A heddle is an integral part of a loom. Each thread in the passes through a heddle, which is used to separate the warp threads for the passage of the weft. The typical heddle is made of cord or wire, and is suspended on a shaft of a loom, each heddle has an eye in the center where the warp is threaded through. As there is one heddle for each thread of the warp, a handwoven tea-towel will generally have between 300 and 400 warp threads, and thus use that many heddles. In weaving, the threads are moved up or down by the shaft. This is achieved because each thread of the warp goes through a heddle on a shaft, when the shaft is raised the heddles are too, and thus the warp threads threaded through the heddles are raised. Heddles can be equally or unequally distributed on the shafts. In a plain weave or twill, for example, the heddles are equally distributed, the warp is threaded through heddles on different shafts in order to obtain different weave structures. For a plain weave on a loom with two shafts, for example, the first thread would go through the first heddle on the first shaft, the third warp thread would be threaded through the second heddle on the first shaft, and so on.
In this manner the heddles allow for the grouping of the threads into two groups, one group that is threaded through heddles on the first shaft, and the other on the second shaft. While the majority of heddles are as described, this style of heddle has derived from older styles, rigid heddle looms, for example, instead of having one heddle for each thread, have a shaft with the heddles fixed, and all threads go through every shaft. Within wire heddles there is a variety in quality. Heddles should have an eye, with no sharp edges to either catch or fray the warp. The warp must be able to slide through the heddle without impairment, the heddle should be light and not bulky. There are three different common types of metal heddles, inserted eye, and flat steel, the inserted eye are considered to be the best, as they have a smooth eye with no rough ends to catch the warp. Wire heddles are second in quality, followed by the flat steel, wire heddles look much like the inserted eye heddles, but where in the inserted eye there is a circle of metal for the eye, the wire ones are simply twisted at the top and bottom.
The flat metal heddles are considered the poorest in quality as they are heavier and bulkier and they are a flat piece of steel, with the ends rotated slightly so that the flat side is at an angle of 45 degrees to the shaft. The eye is simply a cut in the middle of the piece of metal
A textile or cloth is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, cotton, Textiles are formed by weaving, crocheting, knotting, or felting. The words fabric and cloth are used in textile assembly trades as synonyms for textile, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. Textile refers to any material made of interlacing fibres, a fabric is a material made through weaving, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods. Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but is often a piece of fabric used for a specific purpose. The word textile is from Latin, from the adjective textilis, meaning woven, from textus, the word cloth derives from the Old English clað, meaning a cloth, woven or felted material to wrap around one, from Proto-Germanic kalithaz. The discovery of dyed flax fibres in a cave in the Republic of Georgia dated to 34,000 BCE suggests textile-like materials were made even in prehistoric times.
The production of textiles is a craft whose speed and scale of production has been altered almost beyond recognition by industrialization, for the main types of textiles, plain weave, twill, or satin weave, there is little difference between the ancient and modern methods. Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for clothing and for such as bags. In the household they are used in carpeting, upholstered furnishings, window shades, coverings for tables and other flat surfaces, in the workplace they are used in industrial and scientific processes such as filtering. Textiles are used in traditional crafts such as sewing, quilting. Textiles for industrial purposes, and chosen for other than their appearance, are commonly referred to as technical textiles. Technical textiles include textile structures for applications, medical textiles, agrotextiles. In all these applications stringent performance requirements must be met, woven of threads coated with zinc oxide nanowires, laboratory fabric has been shown capable of self-powering nanosystems using vibrations created by everyday actions like wind or body movements.
Fashion designers commonly rely on textile designs to set their fashion collections apart from others, the late Gianni Versace, and Emilio Pucci can be easily recognized by their signature print driven designs. Textiles can be made from many materials and these materials come from four main sources, plant and synthetic. In the past, all textiles were made from natural fibres, including plant, animal, in the 20th century, these were supplemented by artificial fibres made from petroleum. Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest gossamer to the sturdiest canvas, microfibre refers to fibres made of strands thinner than one denier
Twill is a type of textile weave with a pattern of diagonal parallel ribs. Because of this structure, twill generally drapes well, Twill weaves can be classified from four points of view, According to the stepping, Warp-way, 3/1 warp way twill, etc. Weft-way, 2/3 weft way twill, According to the direction of twill lines on the face of the fabric, S-Twill or left-hand twill weave, 2/1 S, etc. Z-Twill or right-hand twill weave, 3/2 Z, According to the face yarn, Warp face twill weave, 4/2 S, etc. Weft face twill weave, 1/3 Z, double face twill weave, 3/3 Z, etc. According to the nature of the twill line, Simple twill weave, 1/2 S. Expanded twill weave, 4/3 S, 3/2 Z, multiple twill weave, 2/3/3/1 S, etc. In a twill weave, each weft or filling yarn floats across the warp yarns in a progression of interlacings to the right or left and this diagonal pattern is known as a wale. A float is the portion of a yarn that crosses over two or more perpendicular yarns, a twill weave requires three or more harnesses, depending on its complexity and is the second most basic weave that can be made on a fairly simple loom.
The fraction 2⁄1 is read as two up, one down, the minimum number of harnesses needed to produce a twill can be determined by totaling the numbers in the fraction, for the example described, the number of harnesses is three. Twill weave can be identified by its diagonal lines, Twill fabrics technically have a front and a back side, unlike plain weave, whose two sides are the same. The front side of the twill is called the technical face, if there are warp floats on the technical face, there will be filling floats on the technical back. If the twill wale goes up to the right on one side, Twill fabrics have no up and down as they are woven. Sheer fabrics are made with a twill weave. Because a twill surface already has interesting texture and design, printed twills are much less common than printed plain weaves, when twills are printed, this is typically done on lightweight fabrics. Denim, for example, is a twill, the fewer interlacings in twills as compared to other weaves allow the yarns to move more freely, and therefore they are softer and more pliable, and drape better than plain-weave textiles.
Twills recover from creasing better than plain-weave fabrics do, when there are fewer interlacings, the yarns can be packed closer together to produce high-count fabrics. With higher counts, including high-count twills, the fabric is more durable, twills can be divided into even-sided and warp-faced
Gabardine is a tough, tightly woven fabric used to make suits, trousers, uniforms and other garments. It was in this sense that William Shakespeare used the word in The Merchant of Venice and it has been used with a general meaning of closely woven cloth since at least 1904. The modern use of the term for a rather than a garment dates to Thomas Burberry, who invented the fabric & revived the name in 1879. The fibre used to make the fabric is traditionally worsted wool, gabardine is woven as a warp-faced steep or regular twill, with a prominent diagonal rib on the face and smooth surface on the back. Gabardine always has many more warp than weft yarns, cotton gabardine is often used by bespoke tailors to make pocket linings for business suits, where the pockets contents would quickly wear holes in the usual flimsy pocket lining material. Clothing made from gabardine is generally labelled as being suitable for dry cleaning only, gabardine may refer to the twill-weave used for gabardine fabric, or to a raincoat made of this fabric.
Gabardine was invented in 1879 by Thomas Burberry, founder of the Burberry fashion house in Basingstoke, England, the original fabric was waterproofed before weaving and was worsted wool or worsted wool and cotton, tightly woven and water-repellent but more comfortable than rubberised fabrics. The fabric takes its name from the word gaberdine, originally a long, loose cloak or gown worn in the Middle Ages, a jacket made of this material was worn by George Mallory on his ill-fated attempt on Mount Everest in 1924. Gabardine was used widely in the 1950s to produce colourful patterned casual jackets, penney, Sport Chief, Four Star and California Trends were all producing short-waisted jackets, sometimes reversible, commonly known as weekender jackets. Cumming, Valerie, C. W. Cunnington and P. E. Cunnington, the Dictionary of Fashion History, Berg,2010, ISBN 978-1-84788-533-3. Kadolph, Sara J. ed. Textiles, 10th edition, Pearson/Prentice-Hall,2007, the Fashion Dictionary, Funk & Wagnalls,1957
Chilkat weaving is a traditional form of weaving practiced by Tlingit, Haida and other Northwest Coast peoples of Alaska and British Columbia. Chilkat blankets are worn by high-ranking tribal members on civic or ceremonial occasions, the name derives from the Chilkat tribe in Klukwan, Alaska on the Chilkat River. The Nisgaa are reputed to have invented the technique, according to some Tlingit weavers, Chilkat weaving can be applied to blankets, dance tunics, leggings, vests, bags and wall-hangings. Chilkat clothing features long wool fringe that sways when the wearer dances, traditionally chiefs would wear Chilkat blankets during potlatch ceremonies. Chilkat weaving is one of the most complex weaving techniques in the world and it is unique in that the artist can create curvilinear and circular forms within the weave itself. A Chilkat blanket can take a year to weave, traditionally mountain goat wool, dog fur, and yellow cedar bark are used in Chilkat weaving. Today sheep wool might be used and black are dominant colors in the weavings, as is the natural buff color of the undyed wool.
Blue can be a secondary color, looms used in Chilkat weaving only have a top frame and vertical supports, with no bottom frame, so the warp threads hang freely. The weaver works in vertical sections, as opposed to moving horizontally from end to end, many designs are broken into vertical columns. As with most Northwest Coast art, these columns are bilaterally symmetrical, in the 1990s only an estimated six people still practiced true Chilkat weaving, but today the technique is enjoying a revival. Jennie Thlunaut was a celebrated Chilkat weaver, whose knowledge of design was so thorough. Anna Brown Ehlers is a Chilkat Tlingit who apprenticed with Jennie Thlunaut since 1982 and these tribes create ravenstail weavings and button blankets. Northwest Coast art Native American art Ehlers, Ann Brown, Chilkat weaver keeps vibrant tradition alive in Southeast. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013, Native Visions, Evolution in Northwest Coast Art from the Eighteenth through the Twentieth Century.
Seattle, University of Washington Press,1998, north American Indian Jewelry and Adornment, From Prehistory to the Present. New York, Harry N. Abrams,1999
Double cloth or double weave is a kind of woven textile in which two or more sets of warps and one or more sets of weft or filling yarns are interconnected to form a two-layered cloth. The movement of threads between the layers allows complex patterns and surface textures to be created, double-faced fabrics are a form of double cloth made of one warp and two sets of wefts, or two warps and one weft. These fabrics have two sides or faces and no wrong side, and include most blankets, satin ribbons. Double weaving is an ancient technique, surviving examples from the Paracas culture of Peru have been dated to before AD700. Modern applications of double cloth include haute couture coats, furnishing fabrics, in the 19th century and designer William Morris offered wool and silk double cloth fabrics for furnishing through his firm Morris, Faulkner & Co. Double cloth garments may be reversible by binding or overcasting edges. Fragment of Peruvian doublecloth, Recuay Culture, 4th Century BC-8th Century AD, at the Cleveland Museum of Art Digital Archive of Documents Related to Double Weave Crawford, M. D. C
Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. Other methods are knitting and braiding or plaiting, the longitudinal threads are called the warp and the lateral threads are the weft or filling. The method in which these threads are inter woven affects the characteristics of the cloth, cloth is usually woven on a loom, a device that holds the warp threads in place while filling threads are woven through them. A fabric band which meets this definition of cloth can be using other methods, including tablet weaving, back-strap. The way the warp and filling threads interlace with each other is called the weave, the majority of woven products are created with one of three basic weaves, plain weave, satin weave, or twill. Woven cloth can be plain, or can be woven in decorative or artistic design, in general, weaving involves using a loom to interlace two sets of threads at right angles to each other, the warp which runs longitudinally and the weft that crosses it.
One warp thread is called an end and one weft thread is called a pick, the warp threads are held taut and in parallel to each other, typically in a loom. There are many types of looms, Weaving can be summarized as a repetition of these three actions, called the primary motion of the loom. Beating-up or battening, where the weft is pushed up against the fell of the cloth by the reed. The warp is divided into two overlapping groups, or lines that run in two planes, one another, so the shuttle can be passed between them in a straight motion. Then, the group is lowered by the loom mechanism. Repeating these actions form a fabric mesh but without beating-up, the distance between the adjacent wefts would be irregular and far too large. The warp-beam is a wooden or metal cylinder on the back of the loom on which the warp is delivered, the threads of the warp extend in parallel order from the warp-beam to the front of the loom where they are attached to the cloth-roll. Each thread or group of threads of the passes through an opening in a heddle.
The warp threads are separated by the heddles into two or more groups, each controlled and automatically drawn up and down by the motion of the heddles, where a complex design is required, the healds are raised by harness cords attached to a Jacquard machine. Every time the harness moves up or down, an opening is made between the threads of warp, through which the pick is inserted, traditionally the weft thread is inserted by a shuttle. On a conventional loom, the thread is carried on a pirn. A handloom weaver could propel the shuttle by throwing it from side to side with the aid of a picking stick, the picking΅ on a power loom is done by rapidly hitting the shuttle from each side using an overpick or underpick mechanism controlled by cams 80-250 times a minute
A woven coverlet or coverlid is a type of bed covering with a woven design in colored wool yarn on a background of natural linen or cotton. Coverlets were woven in almost every community in the United States from the era until the late 19th century. Coverlets of 18th century America were twill-woven with a linen warp, the wool was most often dyed a dark blue from indigo, but madder red, walnut brown, and a lighter Williamsburg blue were used. Made on a simple four-harness loom, overshot coverlets were often made in the home, double-cloth coverlets were double-woven, with two sets of interconnected warps and wefts, requiring the more elaborate looms of professional weavers. Wool for these coverlets was spun at home and delivered to a weaver who made up the coverlet. Summer-winter coverlets were reversible, and the term refers to the structure not the color. The summer-winter coverlet should not be confused with double weave and is closely related to overshot. Like double weave, it is dark on one side and light on the other but there is one layer of cloth.
Following the introduction of the loom in the early 1820s
A Charvet fabric is woven of silk or acetate in warp-faced rib weave, of a reversed reps type with a double ridge effect. The fabrics name derives from its frequent and clever use in the 19th century by the Parisian shirtmaker Charvet and it is characterized by a soft handle and shiny appearance. The bindings create a herringbone effect parallel to the warp, which make this suitable for creating faint diagonal stripe effects for ties. Patterns on this base are made with supplementary weft. The fabric has used for mufflers and robes. This weave is based on the Régence weave, a kind of reps with all weft raised on the backside, which was popular during the regency of Philippe II, Duke of Orléans. In the United States, at the end of the 19th century, since the beginning of the 20th century, the weave is rather found in solid fabrics for semi formal wear. By extension, the term is used in knitting for a certain kind of bias striping, going up from left to right
Shot silk is a fabric which is made up of silk woven from warp and weft yarns of two or more colours producing an iridescent appearance. A shot is a throw of the bobbin that carries the weft thread through the warp. The weaving technique can be applied to other such as cotton, linen. A shot silk vestment of purple and yellow dating from about 698 is described in detail in a document written in about 1170, showing that the technique existed since at least the 7th century. Purpura is used to mean iridescence and the play of light and it has been suggested that illuminations in the Lindisfarne Gospels of c.700 show garments of shot silk being worn by the Four Evangelists. Shot silks were popular in the 18th and 19th centuries, including warp printing, shot silks are used today to make neckties and other garments. Notably, some forms of academic dress use shot silks, such as that of the University of Wales. Most famously, the robe of a Doctor of Divinity of the University of Cambridge is faced with Dove-shot silk, a shot of pale grey, emerald green.
Sharkskin Takeda, Sharon Sadako, and Kaye Durland Spilker, Fashioning Fashion, European Dress in Detail,1700 -1915, Prestel USA, ISBN 978-3-7913-5062-2
Blenheim Palace is a monumental country house situated in Woodstock, England. It is the residence of the Dukes of Marlborough. The palace, one of Englands largest houses, was built between 1705 and circa 1722, Blenheim Palace was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987. Designed in the rare, and short-lived, English Baroque style and it is unique in its combined use as a family home and national monument. The palace is notable as the birthplace and ancestral home of Sir Winston Churchill. At the end of the 19th century, the palace was saved from ruin by funds gained from the 9th Duke of Marlboroughs marriage to American railroad heiress Consuelo Vanderbilt, the exterior of the palace remains in good repair. John Churchill was born in Devon, although his family had aristocratic relations, it belonged to the minor gentry rather than the upper echelons of 17th-century society. In 1678, Churchill married Sarah Jennings, and in April that year, in May, Churchill was appointed the temporary rank of Brigadier-General of Foot, but the possibility of a continental campaign was eliminated with the Treaty of Nijmegen.
When Churchill returned to England, the Popish Plot resulted in a temporary three-year banishment for James Stuart, the Duke obliged Churchill to attend him, first to The Hague, in Brussels. On the death of Charles II in 1685, his brother, on Jamess succession Churchill was appointed governor of the Hudsons Bay Company. He had been affirmed Gentleman of the Bedchamber in April, following the Monmouth Rebellion, Churchill was promoted to Major General and awarded the lucrative colonelcy of the Third Troop of Life Guards. When William, Prince of Orange, invaded England in November 1688, accompanied by some 400 officers and men, when the King saw he could not even keep Churchill—for so long his loyal and intimate servant—he fled to France. As part of William IIIs coronation honours Churchill was created Earl of Marlborough, sworn to the Privy Council, during the War of the Spanish Succession Churchill gained a reputation as a capable military commander, and in 1702 he was elevated to the dukedom of Marlborough.
During the war he won series of victories, including the Battle of Blenheim, the Battle of Ramillies, the Battle of Oudenarde, and this flag is displayed by the Monarch on a 17th-century French writing table in Windsor Castle. Marlboroughs wife was by all accounts a cantankerous woman, though capable of great charm, the relationship between Queen and Duchess became strained and fraught, and following their final quarrel in 1711, the money for the construction of Blenheim ceased. For political reasons the Marlboroughs went into exile on the Continent until they returned the day after the Queens death on 1 August 1714, legend has obscured the manors origins. King Henry I enclosed the park to contain the deer, Henry II housed his mistress Rosamund Clifford there in a bower and labyrinth, a spring in which she is said to have bathed remains, named after her. The Duchess, as so often in her disputes with her architect, won the day, the architect selected for the ambitious project was a controversial one