Tereza Ana Kesovija is an internationally acclaimed Croatian recording artist. She is one of the most recognizable figures on the Balkan music scene, is renowned for her wide vocal range and operatic style, she had a successful career in France. She has held many concerts around the world, being one of the few Yugoslav musicians to have sold out shows in The Royal Albert Hall, L'Olympia and Carnegie Hall. Tereza was born in Dubrovnik and grew up in Konavle and Dubrovnik where she got her early music education, she won a federal young Musicians Competition in Slovenia. Afterwards, she graduated from the flute program at the Zagreb Music Academy and as a student began appearing in amateur music events. In 1962, shortly after the start of her professional career, she won her first international contest at Saint-Vincent, Italy. After this success Tereza had a tour in USSR and she recorded there one EP with Italian songs for the biggest Russian music company – Melodiya, she spent 1963 and 1964 touring USSR, Finland, Germany, Switzerland and Sweden.
She had a lot of TV appearances in these countries. In 1965, she moved to France. There she became a famous star. At the beginning she was singing in cabarets. In cabaret Carević, she said: “Six tough months. I used to remain in smoke until early in the morning. Waiting for my performances I didn't know. I was sitting all alone smoking cigarette after cigarette.” In 1967, she made the first recording of "La chanson de Lara" from the film Doctor Zhivago. It was her first big French success sold out in more than 50 000 copies. After album La chanson de Lara she recorded her second French album C’est ma chanson with song "Je l'aime, je l'aime", it was sold out in more than 160 000 copies. With the song "Bien plus fort", Tereza was chosen by Grace Kelly to represent Monaco on Eurovision, she was called as La bête de scène or Super-Dalida by French press. In 1968 Tereza performed with Enrico Macias at the L'Olympia in Paris, it was her second Olympia after 1966. She had toured France. During the 1970s Tereza became world-known start representing Yugoslav and French song worldwide.
In Yugoslavia, her song "Nono moj dobri Nono" was popular. Claudio Villa recorded Il tuo mondo, an Italian version of Tereza's "Nono" and Mireille Mathieu recorded the French version, "Pour deux coeurs qui s'aiment", she performed on many famous festivals In Yugoslavia, she was honored with Best Female Singer of the Year Award six years in a row. Her performs on Yugoslav festivals were always finished with Tereza's triumph, she won many golden records and for it, she won for several times the Yugoslav award for Best Record Seller - Golden Bird. In 1972 she represented Yugoslavia on Eurovision with "Muzika i ti", she recorded a French cover, La Musique et toi. At the beginning of the 1970s she moved from Paris to Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, she neglected a bit her French career. In 1978 she returned to with her interpretation of "Je suis née ce jour-là", she recorded for EMI several French records. At that time she had many tours in Russia, Mexico, United States, Eastern Europe... At the end of 70s she was at the height of her fame.
All her records were awarded, she sang to Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito and she was Tito's favourite singer. Her biggest hits are from late 1970s are "Što je ostalo od ljubavi, Zaboravi ako možeš, Sviraj mi sviraj, Sve se vraća sve se plaća, Na Stradunu…", others. During the 1980s, she continued to touring all around the world, she recorded several records in France. She continued to win on many important Yugoslav festivals in Split, Belgrade... She was honoured with The best Yugoslav female singer of year award for several times and she realised golden and diamond records, but the most important event was in 1988. She gave a concert at Olympia Hall in Paris, it was announced as the event of season. She recorded some records in France. Tereza finished 80s touring in Scandinavia and representing Yugoslav football team on Italian TV during Football World Cup. In the decade following the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991, there were wars all over the former Yugoslavia, including the Croatian War of Independence between 1991 and 1995.
She defended it with a song. She had a lot of concerts in Italy and Germany for collecting money to the defence of Croatia, she had some concerts in Zagreb with Serge Lama. Jacques Chirac honored Tereza in 1999 with Knighthood of High Decoration of Arts and Culture, and she and was bestowed with the Golden Chart of Humanism. She started to reconstruct a house from 18th century near Dubrovnik, it was a house of an old aristocratic family. In the new millennium, she entered with her big hit – I ni me stra'. In 2002 her concert from Olympia was realised on CD edition; this 2002 is important year in her career, because she had some concerts together with Michel Legrand and Grammy winner. They performed together superbly Les parapluies de Cherbourgh, it was announced as a concert of the year. In 2005 Tereza celebrated 45 years of her career with a concert Mojih 45 skalina in Lisinski Concert Hall, her fourth concert at Olympia Concert Hall was realised in 2007. It was her big retour in France, she recorded her Croatian album Zaustavi vrijeme.
It was third best-selling album in Croatia. After 2008 she was toured Slovenia, Macedonia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 2010, she celebrated 50 years onstage with a concert "Još se srce umorilo nije" at Zagreb's Lisinski
Skopje is the capital and largest city of North Macedonia. It is the country's political, cultural and academic center; the territory of Skopje has been inhabited since at least 4000 BC. A Paeonian city, Scupi became the capital of Dardania in the second century BC. On the eve of the 1st century AD, the settlement was seized by the Romans and became a military camp; when the Roman Empire was divided into eastern and western halves in 395 AD, Scupi came under Byzantine rule from Constantinople. During much of the early medieval period, the town was contested between the Byzantines and the Bulgarian Empire, whose capital it was between 972 and 992. From 1282, the town was part of the Serbian Empire and acted as its capital city from 1346 to 1371. In 1392, Skopje was conquered by the Ottoman Turks who called it Üsküb, with this name being in use in English for a time; the town stayed under Ottoman control for over 500 years, serving as the capital of pashasanjak of Üsküp and the Vilayet of Kosovo.
At that time the city was famous for its oriental architecture. In 1912, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Serbia during the Balkan Wars. During the First World War the city was seized by the Bulgarian Kingdom, after this war, it became part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes becoming the capital of the Vardarska banovina. In the Second World War the city was conquered by the Bulgarian Army, part of the Axis powers. In 1944, it became the capital city of Democratic Macedonia, a federal state, part of Democratic Federal Yugoslavia; the city developed after World War II, but this trend was interrupted in 1963 when it was hit by a disastrous earthquake. In 1991, it became the capital city of an independent Macedonia. Skopje is located on the upper course of the Vardar River, is located on a major north-south Balkan route between Belgrade and Athens, it is a center for metal-processing, timber, textile and printing industries. Industrial development of the city has been accompanied by development of the trade and banking sectors, as well as an emphasis on the fields of transportation and sport.
According to the last official count from 2002, Skopje had a population of 506,926 inhabitants. Skopje is located in the north of the country, in the center of the Balkan peninsula, halfway between Belgrade and Athens; the city was built in the Skopje valley, oriented on a west-east axis, along the course of the Vardar river, which flows into the Aegean Sea in Greece. The valley is 20 kilometres wide and it is limited by several mountain ranges to the North and South; these ranges limit the urban expansion of Skopje, which spreads along the Vardar and the Serava, a small river which comes from the North. In its administrative boundaries, the City of Skopje stretches for more than 33 kilometres, but it is only 10 kilometres wide. Skopje is 245 m above sea level and covers 571.46 km2. The urbanised area only covers 337 km2, with a density of 65 inhabitants per hectare. Skopje, in its administrative limits, encompasses many villages and other settlements, including Dračevo, Gorno Nerezi and Bardovci.
According to the 2002 census, the City of Skopje comprised 506,926 inhabitants. The City of Skopje reaches the Kosovo border to the North-East. Clockwise, it is bordered by the Macedonian municipalities of Čučer-Sandevo, Aračinovo, Studeničani, Sopište, Želino and Jegunovce; the Vardar river, which flows through Skopje, is at 60 kilometres from its source near Gostivar. In Skopje, its average discharge is 51 m3/s, with a wide amplitude depending on seasons, between 99.6 m3/s in May and 18.7 m3/s in July. The water temperature is comprised between 18.1 °C in July. Several rivers meet the Vardar within the city boundaries; the largest is the Treska, 130 kilometres long. It crosses the Matka Canyon before reaching the Vardar on the western extremity of the City of Skopje; the Lepenec, coming from Kosovo, flows into the Vardar on the northwestern end of the urban area. The Serava coming from the North, had flowed through the Old Bazaar until the 1960s, when it was diverted towards the West because its waters were polluted.
It met the Vardar close to the seat of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Nowadays, it flows into the Vardar near the ruins of Scupi; the Markova Reka, the source of, on Mount Vodno, meets the Vardar at the eastern extremity of the city. These three rivers are less than 70 kilometres long; the city of Skopje comprises two artificial lakes, located on the Treska. The lake Matka is the result of the construction of a dam in the Matka Canyon in the 1930s, the Treska lake was dug for leisure purpose in 1978. Three small natural lakes can be found on the northeastern edge of the urban area; the river Vardar caused many floods, such as in 1962, when its outflow reached 1110 m3/s−1. Several works have been carried since Byzantine times to limit the risks, since the construction of the Kozjak dam on the Treska in 1994, the flood risk is close to zero; the subsoil contains a large water table, alimented by
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia. It is located in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of 122 m above sea level; the estimated population of the city in 2018 is 810,003. The population of the Zagreb urban agglomeration is about 1.2 million a quarter of the total population of Croatia. Zagreb is a city with a rich history dating from the Roman times to the present day; the oldest settlement located in the vicinity of the city was the Roman Andautonia, in today's Ščitarjevo. The name "Zagreb" is recorded in 1134, in reference to the foundation of the settlement at Kaptol in 1094. Zagreb became a free royal town in 1242. In 1851 Zagreb had Janko Kamauf. Zagreb has special status as a Croatian administrative division and is a consolidated city-county, is administratively subdivided into 17 city districts. Most of them are at a low elevation along the river Sava valley, whereas northern and northeastern city districts, such as Podsljeme and Sesvete districts are situated in the foothills of the Medvednica mountain, making the city's geographical image rather diverse.
The city extends over 30 kilometres east-west and around 20 kilometres north-south. The transport connections, concentration of industry and research institutions and industrial tradition underlie its leading economic position in Croatia. Zagreb is the seat of the central government, administrative bodies, all government ministries. All of the largest Croatian companies and scientific institutions have their headquarters in the city. Zagreb is the most important transport hub in Croatia where Central Europe, the Mediterranean and Southeast Europe meet, making the Zagreb area the centre of the road and air networks of Croatia, it is a city known for its diverse economy, high quality of living, museums and entertainment events. Its main branches of economy are the service sector; the etymology of the name Zagreb is unclear. It was used for the united city only from 1852, but it had been in use as the name of the Zagreb Diocese since the 12th century, was used for the city in the 17th century; the name is first recorded in a charter by Ostrogon archbishop Felician, dated 1134, mentioned as Zagrabiensem episcopatum.
The older form of the name is Zagrab. The modern Croatian form Zagreb is first recorded in a 1689 map by Nicolas Sanson. An older form is reflected in Hungarian Zabrag. For this, Hungarian linguist Gyula Décsy proposes the etymology of Chabrag, a well-attested hypocorism of the name Cyprian; the same form is reflected in a number such as Csepreg. The name might be derived from Proto-Slavic word * grębъ which means uplift. An Old Croatian reconstructed name *Zagrębъ is manifested through the German name of the city Agram; the name Agram was used in German in the Habsburg period. In Middle Latin and Modern Latin, Zagreb is known as Zagrabia or Mons Graecensis. In Croatian folk etymology, the name of the city has been derived from either the verb za-grab-, meaning "to scoop" or "to dig". One folk legend illustrating this derivation ties the name to a drought of the early 14th century, during which Augustin Kažotić is said to have dug a well which miraculously produced water. In another legend, a city governor is thirsty and orders a girl named Manda to "scoop" water from Manduševac well, using the imperative: zagrabi, Mando!.
The oldest settlement located near today's Zagreb was a Roman town of Andautonia, now Šćitarjevo, which existed between the 1st and the 5th century AD. The first recorded appearance of the name Zagreb is dated to 1094, at which time the city existed as two different city centres: the smaller, eastern Kaptol, inhabited by clergy and housing Zagreb Cathedral, the larger, western Gradec, inhabited by craftsmen and merchants. Gradec and Kaptol were united in 1851 by ban Josip Jelačić, credited for this, with the naming the main city square, Ban Jelačić Square in his honour. During the period of former Yugoslavia, Zagreb remained an important economic centre of the country, was the second largest city. After Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia, Zagreb was proclaimed its capital; the history of Zagreb dates as far back as 1094 A. D. when the Hungarian King Ladislaus, returning from his campaign against Croatia, founded a diocese. Alongside the bishop's see, the canonical settlement Kaptol developed north of Zagreb Cathedral, as did the fortified settlement Gradec on the neighbouring hill.
Today the latter is one of the best preserved urban nuclei in Croatia. Both settlements came under Tatar attack in 1242; as a sign of gratitude for offering him a safe haven from the Tatars the Croatian and Hungarian King Bela IV bestowed Gradec with a Golden Bull, which offered its citizens exemption from county rule and
Zdravko Čolić is a Bosnian-bornpop singer, popular across the area of former Yugoslavia. He has been described as the'Tom Jones' of the Balkans. Born in Sarajevo, PR Bosnia and Herzegovina, FPR Yugoslavia to ethnic Serb parents, police administrator Vladimir from Vlahovići village near Ljubinje and homemaker Stana Čolić from Trebinje, young Čolić showed an early interest in sports, he was active as a football goalkeeper in FK Željezničar's youth system, before switching to track and field, where he excelled. At one point he ran a 100 meter dash in 11.3 seconds, continually placed high at various events he entered. Čolić gave up on his sports career, feeling he lacked the discipline required to compete on a regular basis. Čolić attended Vladimir Perić Valter elementary school in the Grbavica neighbourhood where he grew up. He attended music school where he studied guitar playing; as a hobby, he took part in various school recitals, acted in a couple of plays at the Pionirsko pozoriste. Since the youngest age Čolić showed an interest in music.
With friend Braco Isović, he played guitar at informal and impromptu park gatherings through which they became somewhat locally known as "Čola i Isa sa Grbavice". At the time Čolić was trying to emulate pop schlager music that dominated Yugoslav and Italian festivals, his first love was Milena Mijatovic from Belgrade. His first significant public singing experience occurred in 1967, when he spent some time at the Montenegrin coast for the Republic Day. Staying in the house his father owned in the coastal community of Baošići, 17-year-old Čolić was persuaded by a friend, Nedim Idrizović, to enter the amateur signing competition in nearby Bijela, he won second prize singing "Lady Madonna" by The Beatles. Encouraged by this unexpected success, soon after returning to Sarajevo, Čolić entered his first band - a group called Mladi i lijepi; this engagement didn't last, because around the time he graduated high school in 1969, he moved to the more established Ambasadori, a band whose two incarnations he'd end up staying with for next two and a half years.
At the time of Čolić's arrival, Ambasadori employed a strange setup: they were a military cover band as all the musicians, except for bandleader Slobodan Vujović, were army recruits. Their repertoire centred around 1960s rhythm & blues along with obligatory Yugoslav hits of the day and years past, even a few original numbers written by the bandmembers thrown into the mix. Over time, the group started getting more gig offers, which presented a problem since its army part was not available for many of them and those offers had to be declined. Seeing their opportunities limited by the strange situation, Vujović and Čolić decided to step out and form Novi ambasadori in 1970, bringing in drummer Perica Stojanović, organist Vlado Pravdić, saxophonist Lale Stefanović, bassist Zlatko Hold. With the all new lineup, the band expanded its repertoire so that in addition to R&B they now played covers of Led Zeppelin, Sweat & Tears, Creedence Clearwater Revival, etc. In the summer of 1970, Novi ambasadori scored a month-long gig with Indexi in Dubrovnik, their first tour-like experience.
Next step was competing at the 1971 Vaš šlager sezone annual festival in Sarajevo where they finished in 7th place with a song "Plačem za tvojim usnama" that songwriter Zdenko Runjić claimed to have composed and signed his name under, despite the fact that it was a blatant rip-off of The Tremeloes' "Suddenly You Love Me". No one from the festival noticed the band avoided the controversy; the song was released on a 7-inch single "Plačem za tvojim usnama" / "Zapjevaj" by Beograd Disk and sold well. The performance at Vaš šlager sezone was significant since it marked the band's first television appearance, exposing them to a much larger audience. One of the people in that TV audience was Kornelije Kovač, an influential and established figure in Yugoslav music circles, intrigued by Čolić's "clean tenor and good stage presence".Čolić was soon offered a "bench role" with Indexi, to fill in for their singer Davorin Popović, performed with them a couple of times. In the meantime, during summer of 1971, Čolić met face to face with Kornelije Kovač who came to see Čolić play in Mostar and invited him to join his Korni grupa as replacement to their departed singer Dado Topić.
Unlike Amabasadori, Korni grupa performed their own material and had a much more studious and serious approach to music, so Čolić jumped at the opportunity. On 10 September 1971, twenty-year-old Čolić left his hometown and moved to the capital Belgrade in order to join his new band. However, his stint with Korni grupa proved to be short and unsuccessful as he never meshed well enough with the rest of the group musically, finding it hard to fit into their progressive rock style, he recorded three tracks with them, "Kukavica, "Gospa Mica gazdarica", "Pogledaj u nebo", all of which were released on the 7-inch single by PGP RTB. Track "Gospa Mica gazdarica" managed to create minor controversy due to the risque lyrics written from the perspective of a young man imploring his older female landlord to allow him into her bed - a nod to Čolić's life at the time since he was living away from home in sublet apartments. Due to numerous complaints, the song was taken off radio playlists. Soon, however, Čolić and Kovač agreed that it would be bette
Eurovision Song Contest
The Eurovision Song Contest simply called Eurovision, is an international song competition held among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union. Each participating country submits an original song to be performed on live television and radio casts votes for the other countries' songs to determine the winner. At least 50 countries are eligible to compete as of 2018, since 2015, Australia has been allowed as a guest entrant. Winning the Eurovision Song Contest provides a short-term career boost for artists, but results in long-term success. Exceptions include ABBA, Bucks Fizz, Celine Dion, all of whom launched successful careers. Based on the Sanremo Music Festival held in Italy since 1951, Eurovision has been broadcast every year since its inauguration in 1956, making it the longest-running annual international television contest and one of the world's longest-running television programmes, it is one of the most watched non-sporting events, with audience figures of between 100 million and 600 million internationally.
It has been broadcast in several countries that do not compete, such as the United States, New Zealand, China. Since 2000, it has been broadcast online via the Eurovision website. Ireland holds the record for most victories, with seven wins, including four times in five years in 1992, 1993, 1994, 1996. Under the current voting system, in place since 2016, the highest-scoring winner is Salvador Sobral of Portugal who won the 2017 contest in Kiev, with 758 points; as a war-torn Europe was rebuilding itself in the 1950s, the European Broadcasting Union —based in Switzerland—set up an ad hoc committee to search for ways of bringing together the countries of the EBU around a "light entertainment programme". At a committee meeting held in Monaco in January 1955 with Marcel Bezençon of the Swiss television as chairman, the committee conceived the idea of an international song contest where countries would participate in one television programme to be transmitted across all countries of the union; the competition was based upon the existing Sanremo Music Festival held in Italy and was seen as a technological experiment in live television.
In those days it was a ambitious project to join many countries together in a wide-area international network. Satellite television did not exist and the Eurovision Network comprised a terrestrial microwave network; the concept known as "Eurovision Grand Prix", was approved by the EBU General Assembly in a meeting held in Rome on 19 October 1955, it was decided that the first contest would take place in spring 1956 in Lugano, Switzerland. The name "Eurovision" was first used in relation to the EBU's network by British journalist George Campey in the London Evening Standard in 1951; the first contest was held in the town of Lugano, Switzerland, on 24 May 1956. Seven countries participated—each submitting two songs, for a total of 14; this was the only contest in which more than one song per country was performed: since 1957, all contests have allowed one entry per country. The 1956 contest was won by Switzerland; the programme was first known as the "Eurovision Grand Prix". This "Grand Prix" name was adopted by Germany, Denmark and the Francophone countries, with the French designation being Le Grand-Prix Eurovision de la Chanson Européenne.
The "Grand Prix" was dropped in 1973 and replaced with Concours in French and in 2001 with the English name in German, but not in Danish or Norwegian. The Eurovision network is used to carry many news and sports programmes internationally, among other specialised events organised by the EBU. However, in the minds of the public, the name "Eurovision" is most associated with the Song Contest; the format of the contest has changed over the years, though the basic tenets have always been thus: participant countries submit original songs, performed live on a television programme broadcast across the Eurovision Network by the EBU to all countries. A "country" as a participant is represented by one television broadcaster from that country: but not always, that country's national public broadcasting organisation; the programme is hosted by one of the participant countries, the programme is broadcast from the auditorium in the host city. During this programme, after all the songs have been performed, the countries proceed to cast votes for the other countries' songs: nations are not allowed to vote for their own song.
At the end of the programme, the song with the most points is declared as the winner. The winner receives the prestige of having won—although it is usual for a trophy to be awarded to the winning songwriters, the winning country is formally invited to host the event the following year; the programme is invariably opened by one or more presenters. Between the songs and the announcement of the voting, an interval act is performed; these acts can be any form of entertainment. Interval entertainment has included such acts as the Wombles and the first international performance of Riverdance; as national broadcasters join and leave the Eurovision feed transmitted by the EBU, the EBU/Eurovision network logo ident is displayed. The accompanying theme music is the prelude to Marc-Antoine Charpentier's Te Deum; the same logo was used for both