporated New York Boys Weekly. In fashion, Our Boys merged with Young Men of America for the latter's issue No. 43, July 4, 1878. Put, after combining these four periodicals, only Boys of New York of Munro, Young Men of America, the brain child of Tousey and Small, continued with their published names; the new owners renamed the New York Boys’ Library as the Wide Awake Library. Without Munro's inspiring rivalry, thus any substantial competition, Tousey's sensationalism diminished over the next decade. In 1879, George Small faded from the limelight of these notable novels. At the start of this year, Small relinquished his partnership with Tousey, although he remained involved in Tousey's papers until the end of his days.
It was in this year that Frank Tousey joined Rosalie Andrews in matrimony. Following Small's withdrawal, Tousey attempted a new project: American Life; this illustrated paper was intended to cater to a higher class audience, but the venture was a dismal failure. Tousey next joined forces with James Albert Wales in 1881 to co-manage The Judge, a satirical, sixteen-page magazine, it was a short-lived success. Suffering financial strain, Tousey relocated to North Moore Street and began publishing the Brookside novels; this series was a high-seller, but it soon came under fire for ‘improper’ stories. In 1884 Anthony Comstock charged Tousey for printing G. W. M. Reynolds’ "The Mysteries of the Court of London" in The Brookside Library, a story deemed a vice. Frank Tousey’s uncle, Sinclair Tousey, provided him with bail and the nephew’s legal adviser, W. H. Townley, claimed that Comstock’s accusation was a personal vendetta against Tousey for caricatures made of the former in The Judge under Tousey’s ownership.
Following review in the Tombs, Tousey was required to destroy the plates in order to avoid further prosecution. A year on March 14, 1885, Tousey made an assignment to Stillman R. Walker; this maneuver was the consequence of a number of financial troubles, including Tousey’s losses with American Life, The Judge, his conflict with Comstock. In addition, Tousey was dealing with a recent strike from his compositors, who were protesting a 15 cent cut in wages. Further trouble came from the Knights of Labor, an organization which induced many newsdealers to boycott the sale of Tousey’s publications. Frank Tousey was responsible for the publication and promotion of several artists and characters; as an example of his significant contribution to science fiction, Tousey was responsible for the creation of the immensely popular characters Frank Reade and Jack Wright, written by Dr. Harry Enton and Luis Senarens; the stories and illustrations in Tousey's dime novels are said to rival Jules Verne for imagination and to have provided the pioneer boy inventors who would lead to Tom Swift.
In 1881, the first Jesse James dime novel story appeared in Tousey's five-cent Wide Awake Library: “The Train Robbers. While this factual-made-fictional bandit was famous
Eugene "Zim" Zimmerman was a Swiss-American cartoonist. He was born in Switzerland, his mother died and he was sent to live with relatives in Alsace. In 1867 his father, a baker, an older brother emigrated to the United States. In 1868 Zimmerman was followed them. Poverty and restricted circumstances characterized his early years as he moved from relatives to working in different jobs. In 1877 he became an apprentice sign painter and continued in this line of work for several years, nurturing a desire to become a professional cartoonist. By copying the work of cartoonists, he acquired the skills necessary to gather a portfolio, which gained him an interview in May 1883 with Joseph Keppler, the director of Puck Magazine, he was hired and began work at one of the most remarkable satirical magazines of the late 19th century. While he worked at Puck, he supplemented his income with lucrative freelance work. In 1885 he became known as Zim. After two and a half years at Puck, Zim moved to Judge magazine, directed by Bernhard Gillam.
Here he was better enjoyed greater freedom in his selection of subjects. The following year he married Mabel Alice Beard of New York. In 1888, in search of a more gentle pace of life, he and Mabel moved to Horseheads. Zim traveled to New York on alternate weeks to fulfill his commitments at the magazine. Like many contemporary cartoonists, Zim generated cartoons of all varieties, including some which could be considered offensive for their ethnic stereotypes, he remained at Judge until his retirement in 1912. Becoming one of America's best-known cartoonists, he published more than 40,000 sketches in his lifetime; the illustrious painter William Merritt Chase, on a visit to the offices of Judge in 1897, voiced his praise for Zim's artistry and related that the artist Edwin Austin Abbey pasted his work in a book. After his retirement from Judge, Zim was founder and first president of the American Association of Cartoonists and Caricaturists. In Horseheads, Zim participated in the life of the community.
He designed the small town's Teal Park Bandstand, which happened to be located next to his house. He died on March 26, 1935. Horseheads preserves the artist's residence, known as Zim House, that possesses papers and correspondence; this and That About Caricature. New York: Syndicate Press, 1905. Cartoons and Caricatures. Scranton, PA: Correspondence Institute of America, 1910. ZIM's Foolish History of its Tributaries. Horseheads, NY: Chemung Valley Reporter, 1911. ZIM's Foolish History of Horseheads. Horseheads, NY: Eugene Zimmerman, 1911. In Dairyland. Horseheads, NY: Eugene Zimmerman, 1914. Language and Etticket of Poker. Horseheads, NY: Eugene Zimmerman, 1916. A Jug Full of Wisdom. Horseheads, NY: Eugene Zimmerman, 1916. Fire. Buffalo, NY: Holling Press, 1922. Foolish History of Horseheads. Horseheads, NY: Chemung Valley Reporter, 1927. Foolish History of Horseheads. Horseheads, NY: Eugene Zimmerman, 1929. Works by or about Eugene Zimmerman at Internet Archive ZIM: The Autobiography of Eugene Zimmerman edited by Walter M. Brasch Puck Magazine Online Exhibition at the United States Senate Website Zim Online Exhibit at ASIFA-Hollywood Animation Archive The Lost Art of Zim -- Cartoons and Caricatures edited by Joseph V. Procopio
Edward Anthony (writer)
Edward Anthony was an American journalist and writer who co-wrote Frank Buck's first two books, Bring'Em Back Alive, Wild Cargo. After completing high school, according to the 1940 US Census, Anthony got his start as a journalist on The Bridgeport Herald in Connecticut and worked for the New York Herald in 1920–23. An associate editor for a short time of Judge, the humor magazine, Anthony joined the staff of the Crowell group of magazines Crowell-Collier Publishing Company, in 1924. In 1928, he served as eastern press director for Herbert Hoover's presidential campaign. Of Frank Buck's three co-authors, Edward Anthony, Ferrin Fraser, Carol Weld, Anthony was the most talented at imparting immediacy and freshness to Buck's narrative. Anthony wrote Buck's stories in a modest, matter-of-fact, yet every one has danger in it. With his knack for eliciting telling details, Anthony created a sense of drama, as a result, Frank Buck's first two books are his best. In his autobiography, Anthony describes his collaborator: "Frank Buck was a first-class actor and his pantomimic footnotes to some of his verbal explanations were most effective.
One night during a session on the book our room in the hotel got stuffy—we both had been smoking for hours—so we opened the door wide and put a chair against it to start the air circulating. We were working on a chapter about a leopard—it wound up in the Lincoln Park Zoo in Chicago—which had inconsiderately damaged its cage and wriggled free on one of the cargo decks of the S. S. Granite State en route from Calcutta to San Francisco and was roaming the ship while nearly everyone fled for cover. Buck, to illustrate one of the animal's maneuvers, had slipped to the floor and was moving about on his hands and knees preparatory to springing at an unwary seaman, giving off guttural growls as he prepared to deplete the freighter's population; as he was about to leap at his victim he heard a sound in the hall and looking up he saw that he was playing to a gallery!—a bellboy and several patrons. He saw the humor of the situation, gave vent to a hearty soure cabatcha!, prepared to resume operations.'Are we disturbing you?' asked the bellboy.'Yes,' said Buck, our gallery vanished."
In 1933, Anthony filed suit in Brooklyn Supreme Court to recover two percent of the motion picture profits Buck had earned on the film adaptation of Bring'Em Back Alive ending their collaboration. Anthony wrote or co-wrote other books, among them The Big Cage with wild animal trainer Clyde Beatty. Anthony was the publisher of Woman's Home Companion from 1942–52 and Collier's from 1949 to 1954. Collier's folded shortly afterwards. Anthony wrote an autobiography, This Is. Edward Anthony Papers, Princeton University Library TIME review of Wild Cargo TIME review of Bring Em Back Alive Works by Edward Anthony at LibriVox
Frank Buck (animal collector)
Frank Howard Buck was an American hunter, animal collector, author, as well as a film actor and producer. Beginning in the 1910s he made many expeditions into Asia for the purpose of hunting and collecting exotic animals, bringing over 100,000 live specimens back to the United States and elsewhere for zoos and circuses and earning a reputation as an adventurer, he co-authored seven books chronicling or based on his expeditions, beginning with 1930's Bring'Em Back Alive, which became a bestseller. Between 1932 and 1943 he starred in seven adventure films based on his exploits, most of which featured staged "fights to the death" with various wild beasts, he was briefly a director of the San Diego Zoo, displayed wild animals at the 1933–34 Century of Progress exhibition and 1939 New York World's Fair, toured with Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus, co-authored an autobiography, 1941's All in a Lifetime. The Frank Buck Zoo in Buck's hometown of Gainesville, Texas is named after him. Buck grew up in Dallas.
He excelled at geography, at the cost of "utter failure on all the other subjects of that limited Dallas curriculum", quit school after completing the seventh grade. During childhood he began collecting birds and small animals, tried farming, sold songs to vaudeville singers before getting a job as a cowpuncher. Accompanying a cattle car to the Chicago stockyards, he refused to return to Texas. In Chicago, while working as captain of bellhops at the Virginia Hotel, Buck met hotel resident Lillian West. West was a former operetta singer. At the time that Buck met her, she was one of the few female drama critics in the country, the only one working in Chicago, where she wrote for the Chicago Daily News. In his autobiography, Buck described her as "a small woman, with keenly intelligent eyes, the most beautifully white teeth I have seen, a red, laughing mouth", adding that she was "always good-natured." Although their relationship was unusual at the time, she being 46 years old to his youthful 17, they married in 1901.
In 1911 Buck won $3,500 in a poker game and decided to go abroad for the first time, traveling to Brazil without his wife. Bringing back exotic birds to New York, he was surprised by the profits he was able to obtain from their sale, he traveled to Singapore, beginning a string of animal collecting expeditions to various parts of Asia. Leading treks into the jungles, Buck learned to build traps and snares to safely catch animals so he could sell them to zoos and circuses worldwide. After an expedition, he would accompany his catches on board ship, helping to ensure they survived the transport to the United States. Buck and West divorced in 1913, the following year he married Nina C. Boardman, a Chicago stenographer who accompanied him on jungle expeditions. In 1923 Buck was hired as the first full-time director of the San Diego Zoo, but his tenure there was brief and tumultuous; the Zoo was still in its early years, having begun as an assortment of animal displays remaining from the 1915–16 Panama–California Exposition held in Balboa Park.
It had been granted a permanent site in 1921 and most of its initial exhibits had been built over the following year, with a "grand opening" of the new grounds held on January 1, 1923. The Zoo was founded by the Zoological Society of San Diego and managed by its board of directors, with founding board member Frank Stephens having served as the part-time managing director without pay since its beginning. Most of the planning and development was being overseen by Society founder and president Dr. Harry M. Wegeforth, the driving force behind the Zoo's creation. A strong-willed, hands-on president, Wegeforth walked the Zoo grounds daily and had a singular vision for its future, with little room for opposing viewpoints. Philanthropist Ellen Browning Scripps, who had made several significant donations to the Zoo, suggested that it needed a full-time director and volunteered to pay such a person's salary for three years if Wegeforth could find someone suitable for the job. Wegeforth visited Dr. William Temple Hornaday, director of the New York Zoological Park, hoping Hornaday would recommend someone, but received a cold response.
He was surprised to receive a call from Buck saying he had been referred by Hornaday as a possible candidate for the position. Buck was headed to India at the time, struck an agreement with the Zoological Society's board for him to collect some animals for the Zoo and come to San Diego to become its director, it was hoped that his acquisitions would include elephants, an animal the Society, Wegeforth, had been attempting to add to the Zoo's collection for some time. Buck found two female Asian elephants in Calcutta named "Empress" and "Queenie" that were trained to work, bought them for the Zoo; when the elephants arrived in San Diego after a long journey by boat and freight train and superintendent Harry Edwards rode them through the city streets to the Zoo. Buck himself soon arrived with the rest of the promised Asian animals, including two orangutans, a leopard cub, two gray langurs, two kangaroos, three flamingos, two lion-tailed macaques, two sarus cranes, four demoiselle cranes, assorted geese, a 23-foot reticulated python named "Diablo" that became famous when it would not eat and had to be force-fed by a team of men using a feeding tube attached to a meat grinder, a spectacle that attracted thousands of onlookers and became a paid event until the snake's death in 1928.
Buck began his director
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was an American statesman, conservationist and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. He served as the 25th vice president of the United States from March to September 1901 and as the 33rd governor of New York from 1899 to 1900; as a leader of the Republican Party during this time, he became a driving force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century. His face is depicted on Mount Rushmore, alongside those of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln. In polls of historians and political scientists, Roosevelt is ranked as one of the five best presidents. Roosevelt was born a sickly child with debilitating asthma, but he overcame his physical health problems by embracing a strenuous lifestyle, he integrated his exuberant personality, vast range of interests, world-famous achievements into a "cowboy" persona defined by robust masculinity. Home-schooled, he began a lifelong naturalist avocation before attending Harvard College.
His book, The Naval War of 1812, established his reputation as both a learned historian and as a popular writer. Upon entering politics, he became the leader of the reform faction of Republicans in New York's state legislature. Following the near-simultaneous deaths of his wife and mother, he escaped to a cattle ranch in the Dakotas. Roosevelt served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President William McKinley, but resigned from that post to lead the Rough Riders during the Spanish–American War. Returning a war hero, he was elected Governor of New York in 1898. After the death of Vice President Garret Hobart, the New York state party leadership convinced McKinley to accept Roosevelt as his running mate in the 1900 election. Roosevelt campaigned vigorously, the McKinley-Roosevelt ticket won a landslide victory based on a platform of peace and conservation. After taking office as Vice President in March 1901, he assumed the presidency at age 42 following McKinley's assassination that September, remains the youngest person to become President of the United States.
As a leader of the Progressive movement, he championed his "Square Deal" domestic policies, promising the average citizen fairness, breaking of trusts, regulation of railroads, pure food and drugs. Making conservation a top priority, he established many new national parks and monuments intended to preserve the nation's natural resources. In foreign policy, he focused on Central America, he expanded the Navy and sent the Great White Fleet on a world tour to project the United States' naval power around the globe. His successful efforts to broker the end of the Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize, he avoided controversial money issues. Elected in 1904 to a full term, Roosevelt continued to promote progressive policies, many of which were passed in Congress. Roosevelt groomed his close friend, William Howard Taft, Taft won the 1908 presidential election to succeed him. Frustrated with Taft's conservatism, Roosevelt belatedly tried to win the 1912 Republican nomination, he failed, walked out and founded a third party, the Progressive, so-called "Bull Moose" Party, which called for wide-ranging progressive reforms.
He ran in the 1912 election and the split allowed the Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson to win the election. Following his defeat, Roosevelt led a two-year expedition to the Amazon basin, where he nearly died of tropical disease. During World War I, he criticized President Wilson for keeping the country out of the war with Germany, his offer to lead volunteers to France was rejected. Though he had considered running for president again in 1920, Roosevelt's health continued to deteriorate, he died in 1919. Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was born on October 1858, at East 20th Street in New York City. He was the second of four children born to socialite Martha Stewart "Mittie" Bulloch and businessman and philanthropist Theodore Roosevelt Sr.. He had an older sister, Anna, a younger brother, a younger sister, Corinne. Elliott was the father of First Lady Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, the wife of Theodore's distant cousin, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, his paternal grandfather was of Dutch descent. Theodore Sr. was the fifth son of businessman Cornelius Van Schaack "C.
V. S." Roosevelt and Margaret Barnhill. Theodore's fourth cousin, James Roosevelt I, a businessman, was the father of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Mittie was the younger daughter of Major James Stephens Bulloch and Martha P. "Patsy" Stewart. Through the Van Schaacks, Roosevelt was a descendant of the Schuyler family. Roosevelt's youth was shaped by his poor health and debilitating asthma, he experienced sudden nighttime asthma attacks that caused the experience of being smothered to death, which terrified both Theodore and his parents. Doctors had no cure, he was energetic and mischievously inquisitive. His lifelong interest in zoology began at age seven. Having learned the rudiments of taxidermy, he filled his makeshift museum with animals that he killed or caught. At age nine, he recorded his observation of insects in a paper entitled "The Natural History of Insects". Roosevelt'