Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c
In common law systems, a superior court is a court of general competence which has unlimited jurisdiction with regard to civil and criminal legal cases. A superior court is "superior" relative to a court with limited jurisdiction, restricted to civil cases involving monetary amounts with a specific limit, or criminal cases involving offenses of a less serious nature. A superior court may hear appeals from lower courts; the term "superior court" has its origins in the English court system. The royal courts were the highest courts in the country, with what would now be termed supervisory jurisdiction over baronial and local courts. Decisions of those courts could be reviewed by the royal courts, as part of the Crown's role as the ultimate fountain of justice; the royal courts became known as the "superior courts", while lower courts whose decisions could be reviewed by the royal courts became known as "inferior courts". The decisions of the superior courts were not reviewable or appealable, unless an appeal was created by statute.
Superior Courts in Canada exist at the federal and territorial levels. The provincial and territorial superior courts of original jurisdiction are courts of general jurisdiction: all legal matters fall within their jurisdiction, unless assigned elsewhere by statute passed by the appropriate legislative authority, their jurisdiction includes civil lawsuits involving contracts, torts and family law. They have jurisdiction over criminal prosecutions for indictable offences under the Criminal Code of Canada, they hear civil appeals from decisions of the provincial and territorial "inferior" courts, as well as appeals from those courts in summary conviction matters under the Criminal Code. They have jurisdiction of judicial review over administrative decisions by provincial or territorial government entities such as labour boards, human rights tribunals and licensing authorities; the superior courts of appeal hear appeals from the superior courts of original jurisdiction, as well as from the inferior courts and administrative tribunals.
The jurisdiction of the superior courts of appeal are statutory. The details of their jurisdiction will vary depending on the laws passed by the federal government and the particular province or territory. All judges of the provincial superior courts are appointed by the federal government under the authority of the Constitution Act, 1867, while judges of the territorial superior courts are appointed under the authority of their respective territorial acts passed by the federal Parliament; the judges of the Federal Courts are appointed by the federal government under the authority of the Federal Courts Act. In Hong Kong, the Court of Final Appeal, the Court of Appeal and the Court of First Instance, are all superior courts of record; the general superior courts of South Africa are the High Courts, the Supreme Court of Appeal and the Constitutional Court. The High Courts are courts of first instance with general jurisdiction. Most cases are, tried in the magistrates' courts or other lower courts, appeals from these courts are heard by the High Court.
The Supreme Court of Appeal is an appellate court, hearing appeals from the High Courts. The Constitutional Court is an appellate court, hearing appeals on constitutional matters from the Supreme Court of Appeal or in some cases directly from the High Courts; the Constitutional Court occasionally acts as a court of first instance in certain cases involving the constitutionality of laws and government actions. There are specialist superior courts with exclusive jurisdiction over certain matters; the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the superior court of record of the United Kingdom and is the final appellate court for all separate legal systems of the parts of the United Kingdom. In England and Wales, the Court of Appeal, the High Court and the Crown Court, altogether form the Senior Courts of England and Wales, are all superior courts of record; the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is the final forum for several independent Commonwealth nations as well as all Overseas Territories of the United Kingdom and Crown Dependencies, thus is the superior court in its capacity as the final appellate court of the respective legal systems.
In a number of jurisdictions in the United States, the Superior Court is a state trial court of general jurisdiction with power to hear and decide any civil or criminal action, not specially designated to be heard in some other courts. California, Washington, the District of Columbia, Georgia are all examples of such jurisdictions. In other states, equivalent courts are known as courts of common pleas, circuit courts, district courts or, in the case of New York, supreme courts; the term "superior court" raises the obvious question of superior to what. Many jurisdictions had inferior trial courts of limited jurisdiction such as municipal courts, traffic courts, justice of the peace courts, so it was natural to call the next level of courts "superior." However, some states, like California, have unified their court systems. In California, all lower courts were absorbed into the Superior Courts of California after 1998; the lower courts now exist only as mere administrative subdivisions of the superior courts.
The superior courts are no
The German Wikipedia is the German-language edition of Wikipedia, a free and publicly editable online encyclopedia. Founded in March 2001, it is the second-oldest, after the English Wikipedia, with 2,291,320 articles, at present the fourth-largest edition of Wikipedia by number of articles, behind the English Wikipedia and the bot-generated Swedish Wikipedia and Cebuano Wikipedia, it has the second-largest number of over 260,000 disambiguation pages. On 7 November 2011, it became the second edition of Wikipedia, after the English edition, to exceed 100 million page edits. On 21 March 2019 the German Wikipedia went offline to inform users about the situation of the European Union's copyright law reformation, the Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market, which will be voted on in the European Parliament on 27 March 2019. Opponents of the reformation are concerned about the restriction of fundamental rights including a free press and the freedom of speech and arts; the German edition of Wikipedia was the first non-English Wikipedia subdomain, was named deutsche.wikipedia.com.
Its creation was announced by Jimmy Wales on 16 March 2001. One of the earliest snapshots of the home page, dated 21 March 2001, can be seen at the Wayback Machine site. Aside from the home page, creation of articles in the German Wikipedia started as early as April 2001 with translations of Nupedia articles; the earliest article still available on Wikipedia's site is Polymerase-Kettenreaktion, dated May 2001. Andrew Lih wrote that the hacker culture in Germany and the verein concept solidified the German Wikipedia's culture; the geography of Europe facilitated face-to-face meetups among German Wikipedians. On 27 December 2009, the German Wikipedia edition exceeded 1,000,000 articles, becoming the first edition after the English-language Wikipedia to do so; the millionth article was Ernie Wasson. In November 2008, 90% of the edition's articles had more than 512 bytes, 49% had more than 2 kilobytes, the average article size was 3,476 bytes. In the middle of 2009 this edition had nearly 250,000 biographies and in December 2006 more than 48,500 disambiguations.
Compared to the English Wikipedia, the German edition tends to be more selective in its coverage rejecting small stubs, articles about individual fictional characters and similar materials. Instead, there is one article about all the characters from a specific fictional setting only when the setting is considered important enough. A dedicated article about a single fictional entity exists only if the character in question has a significant impact on popular culture. Andrew Lih wrote that German Wikipedia users believe that "having no article at all is better than a bad article." Therefore, growth on the German Wikipedia leveled before it did for the English Wikipedia, with accelerating growth in article count shifting to constant growth in mid-2006. The number of users signing up for accounts began to decline in 2007 through 2008; the January 2005, Google Zeitgeist announced that "Wikipedia" was the eighth most-searched query on Google.de. In February 2005, Wikipedia reached third place behind Valentine's Day.
In June 2005, Wikipedia ranked first. Separate Wikipedias have been created for several other varieties of German, including Alemannic German, Pennsylvania German, Low German and Bavarian; these however, have less popularity than the German Wikipedia. The German Wikipedia is different from the English Wikipedia in a number of aspects. Compared to the English Wikipedia, different criteria of encyclopedic notability are expressed through the judgments of the editors for deciding if an article about a topic should be allowed; the criteria for notability are more specific, each field has its own specific guidelines. There are no fair use provisions. Images and other media that are accepted on the English Wikipedia as fair use may not be suitable for the German Wikipedia. However, the threshold of originality for works of applied art is set much higher, which allows the use of company logos and similar icons, too; the use of scholarly sources, in preference over journalistic and other types of sources, is more encouraged.
The German Verifiability guideline classifies scholarly sources as inherently more reliable than non-academic sources. In September 2005, Erik Möller voiced concern that "long term page protection is used excessively on the German Wikipedia": on 14 September 2005, 253 pages were protected for more than two weeks; this was the highest number of such blocks of all Wikipedias. As of May 2008, the German Wikipedia still had the highest percentage of semi-protected articles - 0.281% - among the ten largest Wikipedias, but with respect to the fraction of protected articles it ranks fourth, behind the Japanese and English Wikipedias. Vandalism and other abuse is handled in a less formal way. Vandals may get blocked on their first edit and without warning if their edit shows lack of interest for actual encyclopaedic work; this is true if the added text includes unlawful statements, such as holocaust denial. The Checkuser function is used to determine multiple accounts, as "suspicious" accounts are block
District courts are a category of courts which exists in several nations. These include: District Court is the name given to the intermediate court in most Australian States, they hear indictable criminal offences excluding murder and, in some States, manslaughter. Their civil jurisdiction is intermediate being for civil disputes where the amount claimed is greater than a $75 000 but less than $750 000; the limits vary between Australian States. In Victoria, the equivalent Court is called the County Court. Below them is the Magistrates' Courts, known as the Local Court in New South Wales. Above them are the State Supreme Courts. Austria has some 200 district, or local, which decide minor civil and criminal cases. See Judicial system of FinlandFinland has 27 district courts, which deal with criminal cases, civil cases and petitionary matters. Since December 1, 1993 these have been called käräjäoikeus in tingsrätt in Swedish; each court is headed by other District Judges. In certain cases, the district court may have lay judges.
The cases are resolved either in a session or in chambers. In simple cases decisions can be made by notaries. Germany has 115 regional courts, which are superior to the Amtsgerichte and below the Oberlandesgerichte; the District Courts in Hong Kong, established in 1953, has limited jurisdiction in both civil and criminal matters. With effect from 1 December 2003, it has civil jurisdiction to hear monetary claims up to HK$1 million or, where the claims are for recovery of land, the annual rent or rateable value does not exceed HK$240,000. In its criminal jurisdiction, the court may try the more serious cases, with the main exceptions of murder and rape; the maximum term of imprisonment it may impose is seven years. There are one Chief District Judge and 30 District Judges, among which three District Judges sit in the Family Court and two District Judges sit in the Lands Tribunal as Presiding Officers; the District Courts of India are presided over by a judge. They administer justice in India at a district level.
These courts are under administrative and judicial control of the High Court of the State to which the district concerned belongs. The District Courts of Indonesia are part of public courts for all cases non-related to religion, constitutions or military matters; the decisions of guilt or innocence are made by a panel of three judges led by a chair judge. See judiciary of IcelandThe District Courts are the lowest judicial level in Iceland; the Courts are 8 in total and operate in separate districts, the District Court of Reykjavík, the District Court of Reykjanes, the District Court of Western Iceland, the District Court of the Westfjords, the District Court of Northwest Iceland, the District Court of Northeast Iceland, the District Court of East Iceland and the District Court of South Iceland. The Courts handle all cases in their first instance. Subject to conditions, cases can be appealed to a higher court the Supreme Court of Iceland whose conclusions are final; the District Court in Ireland was established in 1924.
The Court handles civil claims of up to €15,000 and summary criminal trials (minor offences tried by a judge alone where the maximum penalty is 12 months on indictment in the Circuit Court and the granting of licences for the sale of alcohol. The District Courts in Israel serve both as the appellate courts and as the court of first instance for some cases; as of 2007, there are six district courts: Jerusalem Tel Aviv Haifa Nazareth Central Region Beersheba Japan has 50 district courts, one in each of the 47 prefectures and one in the 3 cities of Hakodate and Kushiro. They are the first court level for most criminal cases. Most cases are held with one judge; the District Courts of New Zealand deals with all criminal matters other than murder and specified offences such as treason. The Courts can hear civil claims up to $200,000. District Courts were called the Magistrates' Courts until 1980; the Norwegian tingrett deals with civil cases. The term tingrett was introduced in 2002, replaced the previous terms byrett and herredsrett as designations for district courts.
The District Courts of Pakistan are presided over by a Senior judge. They administer justice in Pakistan at a district level; these courts are under administrative and judicial control of the High Court of the province to which the district concerned belongs. District Courts were introduced in 1975 as replacement for Burgh Police Courts, they were run by the local authorities. Each court comprised one or more Justices of the Peace who sat alone or in threes with a qualified legal assessor as convener or clerk of court, they handled many cases of breach of the peace, minor assaults, petty theft, offences under the Civic Government Act 1982. District Court operated under summary procedure and could not impose a fine in excess of £2,500 or sentence an offender to more than 60 days in prison. In practice, most offences were dealt with by a fine. In Glasgow where the volume of business requires the employment of three solicitors as "stipendiary magistrates" who sit in place of the lay Justices; the Stipendiary Magistrates' court has the same sentencing power as the summary Sheriff Court.
District Courts in Scotland were abolished and replaced with Justice of the Peace Courts under the provisions of the Criminal Proceedings etc. Act 2007; the Justice of the Peace Courts are managed by the Scottish Court Service. Responsibility for the Courts was transferred from the local authorities in a rolling programme of court unification which conclude
Judiciary of Austria
The Judiciary of Austria is the branch of the Austrian government responsible for resolving disputes between residents or between residents and the government, holding criminals accountable, making sure that the legislative and executive branches remain faithful to the European and Austrian constitutions and to international human rights standards, upholding the rule of law. The judiciary is independent of the other two branches of government and is committed to guaranteeing fair trials and equality before the law, it has effective powers of judicial review. Structurally, the Austrian judiciary is divided into general courts of public law; the general courts handle civil and criminal trials as well as non-adversary proceedings such as inheritance cases or legal guardianship matters. The courts of public law supervise the other two branches of government: the administrative court system reviews the legality of administrative acts. In addition to the court system proper, the judicial arm of Austrian state power includes the state prosecution service, the prisons and the correctional officers' corps.
Remand prisons for pre-trial detention or other types of non-correctional custody belong to the executive branch. The judiciary is assisted by the Ministry of Justice, a cabinet-level division of the national executive; the administration of justice in Austria is the sole responsibility of the federal government. Judges and prosecutors are recruited and employed by the Republic. There is no such thing, for example, as an Austrian county court; the court system has two branches: general courts try criminal cases and civil cases. Judges are independent. Appointments are for life. In courts with more than one judge −, all of them − there has to be a fixed and specific apportionment of responsibilities to prevent the government from influencing outcomes by hand-picking a judge sympathetic to its perspective. For example, if a litigant files for divorce in a court with multiple judges handling divorce cases, the first letter of their last name decides which judge they are assigned. Judges presiding over trials are professionals.
In order to become eligible for appointment to a bench, a prospective judge needs to have a master's degree or equivalent in Austrian law, undergo four years of post-graduate training, pass an exam. The training includes theoretical instruction and internship-type practical work in an actual courthouse. Appointments to benches are made by the president, although the president can and does delegate most of this responsibility to the minister of justice. Nominations come from within the judiciary. There is no military justice in peacetime. Trials are public. Civil trials are adversarial trials; the court evaluates evidence brought before it by the parties to the trial but makes no attempt to uncover any additional evidence or otherwise investigate the matter itself. Criminal trials are inquisitorial trials; the court is involved, questioning witnesses brought forward by the parties to the trials, summoning expert witnesses on its own initiative, attempting to determine the truth. Most trials are bench trials, although the bench will be a panel including one or more lay judges.
Criminal defendants accused of political transgressions or of serious crimes with severe penalties have a right to trial by jury. Pursuant to the European Convention on Human Rights, adopted into the Austrian constitution, but to Austrian constitutional law preceding it, criminal defendants are protected by the set of procedural guarantees typical for modern liberal democracies. Among other things, defendants are presumed innocent; the right to an appeal is taken seriously. Any party to any trial before a general court can file an appeal on facts and law. If the case is a civil case, the appellate court first checks whether the trial court has committed procedural errors. If no, or if the case is criminal, the appellate court conducts what is a retrial itself − the appellate trial does not review questions of law but questions of fact, assessing evidence
A court is any person or institution with authority to judge or adjudicate as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law. In both common law and civil law legal systems, courts are the central means for dispute resolution, it is understood that all people have an ability to bring their claims before a court; the rights of those accused of a crime include the right to present a defense before a court. The system of courts that interprets and applies the law is collectively known as the judiciary; the place where a court sits is known as a venue. The room where court proceedings occur is known as a courtroom, the building as a courthouse; the practical authority given to the court is known as its jurisdiction – the court's power to decide certain kinds of questions or petitions put to it. According to William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England, a court is constituted by a minimum of three parties: the actor or plaintiff, who complains of an injury done.
It is usual in the superior courts to have barristers, attorneys or counsel, as assistants, though courts consist of additional barristers, reporters, a jury. The term "the court" is used to refer to the presiding officer or officials one or more judges; the judge or panel of judges may be collectively referred to as "the bench". In the United States, other common law jurisdictions, the term "court" by law is used to describe the judge himself or herself. In the United States, the legal authority of a court to take action is based on personal jurisdiction over the parties to the litigation and subject-matter jurisdiction over the claims asserted; the word court comes from the French cour, an enclosed yard, which derives from the Latin form cortem, the accusative case of cohors, which again means an enclosed yard or the occupants of such a yard. The English word court is a cognate of the Latin word hortus from Ancient Greek χόρτος, both referring to an enclosed space; the meaning of a judicial assembly is first attested in the 12th century, derives from the earlier usage to designate a sovereign and his entourage, which met to adjudicate disputes in such an enclosed yard.
The verb "to court", meaning to win favor, derives from the same source since people traveled to the sovereign's court to win his favor. The word jurisdiction comes from juris and dictio. Jurisdiction is defined as the official authority to make legal decisions and judgements over an individual or materialistic item within a territory."Whether a given court has jurisdiction to preside over a given case" is a key question in any legal action. Three basic components of jurisdiction are personal jurisdiction over an individual, jurisdiction over the particular subject matter or thing and territorial jurisdiction. Jurisdiction over a person refers to the full authority over a person regardless on where they live, jurisdiction over a particular subject matter refers to the authority over the said subject of legal cases involved in a case, lastly, territorial jurisdiction is the authority over a person within an x amount of space. Other concepts of jurisdiction include general jurisdiction, exclusive jurisdiction, territorial jurisdiction, appellate jurisdiction, diversity jurisdiction.
Trial courts are courts. Sometimes termed "courts of first instance", trial courts have varying original jurisdiction. Trial courts may conduct trials with juries as the finders of fact or trials in which judges act as both finders of fact and finders of law. Juries are less common in court systems outside the Anglo-American common law tradition. Appellate courts are courts that hear appeals of trial courts; some courts, such as the Crown Court in England and Wales may have both trial and appellate jurisdictions. The two major legal traditions of the western world are the civil law courts and the common law courts; these two great legal traditions are similar, in that they are products of western culture although there are significant differences between the two traditions. Civil law courts are profoundly based upon Roman Law a civil body of law entitled "Corpus iuris civilis"; this theory of civil law was rediscovered around the end of the eleventh century and became a foundation for university legal education starting in Bologna and subsequently being taught throughout continental European Universities.
Civil law is ensconced in the French and German legal systems. Common law courts were established by English royal judges of the King's Council after the Norman Invasion of Britain in 1066; the royal judges created a body of law by combining local customs they were made aware of through traveling and visiting local jurisdictions. This common standard of law became known as "Common Law"; this legal tradition is practiced in the English and American l