Commander of the Canadian Army
The Commander of the Canadian Army is the institutional head of the Canadian Army, is based at National Defence Headquarters in Ottawa, Ontario. Prior to 1904, militia forces in Canada were commanded by senior British Army officers appointed as General Officer Commanding the Canadian Militia. British regular forces in the Dominion had their own commander until the withdrawal of the last British garrison in 1906. From 1903 to 1904, the Canadian Army embarked on a new period of modernization that included the creation of a new office of Chief of the General Staff. Between 1904 and 1964, eighteen officers held this position, with the last of these, Lieutenant General Geoffrey Walsh, having stood down the appointment on 31 August 1964 following the official integration of the three armed services into a single Canadian Armed Forces. Following the unification of Canada's military forces in February 1968, the majority of Canada's land element was assigned to the newly created Mobile Command and the senior Canadian army officer was known as Commander of Mobile Command from 1965 to 1993.
The command was renamed Land Force Command and the senior Canadian army officer was known as Chief of the Land Staff from 1993 to 2011. Land Force Command was re-designated as the Canadian Army in 2011, at which time the appointment was renamed Commander of the Canadian Army to reflect this. General Officer Commanding the Canadian MilitiaChief of the General Staff Major-General Sir P. H. N. Lake 1904–1908 Major-General Sir W. D. Otter 1908–1910 Major General Sir C. J. Mackenzie 1910–1913 Major-General Sir W. G. Gwatkin 1913–1919 General Sir A. W. Currie 1919–1920* Major-General Sir J. H. MacBrien 1920–1927 Major-General H. C. Thacker 1927–1929 Major-General A. G. L. McNaughton 1929–1935 Major-General E. C. Ashton 1935–1938 Major-General T. V. Anderson 1938–1940 Major-General H. D. G. Crerar 1940–1941 Lieutenant-General K. Stuart 1941–1943 Lieutenant-General J. C. Murchie 1944–1945 Lieutenant-General C. Foulkes 1945–1951 Lieutenant-General G. G. Simonds 1951–1955 Lieutenant-General H. D. Graham 1955–1958 Lieutenant-General S.
F. Clark 1958–1961 Lieutenant-General G. Walsh 1961–1964The position of Chief of the General Staff was renamed "Inspector-General and Military Counsellor" between 1919 and 1920. Commander of Mobile CommandLieutenant-General J. V. Allard 1965–1966 Lieutenant-General W. Anderson 1966–1969 Lieutenant-General G. Turcot 1969–1972 Lieutenant General W. Milroy 1972–1973 Lieutenant-General S. Waters 1973–1975 Lieutenant-General J. Chouinard 1975–1977 Lieutenant General J. J. Paradis 1977–1981 Lieutenant-General C. H. Belzile 1981–1986 Lieutenant-General J. Fox 1986–1989 Lieutenant General K. Foster 1989–1991 Lieutenant-General J. Gervais 1991–1993Chief of the Land StaffCommander of the Canadian Army Chief of the Defence Staff, the second most senior member of the Canadian Armed Forces after the Commander-in-Chief Commander of the Royal Canadian Navy, institutional head of the Royal Canadian Navy Commander of the Royal Canadian Air Force, institutional head of the Royal Canadian Air Force Official website
Gulf of Oman
The Gulf of Oman or Sea of Oman is a strait that connects the Arabian Sea with the Strait of Hormuz, which runs to the Persian Gulf. It borders Iran and Pakistan on the north, Oman on the south, the United Arab Emirates on the west; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Gulf of Oman as follows: On the Northwest: A line joining Ràs Limah on the coast of Arabia and Ràs al Kuh on the coast of Iran On the Southeast: The Northern limit of the Arabian Sea. Iran Oman Pakistan United Arab Emirates In 2018, scientists confirmed the Gulf of Oman contains one of the world's largest marine dead zones, where the ocean contains little or no oxygen and marine wildlife can not exist; the dead zone encompasses nearly the entire 63,700-square-mile Gulf of Oman. The cause is a combination of increased ocean warming, increased runoff of nitrogen and phosphorus from fertilizers. Eastern Arabia Musandam Peninsula "The Book of Duarte Barbosa" by Duarte Barbosa, Mansel Longworth Dames.
1989. P. 79. ISBN 81-206-0451-2 "The Natural History of Pliny". by Pliny, Henry Thomas Riley, John Bostock. 1855. P. 117 "The Countries and Tribes of the Persian Gulf" by Samuel Barrett Miles - 1966. P. 148 "The Life & Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, Mariner". by Daniel Defoe. 1895. P. 279 "The Outline of History: Being a Plain History of Life and Mankind". by Herbert George Well. 1920. P. 379. "The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge" by Johann Jakob Herzog, Philip Schaff, Albert Hauck. 1910. P. 242
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. It has been defined both as "the Science of Justice" and "the Art of Justice". Law is a system that regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process; the formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people. A general distinction can be made between civil law jurisdictions, in which a legislature or other central body codifies and consolidates their laws, common law systems, where judge-made precedent is accepted as binding law.
Religious laws played a significant role in settling of secular matters, is still used in some religious communities. Islamic Sharia law is the world's most used religious law, is used as the primary legal system in some countries, such as Iran and Saudi Arabia; the adjudication of the law is divided into two main areas. Criminal law deals with conduct, considered harmful to social order and in which the guilty party may be imprisoned or fined. Civil law deals with the resolution of lawsuits between individuals and/or organizations. Law provides a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history, economic analysis and sociology. Law raises important and complex issues concerning equality and justice. Numerous definitions of law have been put forward over the centuries; the Third New International Dictionary from Merriam-Webster defines law as: "Law is a binding custom or practice of a community. The Dictionary of the History of Ideas published by Scribner's in 1973 defined the concept of law accordingly as: "A legal system is the most explicit, institutionalized, complex mode of regulating human conduct.
At the same time, it plays only one part in the congeries of rules which influence behavior, for social and moral rules of a less institutionalized kind are of great importance." There have been several attempts to produce "a universally acceptable definition of law". In 1972, one source indicated. McCoubrey and White said that the question "what is law?" has no simple answer. Glanville Williams said that the meaning of the word "law" depends on the context in which that word is used, he said that, for example, "early customary law" and "municipal law" were contexts where the word "law" had two different and irreconcilable meanings. Thurman Arnold said that it is obvious that it is impossible to define the word "law" and that it is equally obvious that the struggle to define that word should not be abandoned, it is possible to take the view that there is no need to define the word "law". The history of law links to the development of civilization. Ancient Egyptian law, dating as far back as 3000 BC, contained a civil code, broken into twelve books.
It was based on the concept of Ma'at, characterised by tradition, rhetorical speech, social equality and impartiality. By the 22nd century BC, the ancient Sumerian ruler Ur-Nammu had formulated the first law code, which consisted of casuistic statements. Around 1760 BC, King Hammurabi further developed Babylonian law, by codifying and inscribing it in stone. Hammurabi placed several copies of his law code throughout the kingdom of Babylon as stelae, for the entire public to see; the most intact copy of these stelae was discovered in the 19th century by British Assyriologists, has since been transliterated and translated into various languages, including English, Italian and French. The Old Testament dates back to 1280 BC and takes the form of moral imperatives as recommendations for a good society; the small Greek city-state, ancient Athens, from about the 8th century BC was the first society to be based on broad inclusion of its citizenry, excluding women and the slave class. However, Athens had no legal science or single word for "law", relying instead on the three-way distinction between divine law, human decree and custom.
Yet Ancient Greek law contained major constitutional innovations in the development of democracy. Roman law was influenced by Greek philosophy, but its detailed rules were developed by professional jurists and were sophisticated. Over the centuries between the rise and decline of the Roman Empire, law was adapted to cope with the changing social situations and underwent major codification under Theodosius II and Justinian I. Although codes were replaced by custom and case law during the Dark Ages, Roman law was rediscovered around the 11th century when medieval legal scholars began to research Roman codes and adapt their concepts. Latin legal maxims were compiled for guidance. In medieval England, royal
Colorado Springs, Colorado
Colorado Springs is a home rule municipality, the largest city by area in Colorado as well as the county seat and the most populous municipality of El Paso County, United States. Colorado Springs is located in the east central portion of the state, it is situated on Fountain Creek and is located 60 miles south of the Colorado State Capitol in Denver. At 6,035 feet the city stands over 1 mile above sea level, though some areas of the city are higher and lower. Colorado Springs is situated near the base of Pikes Peak, which rises 14,115 feet above sea level on the eastern edge of the Southern Rocky Mountains; the city is home to 24 national governing bodies of sport, including the United States Olympic Committee, the United States Olympic Training Center, USA Hockey. The city had an estimated population of 465,101 in 2016, a metro population of 712,000, ranking as the second most populous city in the state of Colorado, behind Denver, the 42nd most populous city in the United States; the Colorado Springs, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated population of 712,327 in 2016.
The city is included in the Front Range Urban Corridor, an oblong region of urban population along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado and Wyoming following the path of Interstate 25 in both states. The city covers 194.9 square miles. In 2018, Colorado Springs received several accolades: U. S. News named Colorado Springs the number one most desirable place to live in the United States, number two on their list of the 125 Best Places to Live in the USA; the Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings found that Colorado Springs was the fastest growing city for Millennials. Thumbtack's annual Small Business Friendliness Survey found Colorado Springs to be the number four most business friendly city in the country; the Ute and Cheyenne peoples were the first recorded inhabiting the area which would become Colorado Springs. Part of the territory included in the United States' 1803 Louisiana Purchase, the current city area was designated part of the 1854 Kansas Territory. In 1859, after the first local settlement was established, it became part of the Jefferson Territory on October 24 and of El Paso County on November 28.
Colorado City at the Front Range confluence of Fountain and Camp creeks was "formally organized on August 13, 1859" during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush. It served as the capital of the Colorado Territory from November 5, 1861, until August 14, 1862, when the capital was moved to Denver. In 1871 the Colorado Springs Company laid out the towns of La Font and Fountain Colony and downstream of Colorado City. Within a year, Fountain Colony would be renamed "Colorado Springs", was incorporated; the El Paso County seat shifted from Colorado City in 1873 to the Town of Colorado Springs. On December 1, 1880, Colorado Springs expanded northward with two annexations; the second period of annexations was during 1889–90, included Seavey's Addition, West Colorado Springs, East End, another North End addition. In 1891 the Broadmoor Land Company built the Broadmoor suburb, which included the Broadmoor Casino, by December 12, 1895, the city had "four Mining Exchanges and 275 mining brokers." By 1898, the city was designated into quadrants by the north-south Cascade Avenue and the east-west Washington/Pike's Peak avenues.
From 1899 to 1901 Tesla Experimental Station operated on Knob Hill, aircraft flights to the Broadmoor's neighboring fields began in 1919. Alexander Airport north of the city opened in 1925, in 1927 the original Colorado Springs Municipal Airport land was purchased east of the city. In World War II the United States Army Air Forces leased land adjacent to the municipal airfield, naming it "Peterson Field" in December 1942; this was only one of several military presences around Colorado Springs during the war. In November 1950, Ent Air Force Base was selected as the Cold War headquarters for Air Defense Command; the former WWII Army Air Base, Peterson Field, inactivated at the end of the war, was re-opened in 1951 as a U. S. Air Force base; the 1950s through 1970s saw a continued expansion of the military presence in the area, with the establishment of NORAD's headquarters in the city, as well as the ADCOM headquarters. Between 1965 and 1968, the University of Colorado Colorado Springs, Pikes Peak Community College and Colorado Technical University were established in or near the city.
In 1977 most of the former Ent AFB became a US Olympic training center. The Libertarian Party was founded within the city in the 1970s. On October 1, 1981, the Broadmoor Addition, Cheyenne Canon, Ivywild and Stratton Meadows were annexed after the Colorado Supreme Court "overturned a district court decision that voided the annexation". Further annexations expanding the city include the Nielson Addition and Vineyard Commerce Park Annexation in September 2008; the city lies in a high desert with the Southern Rocky Mountains to the west, the Palmer Divide to the north, high plains further east, high desert lands to the south when leaving Fountain and approaching Pueblo. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 194.6 square miles, of which 194.6 square miles is land and 0.35 square miles, or 0.19%, is water. Colorado Springs has many features of a modern urban area, such as parks, bike trails, urban open-area spaces. However, it is not exempt from problems that plague cities that experience tremendous growth, such as overcrowded roads and highways, crime and government budget issues.
Many of the problems are indirec
Royal Canadian Air Force
The Royal Canadian Air Force is the air force of Canada. Its role is to "provide the Canadian Forces with relevant and effective airpower"; the RCAF is one of three environmental commands within the unified Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2013, the Royal Canadian Air Force consists of 14,500 Regular Force and 2,600 Primary Reserve personnel, supported by 2,500 civilians, operates 258 manned aircraft and 9 unmanned aerial vehicles. Lieutenant-General Al Meinzinger is the current Commander of the Royal Canadian Air Force and Chief of the Air Force Staff; the Royal Canadian Air Force is responsible for all aircraft operations of the Canadian Forces, enforcing the security of Canada's airspace and providing aircraft to support the missions of the Royal Canadian Navy and the Canadian Army. The RCAF is a partner with the United States Air Force in protecting continental airspace under the North American Aerospace Defense Command; the RCAF provides all primary air resources to and is responsible for the National Search and Rescue Program.
The RCAF traces its history to the Canadian Air Force, formed in 1920. The Canadian Air Force was granted royal sanction in 1924 by King George V to form the Royal Canadian Air Force. In 1968, the RCAF was amalgamated with the Royal Canadian Navy and the Canadian Army, as part of the unification of the Canadian Forces. Air units were split between several different commands: Air Defence Command, Air Transport Command, Mobile Command, Maritime Command, as well as Training Command. In 1975, some commands were dissolved, all air units were placed under a new environmental command called Air Command. Air Command reverted to its historic name of "Royal Canadian Air Force" in August 2011; the Royal Canadian Air Force has served in the Second World War, the Korean War, the Persian Gulf War, as well as several United Nations peacekeeping missions and NATO operations. As a NATO member, the force maintained a presence in Europe during the second half of the 20th century; the Canadian Air Force was established in 1920 as the successor to a short-lived two-squadron Canadian Air Force, formed during the First World War in Europe.
John Scott Williams, MC, AFC, was tasked in 1921 with organizing the CAF, handing command over the same year to Air Marshal Lindsay Gordon. The new Canadian Air Force was a branch of the Air Board and was chiefly a training militia that provided refresher training to veteran pilots. Many CAF members worked with the Air Board's Civil Operations Branch on operations that included forestry and anti-smuggling patrols. In 1923, the CAF became responsible including civil aviation. In 1924, the Canadian Air Force, was granted the royal title. Most of its work was civil in nature. After budget cuts in the early 1930s, the air force began to rebuild. During the Second World War, the RCAF was a major contributor to the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan and was involved in operations in Great Britain, the north Atlantic, North Africa, southern Asia, with home defence. By the end of the war, the RCAF had become the fourth largest allied air force. During WWII the Royal Canadian Air Force were headquartered in London.
A commemorative plaque can be found on the outside of the building. After the war, the RCAF reduced its strength; because of the rising Soviet threat to the security of Europe, Canada joined NATO in 1949, the RCAF established No. 1 Air Division RCAF consisting of four wings with three fighter squadrons each, based in France and West Germany. In 1950, the RCAF became involved with the transport of supplies to the Korean War. Members of the RCAF served in USAF units as several flew in combat. Both auxiliary and regular air defence squadrons were run by Air Defence Command. At the same time, the Pinetree Line, the Mid-Canada Line and the DEW Line radar stations operated by the RCAF, were built across Canada because of the growing Soviet nuclear threat. In 1957, Canada and the United States created the joint North American Air Defense Command. Coastal defence and peacekeeping became priorities during the 1950s and 1960s. In 1968, the Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force and Canadian Army were amalgamated to form the unified Canadian Forces.
This initiative was overseen by Liberal Defence Minister, Paul Hellyer. The controversial merger maintained several existing organizations and created some new ones: In Europe, No. 1 Air Division, operated Canadair CF-104 Starfighter nuclear strike/attack and reconnaissance under NATO's 4 ATAF. Aviation assets of the Royal Canadian Navy were combined with the RCAF Canadair CP-107 Argus long-range patrol aircraft under Maritime Command. In 1975, the different commands, the scattered aviation assets, were consolidated under Air Command. In the early 1990s, Canada provided a detachment of CF-18 Hornets for the air defence mission in Operation Desert Shield; the force performed combat air patrols over operations in Kuwait and Iraq, undertook a number of air-to-ground bombing missions, and, on one occasion, attacked an Iraqi patrol boat in the Persian Gulf. In the late 1
Haiti the Republic of Haiti and called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola, east of Cuba in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island. Haiti is 27,750 square kilometres in size and has an estimated 10.8 million people, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean as a whole. The region was inhabited by the indigenous Taíno people. Spain landed on the island on 5 December 1492 during the first voyage of Christopher Columbus across the Atlantic; when Columbus landed in Haiti, he had thought he had found India or China. On Christmas Day 1492, Columbus's flagship the Santa Maria ran aground north of what is now Limonade; as a consequence, Columbus ordered his men to salvage what they could from the ship, he created the first European settlement in the Americas, naming it La Navidad after the day the ship was destroyed. The island was claimed by Spain, which ruled until the early 17th century.
Competing claims and settlements by the French led to the western portion of the island being ceded to France, which named it Saint-Domingue. Sugarcane plantations, worked by slaves brought from Africa, were established by colonists. In the midst of the French Revolution and free people of color revolted in the Haitian Revolution, culminating in the abolition of slavery and the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte's army at the Battle of Vertières. Afterward the sovereign state of Haiti was established on 1 January 1804—the first independent nation of Latin America and the Caribbean, the second republic in the Americas, the only nation in the world established as a result of a successful slave revolt; the rebellion that began in 1791 was led by a former slave and the first black general of the French Army, Toussaint Louverture, whose military genius and political acumen transformed an entire society of slaves into an independent country. Upon his death in a prison in France, he was succeeded by his lieutenant, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who declared Haiti's sovereignty and became the first Emperor of Haiti, Jacques I.
The Haitian Revolution lasted just over a dozen years. The Citadelle Laferrière is the largest fortress in the Americas. Henri Christophe—former slave and first king of Haiti, Henri I—built it to withstand a possible foreign attack, it is a founding member of the United Nations, Organization of American States, Association of Caribbean States, the International Francophonie Organisation. In addition to CARICOM, it is a member of the International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, it has the lowest Human Development Index in the Americas. Most in February 2004, a coup d'état originating in the north of the country forced the resignation and exile of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. A provisional government took control with security provided by the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti; the name Haiti comes from the indigenous Taíno language, the native name given to the entire island of Hispaniola to mean, "land of high mountains."
The h is silent in French and the ï in Haïti has a diacritical mark used to show that the second vowel is pronounced separately, as in the word naïve. In English, this rule for the pronunciation is disregarded, thus the spelling Haiti is used. There are different anglicizations for its pronunciation such as HIGH-ti, high-EE-ti and haa-EE-ti, which are still in use, but HAY-ti is the most widespread and best-established; the name was restored by Haitian revolutionary Jean-Jacques Dessalines as the official name of independent Saint-Domingue, as a tribute to the Amerindian predecessors. In French, Haiti's nickname is the "Pearl of the Antilles" because of both its natural beauty, the amount of wealth it accumulated for the Kingdom of France. At the time of European conquest, the island of Hispaniola, of which Haiti occupies the western three-eighths, was one of many Caribbean islands inhabited by the Taíno Native Americans, speakers of an Arawakan language called Taino, preserved in the Haitian Creole language.
The Taíno name for the entire island was Haiti. The people had migrated over centuries into the Caribbean islands from South America. Genetic studies show, they originated in Central and South America. After migrating to Caribbean islands, in the 15th century, the Taíno were pushed into the northeast Caribbean islands by the Caribs. In the Taíno societies of the Caribbean islands, the largest unit of political organization was led by a cacique, or chief, as the Europeans understood them; the island of Haiti was divided among five Caciquats: the Magua in the north east, the Marien in the north west, the Xaragua in the south west, the Maguana in the center region of Cibao and the Higuey in the south east. The caciquedoms were tributary kingdoms, with payment consisting of harvests. Taíno cultural artifacts include cave paintings in several locations in the country; these have become national symbols of tourist attractions. Modern-day Léogane started as a French colonial town in the southwest, is beside the former capital of the caciquedom of Xaragua.
History of the Royal Canadian Navy
The history of the Royal Canadian Navy goes back to 1910, when the naval force was created as the Naval Service of Canada and renamed a year by King George V. The Royal Canadian Navy is one of the three environmental commands of the Canadian Forces. Over the course of its history, the RCN has played a role in the First World War, contributed to the Battle of the Atlantic during the Second World War, was a part of NATO's force buildup during the Cold War. In 1968, the RCN was amalgamated with the Canadian Army and the Royal Canadian Air Force to form what is today the unified Canadian Armed Forces; the naval force was known as Maritime Command until 2011, when the environmental command was renamed as the Royal Canadian Navy. During the early years of the 20th century, there was growing debate within the British Empire as to the role the Dominions would play in defence and foreign relations; because of the developing naval arms race with Germany, a key part of this discussion focused on naval issues.
In Canada, the naval debate came down to a choice between two options: either the young country could provide funds and manpower to the Royal Navy, or it could form its own navy, which could help support the Royal Navy if necessary. After extensive political debates, Canadian politicians chose the latter option. On 29 March 1909, George Foster introduced a resolution in the House of Commons calling for the establishment of a Canadian Naval Service; the resolution was not successful. After third reading, the bill received royal assent on 4 May 1910, becoming the Naval Service Act which created a Department of the Naval Service under the Minister of Marine and Fisheries, who became the Minister of the Naval Service; the act called for: a permanent force a reserve a volunteer reserve the establishment of a naval college The official title of the navy was the Naval Service of Canada, the first Director of the Naval Service of Canada was Rear-Admiral Charles Kingsmill, in charge of the Marine Service of the Department of Marine and Fisheries.
A request to change name of the Naval Service of Canada to Royal Canadian Navy on 30 January 1911, brought a favourable reply from King George V on 29 August of that year. The naval college was established in the dockyard at Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1911 as "Royal Naval College of Canada"; the Royal Naval College was established to impart a complete education in Naval Science. Graduates were qualified to enter the Imperial or Canadian Service as midshipmen although a Naval career was not compulsory; the course provided a grounding in Applied Science, Mathematics, Navigation and Modern Languages and was accepted as qualifying for entry as second-year students in Canadian Universities. The program aimed to develop both the physical and mental including discipline, the ability to obey and take charge, honour. Candidates had to be between their fourteenth and sixteenth birthdays on 1 July following the examination; the original Royal Naval College of Canada facilities were destroyed in December 1917 in the Halifax Explosion.
What could be salvaged was moved to HMCS Stone Frigate at the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, Ontario. The "Royal Canadian Naval College" moved in 1919 to a building in the naval dockyard at Esquimalt, British Columbia; the college was closed in 1922. To form the nucleus of its new navy, to train Canadians for the country's planned fleet of five cruisers and six destroyers, Canada acquired two ships from Great Britain; the cruiser HMCS Rainbow was the first ship commissioned into Canada's navy on 4 August 1910, at Portsmouth, England. She arrived at Esquimalt on 7 November 1910, carried out fishery patrols and training duties on Canada's west coast. Another Royal Navy cruiser, became the second ship commissioned into the Canadian navy on 6 September 1910, at Devonport in England and arrived at Halifax, Nova Scotia, on 21 October 1910—Trafalgar Day; these initial plans encountered significant setbacks following Laurier's defeat in the 1911 federal election, in which the debate about naval policy played a significant part.
The new Conservative government, led by Robert Borden, had opposed the Naval Service Act while they were in opposition. At the urging of the Admiralty's First Sea Lord Sir Winston Churchill, Prime Minister Borden agreed to finance the construction of three dreadnoughts for $35 million; this plan was far more costly than Laurier's original plan of the Canadian-built fleet, would reap no benefits to Canadian industries whatsoever. On 5 December 1912, Borden introduced the Naval Aid Bill as a one-time contribution to the British Royal Navy. After a bitter debate and a long filibuster by the opposition Liberals, the Borden government invoked cloture on the debate, for the first time in Canadian Parliament, the bill passed third reading on 15 May 1913; the Act was soundly defeated by the Liberal-majority Senate two weeks later. The Royal Canadian Navy now found itself in limbo, with limited funds for operations, two obsolescent cruisers, no prospect of new ships being built or acquired. Despite the problems of these early years, some Canadians were still active supporters of a national navy.
Building on earlier, unofficial efforts, a volunteer reserve came into being in May 1914 as the Royal Naval Canadian Volunteer Reserve. Its initial establishment was 1,200 men, it was divided into three distinct geographic areas: Atlantic and Lake. During the First Wor