Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with an estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects Staten Island. Since 1896, Brooklyn has been coterminous with Kings County, the most populous county in the U. S. state of New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County. With a land area of 71 square miles and water area of 26 square miles, Kings County is New York state's fourth-smallest county by land area and third-smallest by total area, though it is the second-largest among the city's five boroughs. Today, if each borough were ranked as a city, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous in the U. S. after Los Angeles and Chicago. Brooklyn was an independent incorporated city until January 1, 1898, after a long political campaign and public relations battle during the 1890s, according to the new Municipal Charter of "Greater New York", Brooklyn was consolidated with the other cities and counties to form the modern City of New York, surrounding the Upper New York Bay with five constituent boroughs.
The borough continues, however. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves. Brooklyn's official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght, which translates from early modern Dutch as "Unity makes strength". In the first decades of the 21st century, Brooklyn has experienced a renaissance as an avant garde destination for hipsters, with concomitant gentrification, dramatic house price increases, a decrease in housing affordability. Since the 2010s, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, of postmodern art and design; the name Brooklyn is derived from the original Dutch colonial name Breuckelen, meaning marshland. Established in 1646, the name first appeared in print in 1663; the Dutch colonists named it after the scenic town of Netherlands. Over the past two millennia, the name of the ancient town in Holland has been Bracola, Brocckede, Brocklandia, Broikelen and Breukelen; the New Amsterdam settlement of Breuckelen went through many spelling variations, including Breucklyn, Brucklyn, Brookland, Brockland and Brookline/Brook-line.
There have been so many variations of the name. The final name of Brooklyn, however, is the most accurate to its meaning; the history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years. The settlement began in the 17th century as the small Dutch-founded town of "Breuckelen" on the East River shore of Long Island, grew to be a sizeable city in the 19th century, was consolidated in 1898 with New York City, the remaining rural areas of Kings County, the rural areas of Queens and Staten Island, to form the modern City of New York; the etymology of Breuckelen may be directly from the dialect word Breuckelen meaning buckle or from the Plattdeutsch Brücken meaning bridge. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle Long Island's western edge, largely inhabited by the Lenape, an Algonquian-speaking American Indian tribe who are referred to in colonial documents by a variation of the place name "Canarsie". Bands were associated with place names, but the colonists thought their names represented different tribes.
The Breuckelen settlement was named after Breukelen in the Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company lost little time in chartering the six original parishes: Gravesend: in 1645, settled under Dutch patent by English followers of Anabaptist Lady Deborah Moody, named for's-Gravenzande, Netherlands, or Gravesend, England Brooklyn Heights: as Breuckelen in 1646, after the town now spelled Breukelen, Netherlands. Breuckelen was located along Fulton Street between Smith Street. Brooklyn Heights, or Clover Hill, is where the village Brooklyn was founded in 1816. Flatlands: as Nieuw Amersfoort in 1647 Flatbush: as Midwout in 1652 Nieuw Utrecht: in 1657, after the city of Utrecht, Netherlands Bushwick: as Boswijck in 1661 The colony's capital of New Amsterdam, across the East River, obtained its charter in 1653 than the village of Brooklyn; the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North America's first tide mill. It was built by the Dutch, the foundation can be seen today, but the area was not formally settled as a town.
Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furman's 1824 compilation. What is Brooklyn today left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. New Netherland was taken in a naval action, the conquerors renamed their prize in honor of the overall English naval commander, Duke of York, brother of the monarch King Charles II of England and future king himself as King James II of England and James VII of Scotland; the English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1, 1683, one of the "original twelve counties" established in New York Pro
Niddah, in Judaism, describes a woman during menstruation, or a woman who has menstruated and not yet completed the associated requirement of immersion in a mikveh. In the Book of Leviticus, the Torah prohibits sexual intercourse with a niddah; the prohibition has been maintained by the Samaritans. Since the 19th century, with the influence of German Modern Orthodoxy, the laws concerning niddah are referred to as taharat hamishpacha; the feminine noun niddah means moved, refers to separation due to ritual impurity. Medieval Biblical commentator Abraham ibn Ezra writes that the word niddah is related to the term menadechem, meaning those that cast you out; the noun niddah occurs 25 times in the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible. The majority of these uses refer to forms of uncleanliness in Leviticus. For example, in Leviticus, if a man take his brother's wife, "uncleanness", niddah; the five uses in Numbers all concern the red heifer ceremony and use the phrase mei niddah, "waters of separation".
2 Chronicles 29:5 includes a single exhortation of Hezekiah to the Levites, to carry the niddah idols of his father Ahaz, out of the temple in Jerusalem. Usage in Ezekiel follows that of Leviticus; the Book of Zechariah concludes with an eschatological reference to washing Jerusalem: Zechariah 13:1 "In that day there shall be a fountain opened to the house of David and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem for sin and for uncleanness. The Leviticus description of niddah is composed of two parts: the ritual purity aspect and the prohibition of sexual intercourse aspect; the Biblical regulations of Leviticus specify that a menstruating woman must "separate" for seven days. Any object she sits on or lies upon during this period is becomes a'carrier of tumah'. One who comes into contact with her midras, or her, during this period becomes tamei A man who has sexual relations with a niddah is rendered ritually impure for seven days, as opposed to one day of impurity for coming into contact with her, or her midras Leviticus further prohibits sexual intercourse with a woman, in her niddah state.
"And to a woman in her niddah impurity you should not come close reveal her nudity". The Torah concludes by imposing the punishment of kareth on both individuals if the prohibition is violated This issur component of physical relations with the niddah is considered in full effect and mandatory for all children of Israel. Rabbinic authorities of the rishonim era differentiated between the tumah and taharah aspect of niddah and the issur aspect; the tumah and taharah component of niddah the avoiding of contact with the midras of the niddah, was encouraged - but not made mandatory - by various Rabbinic authorities as a remembrance and retention for diasporic Jewry as to not forget the laws of tumah and taharah. The extent of Rabbinic encouragement was only for the seven-day period of actual menstruation and not the five-day Rabbinic extension period; the Lubavitcher rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson in his Igrot Kodesh discouraged abstaining from the midras of a niddah in modern times. Vestos, days during which the woman is to see her menstrual flow Onah Benonit, the 30th day after the beginning of previous menstruation Veset HaChodesh, the same day of the Jewish month on which began the previous menstruation Veset HaFlagah, the days between menstruation Bedikah, cloth with which to check whether menstrual blood has finished Ben niddah or bat niddah, a person conceived when their mother was niddahAlthough there are different Biblical regulations for normal menstruation - niddah, abnormal menstruation - zavah, these became conflated during the classical era.
The Talmud relates. As a result of the conflation, the practice was to wait seven days after menstruation ceases, for the woman to immerse herself in water in ritutal cleansing. According to rabbinical law, a woman becomes a niddah when she is aware that blood has come from her womb, whether it is due to menstruation, sexually transmitted disease, or other reasons. If menstruation began before she sees evidence of it, the rabbinic regulations regard her as not being niddah until she notices; until this point, the regulations do not come into force. It is not necessary for the woman to witness the flow of blood itself. If she notices a bloodstain of uncertain origin, for example on her underclothing, there are a series of complicated criteria used by rabbinical law to determine whether she is niddah or not; the Biblical definition of niddah is any blood emission occurring within seven days from the beginning of the menstrual period. After this seven-day period, the woman may immerse in the mikveh after she stops menstruating.
Any blood found after these seven days is considered abnormal blood and is subject to more stringent requiremen
In Judaism, a minyan is the quorum of ten Jewish adults required for certain religious obligations. In more traditional streams of Judaism only men may constitute a minyan; the most common activity requiring a minyan is public prayer. Accordingly, the term minyan in contemporary Judaism has taken on the secondary meaning of referring to a prayer service; the source for the requirement of minyan is recorded in the Talmud. The word minyan itself comes to number; the word is related to the Aramaic word mene, appearing in the writing on the wall in Daniel 5:25. Babylonian Talmud The Babylonian Talmud derives the requirement of a minyan of ten shomer Shabbat for Kiddush Hashem and Devarim she-Bikdusha, "matters of sanctity", by combining three scriptural verses using the rule of gezerah shavah: The word "midst" in the verse: "And I shall be sanctified in the midst of the children of Israel" appears in the verse: "Separate yourselves from the midst of the congregation" The term "congregation" is used in another verse that describes the ten spies who brought back a negative report of the Land of Israel: "How long shall I bear with this evil congregation which murmur against me?"
From this combination, the Talmud concludes that "sanctification" should occur in the "midst" of a "congregation" of ten. Jerusalem Talmud The Jerusalem Talmud offers two sources for the requirement using a gezerah shavah: The word "congregation" in the verse: "Speak to all the congregation of the children of Israel, say to them: You shall be holy" is used in another verse: "How long shall I bear with this evil congregation which murmur against me?" Since the term "congregation" in the verse refers to the ten spies, so too in the former verse: "You shall be holy" refers to a "congregation" of ten. The second source is based on the term "children of Israel" which appears in the following two verses: "And I shall be sanctified in the midst of the children of Israel"" And the children of Israel came to buy among those that came" Just as the "children of Israel" in the verse refers to the ten sons of Jacob who descended to Egypt to obtain food during the famine, so too the former verse refers to sanctification among the “children of Israel” in the presence of ten.
Some rituals require a minyan. The following instances which require a minyan are listed in the Mishnah in Megillah: Public worship, which consists of the additional readings of Kaddish, Barechu and the Repetition of the Amidah; the treatise Soferim, written in Babylonia in the seventh century, contains a passage interpreted as asserting that in Land of Israel at that time seven men were allowed to hold public services. Interpreted it refers to the repeating of "Kaddish" and "Barechu" at the synagogue for the benefit of late comers, declares that in Israel such a repetition is permitted only when seven men are present who have not yet heard these responsive readings; the priestly blessing. Reading from the Torah and Prophets with the associated benedictions. Seven benedictions recited at a wedding, or at any meal of the bridegroom and bride within a week from the wedding. Using the formulation "Let us bless our God, from whose wealth we have eaten," in preparing for Grace after meals. Ancient funeral ceremonies, no longer in use, which incorporated arranging the standing and sitting, reciting the benedictions of the mourners and the consolation of the mourners.
Other instances which require the presence of a minyan include: Kiddush Hashem Recitation of the Thirteen Attributes of Mercy Recitation of Birkat ha-Gomel. While the required quorum for most activities requiring a quorum is ten, it is not always so. For example, the Passover sacrifice or Korban Pesach must be offered before a quorum of 30. According to some Talmudic authorities, women counted in the minyan for offering the Korban Pesach, it was the firm belief of the sages that wherever ten Israelites are assembled, either for worship or for the study of the Law, the Divine Presence dwells among them. In rabbinical literature, those who meet for study or prayer in smaller groups one who meditates or prays alone, are to be praised. However, the stress is put upon the sacredness of the minyan of ten; the codifiers, such as Maimonides, his annotators, the author of the Shulkhan Arukh, have unitedly given strength to this sentiment, have thus, for more than a thousand years, made the daily attendance at public worship and evening, to be conducted with a quorum of ten.
There is a disagreement between the medieval commentators on whether prayer with a minyan is preferable or obligatory. Rashi is of the view that an individual is obligated to pray with a minyan, while Nahmanides holds that only if ten adult males are present are they obliged to recite their prayer together, but an individual is not required to seek out a minyan. Rashi and the Tosafot on Talmud Bavli Pesachim 46a are both of the opinion that one is required to travel the distance of 4 mil to pray with a minyan; the Mishnah Berurah writes tha
Feminism is a range of political movements and social movements that share a common goal: to define and achieve the political, economic and social equality of the genders. This includes fighting gender stereotypes and seeking to establish educational and professional opportunities for women that are equal to those for men. Feminist movements have campaigned and continue to campaign for women's rights, including the right to vote, to hold public office, to work, to earn fair wages or equal pay, to own property, to receive education, to enter contracts, to have equal rights within marriage, to have maternity leave. Feminists have worked to ensure access to legal abortions and social integration, to protect women and girls from rape, sexual harassment, domestic violence. Changes in dress and acceptable physical activity have been part of feminist movements; some scholars consider feminist campaigns to be a main force behind major historical societal changes for women's rights in the West, where they are near-universally credited with achieving women's suffrage, gender neutrality in English, reproductive rights for women, the right to enter into contracts and own property.
Although feminist advocacy is, has been focused on women's rights, some feminists, including bell hooks, argue for the inclusion of men's liberation within its aims because they believe that men are harmed by traditional gender roles. Feminist theory, which emerged from feminist movements, aims to understand the nature of gender inequality by examining women's social roles and lived experience. Numerous feminist movements and ideologies have developed over the years and represent different viewpoints and aims; some forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only white, middle class, college-educated perspectives. This criticism led to the creation of ethnically specific or multicultural forms of feminism, including black feminism and intersectional feminism. Charles Fourier, a Utopian Socialist and French philosopher, is credited with having coined the word "féminisme" in 1837; the words "féminisme" and "féministe" first appeared in France and the Netherlands in 1872, Great Britain in the 1890s, the United States in 1910, the Oxford English Dictionary lists 1852 as the year of the first appearance of "feminist" and 1895 for "feminism".
Depending on the historical moment and country, feminists around the world have had different causes and goals. Most western feminist historians contend that all movements working to obtain women's rights should be considered feminist movements when they did not apply the term to themselves. Other historians assert that the term should be limited to the modern feminist movement and its descendants; those historians use the label "protofeminist" to describe earlier movements. The history of the modern western feminist movements is divided into three "waves"; each wave dealt with different aspects of the same feminist issues. The first wave comprised women's suffrage movements of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, promoting women's right to vote; the second wave was associated with the ideas and actions of the women's liberation movement beginning in the 1960s. The second wave campaigned for social equality for women; the third wave is a continuation of, a reaction to, the perceived failures of second-wave feminism, which began in the 1990s.
First-wave feminism was a period of activity during early twentieth century. In the UK and the US, it focused on the promotion of equal contract, marriage and property rights for women. By the end of the 19th century, a number of important steps had been made with the passing of legislation such as the UK Custody of Infants Act 1839 which introduced the Tender years doctrine for child custody arrangement and gave women the right of custody of their children for the first time. Other legislation such as the Married Women's Property Act 1870 in the UK and extended in the 1882 Act, these became models for similar legislation in other British territories. For example, Victoria passed legislation in 1884, New South Wales in 1889, the remaining Australian colonies passed similar legislation between 1890 and 1897. Therefore, with the turn of the 19th century activism had focused on gaining political power the right of women's suffrage, though some feminists were active in campaigning for women's sexual and economic rights as well.
Women's suffrage began in Britain's Australasian colonies at the close of the 19th century, with the self-governing colonies of New Zealand granting women the right to vote in 1893 and South Australia granting female suffrage in 1895. This was followed by Australia granting female suffrage in 1902. In Britain the Suffragettes and the Suffragists campaigned for the women's vote, in 1918 the Representation of the People Act was passed granting the vote to women over the age of 30 who owned property. In 1928 this was extended to all women over 21. Emmeline Pankhurst was the most notable activist in England, with Time naming her one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century stating: "she shaped an idea of women for our time. In the U. S. notable leaders of this movement included Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, who each campaigned for the abolition of slavery prior to championing women's right to vote; these women were influenced by the
Get (divorce document)
A get or gett is a divorce document in Jewish religious law, which must be presented by a husband to his wife to effectuate their divorce. The essential part of the get is short: the text states "You are hereby permitted to all men", which means that the woman is no longer married and that the laws of adultery no longer apply; the get returns to the wife the legal rights that a husband holds in regard to her in a Jewish marriage. The biblical term for the divorce document, described in Deuteronomy 24, is "Sefer Keritut"; the word get may have its origins in the Sumerian word for document, GID. DA, it appears to have passed from Sumerian into Akkadian as gittu, from there into Mishnaic Hebrew. In fact in the Mishnah, get can refer to any legal document although it refers to a divorce document. A number of popular etymological speculations were offered by early modern Rabbinic authorities. According to Shiltei Giborim, it refers to the stone agate, which purportedly has some form of anti-magnetic property symbolizing the divorce.
The Gaon of Vilna posits that the Hebrew letters of Gimel and Tet of the word get are the only letters of the Hebrew alphabet that cannot make a word together, again symbolizing the divorce. Rabbi Baruch Epstein states that it comes from the Latin word gestus "action, gesture", which refers to any legal document. Marcus Jastrow posits a Semitic root. Rabbi Yechiel Yaakov Weinberg posits that after the Bar Kochba revolt the Romans decreed that all documents be processed in a Roman court; the term get. Halakha requires specific formalities. A divorce document must be written, it must have been written on the explicit instruction and free-willed approval of the husband, with the specific intention that it is to be used by the man and for the specific woman. It cannot be written with blanks to be filled in later, it must be delivered to the wife, whose physical acceptance of the get is required to complete and validate the divorce process. There are certain detailed requirements relating to the legal and religious nature of the get itself.
For example: It must be written on a fresh document, there must be no possibility of cleanly erasing the text. It may not be written on anything attached to the ground; the get. Any deviation from these requirements invalidates the divorce procedure. A get. A get may not be given out of fear of any obligation either party undertook to fulfill in a separation agreement; such an agreement may provide for matters such as custody of the children and their maintenance, property settlement. But either party may withdraw from such an agreement, on the question of the dissolution of the marriage only, if they can satisfy the court of a genuine desire to restore matrimonial harmony. In such a situation all the recognised matrimonial obligations continue to apply. On the other hand, pecuniary conditions stipulated by the parties in the separation agreement would still be valid and enforceable, though the marriage state continues to exist; the laws of gittin only provide for a divorce initiated by the husband.
However, the wife has the right to sue for divorce in a rabbinical court. The court, if finding just cause as prescribed in rare cases in Jewish law, will require the husband to divorce his wife. In such cases, a husband who refused the court's demand that he divorce his wife would be subjected to various penalties in order to pressure him into granting a divorce; such penalties included monetary punishments, corporal punishment—including forcing the husband to spend the night at an unmarked grave. In modern-day Israel, rabbinical courts have the power to sentence a husband to prison to compel him to grant his wife a get. Rabbinical courts outside of Israel do not have power to enforce such penalties; this sometimes leads to a situation in which the husband makes demands of the court and of his wife, demanding a monetary settlement or other benefits, such as child custody, in exchange for the get. Prominent Jewish feminists have fought against such demands in recent decades. Prominent Orthodox rabbis have pointed to many years of rabbinical sources that state that any coercion can invalidate a get except in the most extreme of cases, have spoken out against "get organizations", which they claim have inflamed situations that could have otherwise been resolved amicably.
Sometimes a man will refuse to grant a divorce. This leaves his wife with no possibility of remarriage within Orthodox Judaism; such a woman is called a mesorevet get. Such a man who refuses to give his wife a get is spurned by Modern Orthodox communities, excluded from communal religious activities, in an effort to force a get. While it is assumed that the problem lies in men refusing to grant a get to their wives and that it is a widespread issue, in Israel, figures released from the chief rabbinate show that women refuse to accept a get and that the numbers are a couple of hundred on each side. However, such a husband has the option of seeking a Heter m