Judiciary of Israel
The judicial system of Israel consists of secular courts and religious courts. The law courts constitute a separate and independent unit of Israels Ministry of Justice, the system is headed by the President of the Supreme Court and the Minister of Justice. Located in Jerusalem, the Supreme Court acts as an appellate court. The Supreme Court re-evaluates decisions by the lower, district courts, sitting as the High Court of Justice, it acts as a court of first instance, often in matters concerning the legality of decisions regarding state authorities. The High Court of Justice or otherwise the Israeli Supreme Court acts sometimes not as a body to the district court. The District Courts constitute the middle level courts of the judicial system, in criminal matters, the courts have jurisdiction over cases where the accused faces a penalty of at least seven years imprisonment. In civil cases, they have jurisdiction over cases in more than two and a half million shekels are in dispute. District courts hear appeals of judgments of the courts, as well as cases involving companies and partnership, prisoners petitions.
Sitting as courts for administrative matters, they can hear petitions against arms of the government, one sits as the court of admiralty, hearing all cases involving shipping commerce, accidents on the sea and the like. Most cases are heard by a judge, though the court president can choose to appoint a three-judge panel. Cases where the accused is charged with a punishable by at least ten years in prison. There are six courts, one in each district of Israel. The Magistrate courts serve as trial courts. In criminal matters, they hear cases where the accused faces up to seven years imprisonment and they have jurisdiction over the use and possession of real property. The courts act as courts, municipal courts and family courts. Sitting as small-claims courts, they have jurisdiction over cases involving claims up to 30,000 shekels, rather than following standard evidentiary rules, they require extensive pleadings and documentation upon filing of a formally written complaint. Verdicts are expected seven days from trial, cases are heard by a single judge unless the court president decides to appoint a three-judge panel.
There are five Regional Labor Courts in Israel as a tribunal of first instance, the Labor Courts Law sets forth those matters within the jurisdiction of the Labor Court
Judiciary of Pakistan
The judiciary of Pakistan is a hierarchical system with two classes of courts, the superior judiciary and the subordinate judiciary. The superior judiciary is composed of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, there is a High Court for each of the four provinces as well as a High Court for the Islamabad Capital Territory. The Constitution of Pakistan entrusts the superior judiciary with the obligation to preserve, neither the Supreme Court nor a High Court may exercise jurisdiction in relation to Tribal Areas, except otherwise provided for. The disputed regions of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan have separate court systems, the criminal courts were created under the Criminal Procedure Code 1898 and the civil courts were established by the West Pakistan Civil Court Ordinance 1964. There are revenue courts that operate under the West Pakistan Land Revenue Act 1967, the government may set up administrative courts and tribunals for exercising exclusive jurisdiction in specific matters. The Supreme Court, established in 1956, is the court in Pakistans judicial hierarchy.
The court consists of a Chief Justice and sixteen other judges, there is provision for appointment of acting judges as well as ad hoc judges in the court. It has a permanent seat in Islamabad as well as branch registries in Lahore, Quetta and it has a number of de jure powers which are outlined in the constitution, including appellate and constitutional jurisdiction, and suo moto power to try Human Rights matters. Through several periods of rule and constitutional suspensions, the court has established itself as a de facto check on military power. The Supreme Court Judges are supervised by the Supreme Judicial Council, the Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan was established in 1980 to scrutinise all Pakistani laws and determine if they conform to Islamic values as laid down in the Quran and the Sunnah. If a law is found to be repugnant, the Court notifies the relevant government, the court has appellate jurisdiction over penalties arising under Islamic law, although these decisions can be reviewed by the Shariat Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court.
The decisions of the court are binding on the High Courts as well as subordinate judiciary, the court appoints its own staff and frames its own rules of procedure. The Court consists of 8 Muslim judges, appointed by the President of Pakistan, on the advice of a committee of the Chief Justices of the Supreme Court. The committee chooses from amongst serving or retired judges of the Supreme Court or the High Courts or from amongst persons possessing the qualifications of judges of a High Court, of the eight judges, three are required to be Islamic Scholars/Ulema well versed in Islamic law. The judges serve terms of three years, subject to extension by the President, the current Chief Justice of the Federal Shariat Court is Riaz Ahmed Khan. There is a High Court for the Islamabad Capital Territory and four provincial High Courts, a High Court is the principal court of its province. In each District Headquarters, there are numerous Additional District & Session Judges who usually preside the courts, District & Sessions Judge has executive and judicial power all over the district under his jurisdiction.
The Sessions court is a court for heinous offences such as Murder, Haraba offences
Judicial system of Japan
They cannot be removed from the bench unless judicially declared mentally or physically incompetent to perform official duties, and they cannot be disciplined by executive agencies. Supreme Court judges, may be removed by a majority of voters in a referendum that occurs at the first general election following the judges appointment and every ten years thereafter. The judiciary was far more constrained under the Meiji Constitution than it is under the present Constitution and had no authority over administrative or constitutional law cases, the Ministry of Justice had complete and direct control over the courts administrative affairs. Nonetheless, Professor John Haley argues that the courts maintained complete independence in the adjudication of particular cases, judicial independence from the political branches was emphatically established as a fundamental principle of governance in Article 57 of the Meiji Constitution. Of all branches of government only the courts exercised authority in the name of the Emperor, japans court system is divided into four basic tiers.
At the first of the four tiers of courts are the 438 summary courts, Summary court judges are not career judges. Qualification as a judge is not required. They mostly handle small civil cases, as well as minor criminal offenses. They are only able to imprison defendants in a few special cases, Summary Courts are presided over by one judge. Civil cases in the Summary Court are appealed to the District Court, at the second tier are the district courts, the principal courts of first instance. There are 50 district courts with additional 203 branches, except for minor cases, which account for 80 to 90 percent of all adjudicated cases, trials require a three-judge panel. These are the courts of jurisdiction and the principal court of first instance. District Courts have original jurisdiction in cases and in civil cases where the disputed amount is over ¥1,400,000. Attorneys sit on either side of the courtroom, facing the center, in a criminal case, the accused faces the judges from the rear of the courtroom.
The witness box is in the center, facing the judges and they serve defined circuits of several prefectures each, there are branch offices in Akita, Okayama, Matsue and Naha. There exists the Intellectual Property High Court in Tokyo, which is a branch of Tokyo High Court. A High Court usually sits in the manner as a three-judge District Court. Each court is led by a President, who is appointed by the Cabinet, an appeal to a High Court is called kōso
Judiciary of Hong Kong
The Judiciary of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region is the judicial branch of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government. Under the Basic Law of Hong Kong, it exercises the power of the Region and is independent of the executive and legislative branches of the Government. The courts in Hong Kong hear and adjudicate all prosecutions and civil disputes, including all public and it is fundamental to the Hong Kong legal system that members of the judiciary are independent of the executive and legislative branches. The courts of law in Hong Kong comprise the Court of Final Appeal, the High Court, the District Court, the Magistrates Courts, the Chief Justice of the Court of Final Appeal is head of the judiciary and assisted in his administrative duties by the Judiciary Administrator. A bilingual court system in which Chinese, English or both can be used was put in place, in accordance with the requirement of the Basic Law. It was established on 1 July 1997 upon the commencement of the Hong Kong Court of Final Appeal Ordinance to safeguard the rule of law after 30 June 1997, there is a panel of eight non-permanent Hong Kong judges and nine non-permanent judges from other common law jurisdictions.
The High Court was established by the High Court Ordinance, as the Supreme Court of Hong Kong and it was renamed the High Court by Article 81 of the Basic law of Hong Kong. It makes rulings on questions of law referred to it by the lower courts, there are 10 Justices of Appeal, including the Chief Judge of the High Court and three Vice-Presidents. It has unlimited jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters. It exercises jurisdiction in admiralty, company winding-up, adoption, there are approximately 42 Judges and Deputy Judges of the Court of First Instance. The District Court, established in 1953, is the court of Hong Kong. It has limited jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters. In its criminal jurisdiction, the court may try the more serious cases, with the exceptions of murder, manslaughter. The maximum term of imprisonment it may impose is seven years, there are one Chief District Judge and 30 District Judges, among which three District Judges sit in the Family Court and two District Judges sit in the Lands Tribunal as Presiding Officers.
Magistrates exercise criminal jurisdiction over a range of offences. There are approximately 70 Magistrates, sitting in various Tribunals and seven Magistrates Courts, Kowloon City, Kwun Tong, Tsuen Wan, Sha Tin, Fanling, a Principal Magistrate is in charge of each magistracy. The Chief Magistrate, whose chamber is at the Kowloon City Law Courts Building, the most junior judicial role is that of Special Magistrate, typically dealing only with minor offences such as hawking contraventions, traffic offences and other departmental summonses. Appeals against Magistrates’ decisions are heard by a Judge of the Court of First Instance, the Juvenile Court has jurisdiction to hear charges against children and young persons for any offence other than homicide
Supreme People's Court of Vietnam
The Supreme Peoples Court of Vietnam is the highest court of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The Supreme Peoples Court is one of the two institutions at the apex of the system of Vietnam, with the other body being the Supreme Peoples Procuracy of Vietnam. Both are accountable to the President of Vietnam, the highest institution of government power in the country, the head of the Supreme Peoples Court of Vietnam is the Chief Justice. It is a court of final resort, the Court is by statute the court of final resort for all maters arising under Vietnamese law. It hears appeals in cases where court decisions have been implemented, the Courts Council of Justices can pass resolutions directing lower courts on the uniform enforcement of the law across the country. However, the 2014 law transformed those appellate benches into full courts called superior peoples courts, the Supreme Peoples Court of Vietnam is organized according to the Law on the Organization of Peoples Courts. Under law, the Courts organization consists of the Council of Justices, its supporting apparatus and it must have at least 13 members, and at most 17 members.
Appeals are heard by panels of five justices, or by the entire Council of Justices when appropriate under law
Judiciary of Russia
The Judiciary of Russia interprets and applies the law of Russia. It is defined under the Constitution and law with a structure with the Constitutional Court, Supreme Court. The district courts are the criminal trial courts, and the regional courts are the primary appellate courts. And although there are officers of the court, including jurors. The judiciary faces many problems and a lack of confidence but has made much progress in recent times. Russia has a court system, with constitutional, ordinary. The Constitutional Court of Russia is considered a separate, independent court, the district courts are the primary criminal trial courts, and the regional courts are the primary appellate courts.5 million civil cases. It is composed of 19 judges, and may sit in plenary sessions but is divided into 2 chambers. The Constitutional Court consists of two chambers with 10 and 9 judges respectively, the Chairman presides over one of the chambers, the Deputy Chairman presides over the other chamber. The Constitutional Court may submit to the plenary session any other issue at its discretion and it hears complains by citizens of allegations of constitutional rights violations.
The Supreme Court of Russia is the highest court, and supervises inferior courts of general jurisdiction, there are 115 members of the Supreme Court. The Presidium of the Russian Supreme Court represents Russias final court of appeal, the Presidium consists of thirteen judges, the Chairman of the Supreme Court, its first deputy chairman, its six deputy chairmen and five other Supreme Court judges. Only the Prosecutor General has the right to appeal to the Presidium, only 0. 4% of criminal cases in 1998 ended with an acquittal in the Presidium. There are several attached to the Supreme Court. The members of the Academic Consultative Council are elected at plenary sessions of the Supreme Court, the Judicial Department is responsible for administration of the courts. Regional courts are the courts at the level, though are not all named as such. The courts sit as both courts of first instance and appellate courts, as courts of first instance, they hear more complex civil cases and serious criminal cases. A judge and a jury, or alternatively 3 judges, hear these cases, as appellate courts, they hear decisions of district courts that have not yet entered into force, and consist of 3 judges
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. With an estimated 92.7 million inhabitants as of 2016, it is the worlds 14th-most-populous country, and its capital city has been Hanoi since the reunification of North and South Vietnam in 1976, with Ho Chi Minh City as a historical city as well. The northern part of Vietnam was part of Imperial China for over a millennium, an independent Vietnamese state was formed in 939, following a Vietnamese victory in the Battle of Bạch Đằng River. Following a Japanese occupation in the 1940s, the Vietnamese fought French rule in the First Indochina War, Vietnam was divided politically into two rival states, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam. Conflict between the two sides intensified in what is known as the Vietnam War, the war ended with a North Vietnamese victory in 1975. Vietnam was unified under a communist government but remained impoverished, in 1986, the government initiated a series of economic and political reforms which began Vietnams path towards integration into the world economy.
By 2000, it had established relations with all nations. Since 2000, Vietnams economic growth rate has been among the highest in the world and its successful economic reforms resulted in its joining the World Trade Organization in 2007. It is a member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie, Vietnam remains one of the worlds four remaining one-party socialist states officially espousing communism. The name Việt Nam is a variation of Nam Việt, a name that can be traced back to the Triệu Dynasty of the 2nd century BC. The word Việt originated as a form of Bách Việt. The form Vietnam is first recorded in the 16th-century oracular poem Sấm Trạng Trình, the name has been found on 12 steles carved in the 16th and 17th centuries, including one at Bao Lam Pagoda in Haiphong that dates to 1558. Then, as recorded, rewarded Yuenan/Vietnam as their nations name, to show that they are below the region of Baiyue/Bach Viet. Between 1804 and 1813, the name was used officially by Emperor Gia Long and it was revived in the early 20th century by Phan Bội Châus History of the Loss of Vietnam, and by the Vietnamese Nationalist Party.
The country was usually called Annam until 1945, when both the government in Huế and the Viet Minh government in Hanoi adopted Việt Nam. Archaeological excavations have revealed the existence of humans in what is now Vietnam as early as the Paleolithic age, Homo erectus fossils dating to around 500,000 BC have been found in caves in Lạng Sơn and Nghệ An provinces in northern Vietnam. The oldest Homo sapiens fossils from mainland Southeast Asia are of Middle Pleistocene provenance, teeth attributed to Homo sapiens from the Late Pleistocene have been found at Dong Can, and from the Early Holocene at Mai Da Dieu, Lang Gao and Lang Cuom. The Hồng Bàng dynasty of the Hùng kings is considered the first Vietnamese state, in 257 BC, the last Hùng king was defeated by Thục Phán, who consolidated the Lạc Việt and Âu Việt tribes to form the Âu Lạc, proclaiming himself An Dương Vương
Judiciary of Saudi Arabia
The judiciary of Saudi Arabia is a branch of the government of Saudi Arabia that interprets and applies the laws of Saudi Arabia. The legal system is based on the Islamic code of Sharia, with its judges, there are non-Sharia government tribunals which handle disputes relating to specific royal decrees. Final appeal from both Sharia courts and government tribunals is to the King of Saudi Arabia and all courts and tribunals follow Sharia rules of evidence, the Sharia courts have general jurisdiction over most civil and criminal cases. At present, there are two types of courts of first instance, general courts and summary courts dealing with lesser cases, cases are adjudicated by single judges, except criminal cases if the potential sentence is death, amputation or stoning when there is a panel of three judges. There are two courts for the Shia minority in the Eastern Province dealing with family and religious matters, appellate courts sit in Mecca and Riyadh and review decisions for compliance with Sharia.
There are non-Sharia courts covering specialized areas of law, including the Board of Grievances, the Specialized Criminal Court, created in 2008, and these administrative tribunals, referred to as committees, deal with specific issues regulated by royal decrees, such as labor and commercial law. The Grand Mufti is the most senior member of the establishment as well as being the highest religious authority in the country. The judiciary proper is composed of about 700 judges, the capabilities and reactionary nature of the judges have been criticized. The main complaint reportedly made by Saudis privately is that judges, who have wide discretion in interpreting the Sharia, have no knowledge, and are often contemptuous, of the modern world. Reported examples of judges attitudes include rulings banning such things as the children’s game Pokémon, telephones that play recorded music, Saudi judges come from a narrow recruitment pool. By one estimate, 80% are from Al-Qassim province, the conservative religious heartland of Saudi Arabia in the center of the country, senior judges will only allow like-minded graduates of select religious institutes to join the judiciary and will remove judges that stray away from rigidly conservative judgments.
The Saudi system of justice has been criticized for being slow, lacking in some of the safeguards of justice, in 2007, King Abdullah issued royal decrees with the aim of reforming the judiciary and creating a new court system. New specialist first instance courts will be established comprising general, personal status, the Sharia courts will therefore lose their general jurisdiction to hear all cases and the work load of the governments administrative tribunals will be transferred to the new courts. Another important change is the establishment of courts for each province. It has been claimed that the reforms will establish a system for codifying Sharia, in 2008, the Specialized Criminal Court was created. The court tries suspected terrorists and human rights activists, the court convicted 16 of the human rights activists to sentences of 5–30 years on 22 November 2011. In 2009, the King made a number of significant changes to the personnel at the most senior level by bringing in a younger generation.
For example, as well as appointing a new Minister of Justice, the outgoing chairman was known to oppose the codification of Sharia
Judicial system of China
The judicial branch is one of three branches of the government, not the state structure, in the Peoples Republic of China, along with the executive and legislative branches. Strictly speaking, it refers to the activities of the Peoples Court system, the court system is intended to exercise judicial power independently and free of interference from administrative organs, public organizations, and individuals. Yet the constitution emphasizes the principle of the leadership of the Communist Party. It is the court of last resort for the whole Peoples Republic of China except for Macau, local peoples courts—the courts of the first instance—handle criminal and civil cases. Courts of Special Jurisdiction comprises the Military Court of China, Railway Transport Court of China and Maritime Court of China, the court system is paralleled by a hierarchy of prosecuting offices called peoples procuratorates, the highest being the Supreme Peoples Procuratorate. Hong Kong and Macau have separate court systems due to their status as British and Portuguese colonies.
Between the Anti-Rightist Campaign of 1957 and the reforms of 1979. Most of their functions were handled by other party or government organs, in 1979, the National Peoples Congress began the process of restoring the judicial system. Nevertheless, it was intended to show that China was committed to restoring a judicial system, the Ministry of Justice, abolished in 1959, was re-established under the 1979 legal reforms to administer the newly restored judicial system. The 1980 Organic Law of the Peoples Courts and the 1982 State Constitution established four levels of courts in the administrative structure. Judges are elected or appointed by peoples congresses at the levels to serve a maximum of two five-year terms. Most trials are administered by a collegial bench made up of one to three judges and three to five assessors, trials are conducted in an inquisitorial manner, in which both judges and assessors play an active part in the questioning of all witnesses. After the judge and assessors rule on a case, they pass sentence, an aggrieved party can appeal to the next higher court.
The Organic Law of the Peoples Courts requires that adjudication committees be established for courts at every level, the adjudication committees are charged with reviewing major cases to find errors in determination of facts or application of law and to determine if a chief judge should withdraw from a case. If a case is submitted to the committee, the court is bound by its decision. The Supreme Peoples Court stands at the apex of the judicial structure, located in Beijing, it has jurisdiction over all lower and special courts, for which it serves as the ultimate appellate court. It is directly responsible to the National Peoples Congress Standing Committee, China has special military, rail transport, water transport, and forestry courts. Military courts make up the largest group of courts and try all treason
Judiciary of Malaysia
Judiciary of Malaysia is largely centralised despite Malaysias federal constitution, heavily influenced by the English common law and to a lesser extent Islamic law. There are generally two types of trials and civil, the hierarchy of courts begins from the Magistrates Court, Sessions Court, High Court, Court of Appeal, and finally, the Federal Court. The jurisdiction of the courts in civil or criminal matters are contained in the Subordinate Courts Act 1948, article 121 of the Constitution provides for two High Courts of co-ordinate jurisdiction, the High Court in Malaya, and the High Court in Sabah and Sarawak. Thus this creates two separate local jurisdiction of the courts – for Peninsular Malaysia and for East Malaysia, the superior courts are the High Court, Court of Appeal, and the Federal Court, while the Magistrates Courts and the Sessions Courts are classified as subordinate courts. The current President of the Federal Court, effective 1 April 2017, is Tan Sri Md, raus Sharif, the President of the Court of Appeal is Tan Sri Zulkefli Ahmad Makinudin, and the Chief Judge of Malaya is Tan Sri Ahmad Maarop.
The current Chief Judge of Sabah and Sarawak is Justice Tan Sri Richard Malanjum, bypassing many other senior judges, Tan Sri Dato Zaki was the first lawyer appointed directly to the Federal Court. After some 2 months as a judge, Tan Sri Dato Zaki was subsequently appointed as the President of the Court of Appeal. There are three courts with different jurisdiction within what is known as the Superior Court and they are the Federal Court, the highest court in the land, the Appeal Court, the High Court of Malaya and the High Court of Sabah and Sarawak. Each is head by a judge called the Chief Justice of the Federal Court, President of the Appeal Court and Chief Judge of the High Courts of Malaya and Sabah. The Federal Court is the highest court in Malaysia, the Federal Court may hear appeals of civil decisions of the Court of Appeal where the Federal Court grants leave to do so. The Federal Court hears appeals from the Court of Appeal. It is the court of jurisdiction for cases which began in any subordinate courts.
The High Courts have unlimited jurisdiction in all matters other than matters involving Islamic law. The High Courts have original jurisdiction in criminal cases punishable by death, cases are heard by a single judge in the High Court, or by a judicial commissioner. While High Court judges enjoy security of tenure, judicial commissioners are appointed for a term of two years, and do not enjoy similar protection under the Constitution, an application for a judicial review is applied in this court. The Magistrates Courts and Sessions Courts in Malaysia have the power in control the criminal and civil matters. Somewhat like the former Quarter Sessions in England, but does not exceed RM1,000,000 as per ss 65,73,93 of the Subordinate Courts Act 1948. The exception however is in relating to motor vehicle accidents and tenant and distress