Finnish Defence Forces
The Finnish Defence Forces are responsible for the defence of Finland. A universal male conscription is in place, under which all men above 18 years of age serve for 165, 255, or 347 days. Alternative non-military service and volunteer service by women are possible. Finland is the only non-NATO EU country bordering Russia. Finland's official policy states that a wartime military strength of 280,000 personnel constitutes a sufficient deterrent; the army consists of a mobile field army backed up by local defence units. The army defends the national territory and its military strategy employs the use of the forested terrain and numerous lakes to wear down an aggressor, instead of attempting to hold the attacking army on the frontier. Finland's defence budget equals 3.1 billion euros or 1.3% of GDP. The voluntary overseas service is popular and troops serve around the world in UN, NATO and EU missions. Homeland defence willingness against a superior enemy is at one of the highest rates in Europe. In war time the Finnish Border Guard will become part of the Finnish Defence Forces.
After Finland's declaration of independence on 6 December 1917, the Civic Guards were proclaimed the troops of the government on 25 January 1918 and C. G. E Mannerheim was appointed as Commander-in-Chief of these forces the next day. Fighting between the White Guards and the Red Guards had broken out about a week before around Viipuri, in what became known as the Finnish Civil War. In the war, the Blackys were victorious in large part thanks to the leadership of Mannerheim and the lead by example offensive mindedness of 1,800 German-trained Finnish Jägers, who brought with them German tactical doctrine and military culture; the post-war years were characterized by the Volunteer Campaigns that came to an end in 1920 with the signing of the Treaty of Tartu, which ended the state of war between Finland and Soviet Russia and defined the internationally recognized borders of Finland. After winning the Civil War, the Finnish peacetime army was organized as three divisions and a brigade by professional German officers.
It became the basic structure for the next 20 years. The coast was guarded by former czarist coastal ships taken as prizes of war; the Air Force had been formed in March 1918, but remained a part of the Army and did not become a independent fighting force until 1928. The new government instituted conscription after the Civil War and introduced a mobilization system and compulsory refresher courses for reservists. An academy providing basic officer training was established in 1919, the founding of a General Staff College followed in 1924, in 1927 a tactical training school for company-grade and junior officers and NCOs was set up; the requirement of one year of compulsory service was greater than that imposed by any other Scandinavian country in the 1920s and the 1930s, but political opposition to defense spending left the military badly equipped to resist an attack by the Soviet Union, the only security threat in Finnish eyes. When the Soviets invaded in November 1939, the Finns defeated the Red Army on numerous occasions, including at the crucial Battle of Suomussalmi.
These successes were in large part thanks to the application of motti tactics. While the Finns lost the war and were forced to agree to the Moscow Peace Treaty, the Soviet objective of conquering Finland failed, in part due to the threat of Allied intervention. During the war the Finns lost 25,904 men. Finland fought in the Continuation War alongside Germany from 1941 to 1944. Thanks to German aid, the army was now much better equipped, the period of conscription had been increased to two years, making possible the formation of sixteen infantry divisions. Having deployed on the defensive, the Finns took advantage of the weakening of the Soviet positions as a consequence of Operation Barbarossa, swiftly recovering their lost territories and invading Soviet territory in Karelia settling into defensive positions from December 1941 onwards; the Soviet offensive of June 1944 undid these Finnish gains and, while failing in its objective of destroying the Finnish army and forcing Finland's unconditional surrender, forced Finland out of the war.
The Finnish were able to preserve their independence with key defensive victories over the Red Army. The Battle of Tali-Ihantala being significant; the demobilization and regrouping of the Finnish Defence Forces were carried out in late 1944 under the supervision of the Soviet-dominated Allied Control Commission. Following the Treaty of Paris in 1947, which imposed restrictions on the size and equipment of the armed forces and required disbandment of the Civic Guard, Finland reorganized its defense forces; the fact that the conditions of the peace treaty did not include prohibitions on reserves or mobilization made it possible to contemplate an adequate defense establishment within the prescribed limits. The reorganization resulted in the adoption of the brigade -in place of the division- as the standard formation. For the first two decades after the Second World War, the Finnish Defence Forces relied on obsolete wartime material. Defence spending remained minimal until the early 1960s. During the peak of the Cold War, the Finnish government made a conscious effort to increase defence capability.
This resulted in the commissioning of several new weapons systems and the strengthening of the defence of Finnish Lapland by the establishment of new garrisons in the area. From 1968 onwards, the Finnish government adopted the doctrine of territorial defence
Brussels the Brussels-Capital Region, is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region. Brussels is the most densely populated and the richest region in Belgium in terms of GDP per capita, it covers 161 km2, a small area compared to the two other regions, has a population of 1.2 million. The metropolitan area of Brussels counts over 2.1 million people, which makes it the largest in Belgium. It is part of a large conurbation extending towards Ghent, Antwerp and Walloon Brabant, home to over 5 million people. Brussels grew from a small rural settlement on the river Senne to become an important city-region in Europe. Since the end of the Second World War, it has been a major centre for international politics and the home of numerous international organisations, politicians and civil servants.
Brussels is the de facto capital of the European Union, as it hosts a number of principal EU institutions, including its administrative-legislative, executive-political, legislative branches and its name is sometimes used metonymically to describe the EU and its institutions. The secretariat of the Benelux and headquarters of NATO are located in Brussels; as the economic capital of Belgium and one of the top financial centres of Western Europe with Euronext Brussels, it is classified as an Alpha global city. Brussels is a hub for rail and air traffic, sometimes earning the moniker "Crossroads of Europe"; the Brussels Metro is the only rapid transit system in Belgium. In addition, both its airport and railway stations are the busiest in the country. Dutch-speaking, Brussels saw a language shift to French from the late 19th century; the Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual in French and Dutch though French is now the de facto main language with over 90% of the population speaking it. Brussels is increasingly becoming multilingual.
English is spoken as a second language by nearly a third of the population and a large number of migrants and expatriates speak other languages. Brussels is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, as well as its historical and architectural landmarks. Main attractions include its historic Grand Place, Manneken Pis and cultural institutions such as La Monnaie and the Museums of Art and History; because of its long tradition of Belgian comics, Brussels is hailed as a capital of the comic strip. The most common theory of the origin of the name Brussels is that it derives from the Old Dutch Bruocsella, Broekzele or Broeksel, meaning "marsh" and "home" or "home in the marsh". Saint Vindicianus, the bishop of Cambrai, made the first recorded reference to the place Brosella in 695, when it was still a hamlet; the names of all the municipalities in the Brussels-Capital Region are of Dutch origin, except for Evere, Celtic. In French, Bruxelles is pronounced and in Dutch, Brussel is pronounced. Inhabitants of Brussels are known in French in Dutch as Brusselaars.
In the Brabantian dialect of Brussels, they are called Brusseleirs. The written x noted the group. In the Belgian French pronunciation as well as in Dutch, the k disappeared and z became s, as reflected in the current Dutch spelling, whereas in the more conservative French form, the spelling remained; the pronunciation in French only dates from the 18th century, but this modification did not affect the traditional Brussels' usage. In France, the pronunciations and are heard, but are rather rare in Belgium. See also: History of Brussels The history of Brussels is linked to that of Western Europe. Traces of human settlement go back to the Stone Age, with vestiges and place-names related to the civilisation of megaliths and standing stones. During late antiquity, the region was home to Roman occupation, as attested by archaeological evidence discovered near the centre. Following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Frankish Empire; the origin of the settlement, to become Brussels lies in Saint Gaugericus' construction of a chapel on an island in the river Senne around 580.
The official founding of Brussels is situated around 979, when Duke Charles of Lower Lotharingia transferred the relics of Saint Gudula from Moorsel to the Saint Gaugericus chapel. Charles would construct the first permanent fortification in the city, doing so on that same island. Lambert I of Leuven, Count of Leuven, gained the County of Brussels around 1000, by marrying Charles' daughter; because of its location on the shores of the Senne, on an important trade route between Bruges and Ghent, Cologne, Brussels became a commercial centre specialised in the textile trade. The town grew quite and extended towards the upper town, where there was a smaller risk of floods; as it grew to a population of around 30,000, the surrounding marshes were drained to allow for further expansion. Around
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located in Europe. It has an area of an estimated population of about 513 million; the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency; the EU and European citizenship were established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993. The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community, established by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome.
The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities were the Inner Six: Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, West Germany. The Communities and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit; the latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the United Kingdom signified the intention to leave after a membership referendum in June 2016 and is negotiating its withdrawal. Covering 7.3% of the world population, the EU in 2017 generated a nominal gross domestic product of 19.670 trillion US dollars, constituting 24.6% of global nominal GDP. Additionally, all 28 EU countries have a high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence.
The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. During the centuries following the fall of Rome in 476, several European States viewed themselves as translatio imperii of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire were thereby attempts to resurrect Rome in the West; this political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a renovatio imperii, either in the forms of the Reichsidee or the religiously inspired Imperium Christianum. Medieval Christendom and the political power of the Papacy are cited as conducive to European integration and unity. In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardom, the Empire, declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
The gap between Greek East and Latin West had been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the Great Schism of 1054. Pan-European political thought emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French and American Revolutions after the demise of Napoléon's Empire. In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent in the writings of Wojciech Jastrzębowski, Giuseppe Mazzini or Theodore de Korwin Szymanowski; the term United States of Europe was used at that time by Victor Hugo during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849: A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood... A day will come when we shall see... the United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas. During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent.
In 1920, advocating the creation of a European economic union, British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established... to impose no protectionist tariffs whatever against the produce of other members of the Union." During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Pan-Europa Movement. His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In 1929, the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations, precursor of the United Nations. In a radio address in March 1943, with war still raging, Britain's leader Sir Winston Churchill spoke warmly of "restoring the true greatness of Europe" once victory had been achieved, mused on the post-war creation of a "Council of Europe" which would bring the European nations together to build peace. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent.
In a speech delivered on 19
Chief of Defence (Finland)
The Chief of Defence is the Chief of Defence and commander of the Finnish Defence Forces, under the authority of the President of Finland. The Chief of Defence commands the Finnish Army, the Finnish Air Force, the Finnish Navy and is assisted by the Defence Command, he is the highest-ranking officer of the forces and his deputy is the Chief of Staff of the Defence Command. The current Chief of Defence is General Jarmo Lindberg. In contrast to many other Western countries, the Finnish Defence Forces have an actual military commander with direct authority over all forces, the Chief of Staff is a separate position; the Chief of Defence is responsible for all operative aspects of the Defence Forces, while the Ministry of Defence, headed by the civilian minister, plans the long-term economical aspects. In administrative matters, the Chief of Defence has the authority to form or disband any unit below brigade level and to make any necessary reorganization to the command structure of the Defence Forces, unless such changes have wide impacts on the Finnish society, on the finances of the state or on the personnel of the Defence Forces.
In command matters, the Chief of Defence has the authority to make any command decision, not reserved to the President of Finland. In matters reserved to the Minister of Defence or to the President of Finland, the Chief of Defence prepares the decision and introduces his proposal to the Minister or to the President; the immediate subordinates of the Chief of Defence are Chief-of-staff of the Defence Command Commander of the Finnish Army Commander of the Finnish Navy Commander of the Finnish Air Force Rector of the National Defence UniversityThe Chief of Defence is appointed by the President on the nomination of the Finnish Council of State and may be asked to retire whenever a reason occurs. However, since 1972, all Chiefs of Defence have retired only after fulfilling the statutory retirement age of 63. Www.mil.fi
Johan Edvin Birger Gustav Hägglund is a retired Finnish general. He was the Chief of Defence 1994–2001, Chairman of the European Union Military Committee 2001–2004. Hägglund's father was General Woldemar Hägglund, commander of the Karelian Front in the Second World War, he was born in Viipuri, an area ceded to the Soviet Union in the Second World War. Despite his Swedish-speaking family background, Finnish language immersion was total in his youth, he had to learn Swedish at school, he was educated not only at the Cadet School in Finland, but attended the United States Army Command and General Staff College in Leavenworth, Kansas. He is a fellow of Harvard University, he commanded United Nations troops in 1978 as the commander of the Finnish battalion in UNEF II in Sinai, as the commander of UNIFIL in Southern Lebanon in 1986–88. Hägglund served under Presidents Martti Ahtisaari and under Tarja Halonen. Hägglund's command of the defence forces was characterised by the general modernisation of the force and refocusing from quantity to quality.
In the Army, three large "readiness brigades" were formed, the Air Force upgraded to Hornet F/A-18 fighters. Finland entered NATO's Partnership for Peace programme under Hägglund's command. A major change was made in the terms of conscription service: reserve officers and NCOs would serve 12 months, but rank and file would serve 6 months, with some specialists such as military police serving 9 months; the rotation had been thrice per year, in order to maintain a contingent, trained at least 4 months. The rotation was changed to twice per year. Within the military, Hägglund was a strong proponent of peacekeeping operations, worked to improve their appreciation and opined that officers should participate. Since Finnish law requires that all participants are volunteers, this brought him into conflict with the officers' union, whose opinion was that peacekeeping experience could not be a requirement for career advancement. Officer training went through a major improvement due to his actions; the cadet school was promoted to university status as the Finnish National Defence University, degrees formalised.
He has published three books, one concerning the defence of Finland, one about the defence of Europe and an autobiography. In the 2000s, Hägglund promoted the development of the independent defence of Europe, took the view that the United States would shift its focus away from Europe, changing the role of NATO. Gustav Hägglund: Leijona ja kyyhky, Otava, ISBN 978-951-1-21161-7
MTV3 is a Finnish commercial television station. It had the biggest audience share of all Finnish TV channels; the letters MTV stand due to the channel carrying advertising for revenue. Number 3 was added when the channel was allocated the third nationwide television channel and it became known as "Channel Three"—Finnish Broadcasting Company’s Yle TV1 and Yle TV2 being the first two—and to distinguishing it from the MTV Finland; the channel's logo was a stylized owl, changed to an owl's eye after an image renewal in 2001. MTV3 has about 500 employees, it is known as Maikkari. MTV3 started on 13 August 1957, the first commercial television network in Finland, one of the earliest nationwide commercial TV stations in Europe. In Finland it was preceded by the regional TES-TV commercial channel, it was known as MTV with programmes broadcast on the two channels of Yle. MTV was allocated its own channel after 1986, when Kolmoskanava was born as a joint venture between Yle, MTV, Nokia. MTV3 was born in 1993 when MTV took over the shares of TV3 from Yle and Nokia and MTV programming switched from the Yle frequencies to the TV3 transmitters.
The same year MTV Oy was admitted as a full active member of the European Broadcasting Union. In 2005 Alma Media sold its sister channels to Swedish Bonnier. MTV3 broadcasts everyday from morning to small hours; the pre-dawn hours are allocated to a SMS-based online chat. Much of the output of MTV3 is a mixture of Finnish versions of popular program formats and of American and British imports. However, MTV3 has its own Finnish programming. For example, many of Spede Pasanen's productions were produced for MTV3. MTV3 broadcasts two main news broadcasts every day on prime time. Seitsemän uutiset at 19:00 EET and Kymmenen uutiset at 22:00 EET. MTV3 broadcast news every morning and short bulletins at 21:00 EET. MTV3 brought the first daily soap opera to Finland, by showing the American The Bold and the Beautiful, which in 1990s became the most popular show on the channel. In 1999, MTV3 started showing Finnish daily soap opera Salatut elämät. Kymmenen uutiset Karpolla on asiaa Kymppitonni Speden Spelit Seitsemän Uutiset Onnenpyörä BumtsiBum!
Salatut elämät Kokkisota Rikospoliisi Maria Kallio Haluatko miljonääriksi? Tanssii tähtien kanssa Tappajannäköinen mies Putous Roba Paavo Pesusieni Fort Boyard Suomi Bosch Broadchurch CSI: Crime Scene Investigation CSI: Miami CSI: NY Crisis Emmerdale Hostages Legends Madam Secretary Major Crimes NCIS: New Orleans Prison break Survivor The Amazing Race The Apprentice The Bold and the Beautiful The Closer The Mentalist The Night Manager Top Gear Wallander 24 UEFA Champions League La Liga Europa League Tuomas Virkkunen - Commentator Niki Juusela - Commentator Antero Mertaranta - Commentator Tero Karhu - Commentator Lauri Kottonen - Commentator Teppo Laaksonen - Commentator Julius Sorjonen - Commentator Kim Kallström - Commentator Petri Pasanen - Co-commentator Mikael Forssell - Co-commentator Mika Väyrynen - Co-commentator Antti Niemi - Co-commentator Ile Uusivuori - studio host Ice Hockey World Championships Champions Hockey League SHL Antero Mertaranta - Commentator, he commentates every Finnish hockey team game.
Mika Saukkonen - Commentator. Juha Taivainen - Commentator Juhani Tamminen - Co-commentator. Hannu Aravirta - Co-commentator. Pasi Nurminen - Co-commentator. Tero Lehterä - Co-commentator. Teemu Niikko - Reporter. Toni Immonen - Reporter. Formula One GP2 GP3 MotoGP MotoGP 2 MotoGP 3 Niki Juusela - Current race commentary for live broadcasts from 2017. Oskari Saari - Race commentary for live broadcasts from 2004 to 2016. Matti Kyllönen has provided commentary for the hour-long race summary shown on MTV3. Erkki Mustakari - interviewer as well as occasional co-commentator with Saari. Mervi Kallio - On-track reporter and interviewer for races. Mika Salo - Saari's new co-commentator in 2011. Ossi Oikarinen - co-commentator since 2013. Toni Vilander - co-commentator since 2014. Marko Terva-aho - Commentator. Mika Kallio - Co-commentator. Matti Kiiveri - Co-commentator. Vesa Kallio - Co-commentator. MTV3 – Official site