Venatio was a type of entertainment in Roman amphitheaters involving the hunting and killing of wild animals. Exotic wild beasts from the far reaches of the Roman Empire were brought to Rome and hunts were held in the morning prior to the afternoon main event of gladiatorial duels; the hunts were held in the Roman Forum, the Saepta, in the Circus Maximus, though none of these venues offered protection to the crowd from the wild animals on display. Special precautions were taken to prevent the animals from escaping these venues, such as the erection of barriers and the digging of ditches. Few animals survived these hunts though they did sometimes defeat the "bestiarius", or hunter of wild beast. Thousands of wild animals would be slaughtered in one day. During the inauguration of the Colosseum over 9,000 animals were killed. Not all the animals were ferocious. Animals that appeared in the venatio included lions, bears, deer, wild goats, leopards, boars and rabbits; some of these animals were trained, instead of fighting, performed tricks.
The treatment given to wolves differed from the treatment meted out to other large predators. The Romans seem to have refrained from intentionally harming wolves. For instance, they were not displayed in the venationes due to their religious importance to the Romans. Revered for its ferocity, the lion was popular in venationes and gladiatorial shows, thus the dictator Caesar used 400 lions in the Circus, where the inclusion of the foreign animal lent his shows extra panache. Indeed, obtaining the animals from the far-flung corners of the empire was an ostentatious display of wealth and power by the emperor or other patron to the populace, was meant to demonstrate Roman power of the whole human and animal world and to show the plebs of Rome exotic animals they might never see otherwise. During the reign of Augustus Caesar the circus games resulted in the death of 3,500 elephants. Following the venatio in the order of daily events was the execution of convicted Roman citizens of lower status, the humiliores.
Usual forms of execution included burning at crucifixion, or ad bestias. Roman emperors sentenced serious criminals — who became known as bestiarii — to fatal encounters with the beasts in the Colosseum — an ancient "death sentence"; these were the lowest social class of participants in the games. Atlas bear Barbary lion Blood sport
Euclid, sometimes called Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclid of Megara, was a Greek mathematician referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry". He was active in Alexandria during the reign of Ptolemy I, his Elements is one of the most influential works in the history of mathematics, serving as the main textbook for teaching mathematics from the time of its publication until the late 19th or early 20th century. In the Elements, Euclid deduced the theorems of what is now called Euclidean geometry from a small set of axioms. Euclid wrote works on perspective, conic sections, spherical geometry, number theory, mathematical rigour; the English name Euclid is the anglicized version of the Greek name Εὐκλείδης, which means "renowned, glorious". Few original references to Euclid survive, so little is known about his life, he was born c. 325 BC, although the place and circumstances of both his birth and death are unknown and may only be estimated relative to other people mentioned with him.
He is mentioned by name by other Greek mathematicians from Archimedes onward, is referred to as "ὁ στοιχειώτης". The few historical references to Euclid were written by Proclus c. 450 AD, centuries after Euclid lived. A detailed biography of Euclid is given by Arabian authors, for example, a birth town of Tyre; this biography is believed to be fictitious. If he came from Alexandria, he would have known the Serapeum of Alexandria, the Library of Alexandria, may have worked there during his time. Euclid's arrival in Alexandria came about ten years after its founding by Alexander the Great, which means he arrived c. 322 BC. Proclus introduces Euclid only in his Commentary on the Elements. According to Proclus, Euclid belonged to Plato's "persuasion" and brought together the Elements, drawing on prior work of Eudoxus of Cnidus and of several pupils of Plato Proclus believes that Euclid is not much younger than these, that he must have lived during the time of Ptolemy I because he was mentioned by Archimedes.
Although the apparent citation of Euclid by Archimedes has been judged to be an interpolation by editors of his works, it is still believed that Euclid wrote his works before Archimedes wrote his. Proclus retells a story that, when Ptolemy I asked if there was a shorter path to learning geometry than Euclid's Elements, "Euclid replied there is no royal road to geometry." This anecdote is questionable since it is similar to a story told about Menaechmus and Alexander the Great. Euclid died c. 270 BC in Alexandria. In the only other key reference to Euclid, Pappus of Alexandria mentioned that Apollonius "spent a long time with the pupils of Euclid at Alexandria, it was thus that he acquired such a scientific habit of thought" c. 247–222 BC. Because the lack of biographical information is unusual for the period, some researchers have proposed that Euclid was not a historical personage, that his works were written by a team of mathematicians who took the name Euclid from Euclid of Megara. However, this hypothesis is not well accepted by scholars and there is little evidence in its favor.
Although many of the results in Elements originated with earlier mathematicians, one of Euclid's accomplishments was to present them in a single, logically coherent framework, making it easy to use and easy to reference, including a system of rigorous mathematical proofs that remains the basis of mathematics 23 centuries later. There is no mention of Euclid in the earliest remaining copies of the Elements, most of the copies say they are "from the edition of Theon" or the "lectures of Theon", while the text considered to be primary, held by the Vatican, mentions no author; the only reference that historians rely on of Euclid having written the Elements was from Proclus, who in his Commentary on the Elements ascribes Euclid as its author. Although best known for its geometric results, the Elements includes number theory, it considers the connection between perfect numbers and Mersenne primes, the infinitude of prime numbers, Euclid's lemma on factorization, the Euclidean algorithm for finding the greatest common divisor of two numbers.
The geometrical system described in the Elements was long known as geometry, was considered to be the only geometry possible. Today, that system is referred to as Euclidean geometry to distinguish it from other so-called non-Euclidean geometries that mathematicians discovered in the 19th century; the Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 29 is a fragment of the second book of the Elements of Euclid, unearthed by Grenfell and Hunt 1897 in Oxyrhynchus. More recent scholarship suggests a date of 75–125 AD; the classic translation of T. L. Heath, reads: If a straight line be cut into equal and unequal segments, the rectangle contained by the unequal segments of the whole together with the square on the straight line between the points of section is equal to the square on the half. In addition to the Elements, at least five works of Euclid have survived to the present day, they follow the same logical structure with definitions and proved propositions. Data deals with the nature and implications of "given" information in geometrical problems.
The Elbe is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. It rises in the Krkonoše Mountains of the northern Czech Republic before traversing much of Bohemia Germany and flowing into the North Sea at Cuxhaven, 110 km northwest of Hamburg, its total length is 1,094 kilometres. The Elbe's major tributaries include the rivers Vltava, Havel, Schwarze Elster, Ohře; the Elbe river basin, comprising the Elbe and its tributaries, has a catchment area of 148,268 square kilometres, the fourth largest in Europe. The basin spans four countries, with its largest parts in the Czech Republic. Much smaller parts lie in Poland; the basin is inhabited by 24.4 million people. The Elbe rises at an elevation of about 1,400 metres in the Krkonoše on the northwest borders of the Czech Republic near Labská bouda. Of the numerous small streams whose waters compose the infant river, the most important is the Bílé Labe, or White Elbe. After plunging down the 60 metres of the Labský vodopád, or Elbe Falls, the latter stream unites with the steeply torrential Malé Labe, thereafter the united stream of the Elbe pursues a southerly course, emerging from the mountain glens at Jaroměř, where it receives Úpa and Metuje.
Here the Elbe enters the vast vale named Polabí, continues on southwards through Hradec Králové and to Pardubice, where it turns to the west. At Kolín some 43 kilometres further on, it bends towards the north-west. At the village of Káraný, a little above Brandýs nad Labem, it picks up the Jizera. At Mělník its stream is more than doubled in volume by the Vltava, or Moldau, a major river which winds northwards through Bohemia. Upstream from the confluence the Vltava is in fact much longer, has a greater discharge and a larger drainage basin. Nonetheless, for historical reasons the river retains the name Elbe because at the confluence point it is the Elbe that flows through the main, wider valley while the Vltava flows into the valley to meet the Elbe at a right angle, thus appears to be the tributary river; some distance lower down, at Litoměřice, the waters of the Elbe are tinted by the reddish Ohře. Thus augmented, swollen into a stream 140 metres wide, the Elbe carves a path through the basaltic mass of the České Středohoří, churning its way through a picturesque, deep and curved rocky gorge.
Shortly after crossing the Czech-German frontier, passing through the sandstone defiles of the Elbe Sandstone Mountains, the stream assumes a north-westerly direction, which on the whole it preserves right to the North Sea. The river rolls through Dresden and beyond Meißen, enters on its long journey across the North German Plain passing along the former western border of East Germany, touching Torgau, Dessau, Magdeburg and Hamburg on the way, taking on the waters of the Mulde and Saale from the west, those of the Schwarze Elster and Elde from the east. In its northern section both banks of the Elbe are characterised by flat fertile marshlands, former flood plains of the Elbe now diked. At Magdeburg there is a viaduct, the Magdeburg Water Bridge, that carries a canal and its shipping traffic over the Elbe and its banks, allowing shipping traffic to pass under it unhindered. From the sluice of Geesthacht on downstream the Elbe is subject to the tides, the tidal Elbe section is called the Low Elbe.
Soon the Elbe reaches Hamburg. Within the city-state the Unterelbe has a number of branch streams, such as Dove Elbe, Gose Elbe, Köhlbrand, Northern Elbe, Southern Elbe; some of which have been disconnected for vessels from the main stream by dikes. In 1390 the Gose Elbe was separated from the main stream by a dike connecting the two then-islands of Kirchwerder and Neuengamme; the Dove Elbe was diked off in 1437/38 at Gammer Ort. These hydraulic engineering works were carried out to protect marshlands from inundation, to improve the water supply of the Port of Hamburg. After the heavy inundation by the North Sea flood of 1962 the western section of the Southern Elbe was separated, becoming the Old Southern Elbe, while the waters of the eastern Southern Elbe now merge into the Köhlbrand, bridged by the Köhlbrandbrücke, the last bridge over the Elbe before the North Sea; the Northern Elbe passes the Elbe Philharmonic Hall and is crossed under by the old Elbe Tunnel, both in Hamburg's city centre.
A bit more downstream the Low Elbe's two main anabranches Northern Elbe and the Köhlbrand reunite south of Altona-Altstadt, a locality of Hamburg. Right after both anabranches reunited the Low Elbe is passed under by the New Elbe Tunnel, the last structural road link crossing the river before the North Sea. At the bay Mühlenberger Loch in Hamburg at kilometre 634, the Northern Elbe and the Southern Elbe used to reunite, why the bay is seen as the starting point of the Lower Elbe. Leaving the city-state the Lower Elbe passes between Holstein and the Elbe-Weser Triangle with Stade until it flows into the North Sea at Cuxhaven. Near its mouth it passes the entrance to the Kiel Canal at Brunsbüttel before it debouches into the North Sea; the Elbe has been navigable by commercial ve
Hannibal Barca was a general and statesman from Ancient Carthage, considered one of the greatest military commanders in history. His father, Hamilcar Barca, was a leading Carthaginian commander during the First Punic War, his younger brothers were Mago and Hasdrubal, he was brother-in-law to Hasdrubal the Fair, all commanded Carthaginian armies. Hannibal lived during a period of great tension in the western Mediterranean Basin, triggered by the emergence of the Roman Republic as a great power after it had established its supremacy over Italy. Although Rome had won the First Punic War, revanchism prevailed in Carthage, symbolised by the alleged pledge that Hannibal made to his father to never be a friend of Rome; the Second Punic War broke out in 218 after Hannibal's attack on Saguntum, an ally of Rome in Hispania. He made his famous military exploit of carrying war to Italy by crossing the Alps with his African elephants. In his first few years in Italy, he won a succession of dramatic victories at the Trebia, Lake Trasimene, Cannae.
He distinguished himself for his ability to determine his and his opponent's respective strengths and weaknesses, to plan battles accordingly. Hannibal's well-planned strategies allowed him to conquer. Hannibal occupied most of southern Italy for 15 years, but could not win a decisive victory, as the Romans led by Fabius Maximus avoided confrontation with him, instead waging a war of attrition. A counter-invasion of North Africa led by Scipio Africanus forced him to return to Carthage. Scipio had studied Hannibal's tactics and brilliantly devised some of his own, he defeated Rome's nemesis at the Battle of Zama, having driven Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal out of the Iberian Peninsula. After the war, Hannibal ran for the office of sufet, he enacted political and financial reforms to enable the payment of the war indemnity imposed by Rome. During this time, he lived at the Seleucid court, where he acted as military advisor to Antiochus III the Great in his war against Rome. Antiochus met defeat at the Battle of Magnesia and was forced to accept Rome's terms, Hannibal fled again, making a stop in the Kingdom of Armenia.
His flight ended in the court of Bithynia, where he achieved an outstanding naval victory against a fleet from Pergamon. He was afterwards betrayed to the committed suicide by poisoning himself. Hannibal is regarded as one of the greatest military strategists in history and one of the greatest generals of Mediterranean antiquity, together with Philip of Macedon, Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, Scipio Africanus. Plutarch states that Scipio asked Hannibal "who the greatest general was", to which Hannibal replied "either Alexander or Pyrrhus himself" Military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge called Hannibal the "father of strategy", because Roman armies adopted elements of his military tactics into its own strategic arsenal. Hannibal has been cited by various subsequent military leaders, such as Napoleon Bonaparte, as an inspiration and the greatest strategist of all time; the English form of the name is derived from the Latin. Greek historians rendered the name as Anníbas Bárkas. Hannibal was a common Carthaginian masculine given name.
The name was recorded in Carthaginian sources as ḤNBʿL. It is a combination of the common Carthaginian masculine given name Hanno with the Northwest Semitic Canaanite deity Baal, its precise vocalization remains a matter of debate. Suggested readings include Ḥannobaʿal, Ḥannibaʿl, or Ḥannibaʿal, meaning "Baʿal/The Lord is Gracious", "Baʿal Has Been Gracious", or "The Grace of Baʿal". Barca was the Semitic surname of his aristocratic family, meaning "shining" or "lightning", it is thus the Phoenician equivalent to the Arabic name Barq or the Hebrew name Barak or the ancient Greek epithet Keraunos, given to military commanders in the Hellenistic period. In English, his clan are sometimes collectively known as the Barcids; as with Greek and Roman practice, patronymics were a common part of Carthaginian nomenclature, so that Hannibal would have been known as "Hannibal son of Hamilcar". Hannibal was one of the sons of a Carthaginian leader, he was born in what is present day northern Tunisia, one of many Mediterranean regions colonised by the Canaanites from their homelands in Phoenicia.
He had several sisters and two brothers and Mago. His brothers-in-law were the Numidian king Naravas, he was still a child when his sisters married, his brothers-in-law were close associates during his father's struggles in the Mercenary War and the Punic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula. In light of Hamilcar Barca's cognomen, historians refer to Hamilcar's family as the Barcids. However, there is debate as to whether the cognomen Barca was applied to Hamilcar alone or was hereditary within his family. If the latter Hannibal and his brothers bore the name "Barca". After Carthage's defeat in the First Punic War, Hamilcar set out to improve his family's and Carthage's fortunes. With that in mind and supported by Gades, Hamilcar began the subjugation of the tribes of the Iberian Peninsula. Carthage at the time was in such a poor state. According to Polybius, Hannibal much said that when he came upon his father and begged to go with him, Hamilcar agreed and dem
Montecristo Oglasa, is an island in the Tyrrhenian Sea and part of the Tuscan Archipelago. Administratively it belongs to the municipality of Portoferraio in the province of Italy; the island has an area of 10.39 km2, it is 4.1 km wide at its widest point and is 3.4 km long. The island is a state nature reserve and forms part of the Tuscan Archipelago National Park. Much of the island's fame is derived from the fact that it provides the setting for part of the novel The Count of Monte Cristo, by Alexandre Dumas; the history of the island begins with the Iron Age. The Etruscans exploited the forests of oak needed to fuel the bloomeries of the mainland where the iron ore of Elba's mines was melted; the Greeks gave Montecristo its oldest known name, Oglasa or Ocrasia, after the yellowish colour of the rocks. The Romans, knew it under the name Mons Jovis, erected an altar to Iuppiter Optimus Maximus on the highest mountain, of which some traces remain. During the imperial age, the Romans opened some quarries to extract granite used in the construction of villas on the islands of Giglio and Giannutri.
Around the middle of the fifth century AD, the caves of the island became home to several hermits escaping from the Vandals of Genseric, the most important of whom was St. Mamilian, they christened the island "Mons Christi", from. At the beginning of the seventh century, Pope Gregory the Great submitted them to the monastic rule of the Benedictines. In this period, the Monastery of St. Mamilian was founded. In 1216, the monks joined the order of the Camaldolese. Thanks to the donations of several noble families, the monastery became powerful and rich, this gave rise to the legend of treasure hidden on the island; the island was once a possession of the Republic of Pisa, but was acquired by the Principality of Piombino. In 1553, Ottoman pirate Dragut, heading for Elba, stormed the monastery, enslaved the monks, decreed its end. After that, the island was uninhabited. In the second half of the sixteenth century, together with most of the Tuscan Archipelago, it became part of the Stato dei Presidi, a client Spanish state.
The island was annexed to the French Empire under Napoleon. The first attempts to colonise Monte Cristo, at the time owned by Charles Cambiagi, were made in 1840 by two German hermits, Augustin Eulhardt and Joseph Keim, who abandoned the attempt. In 1843, other people arrived with the intention of cultivating the island: young Tyrolean Adolph Franz Obermüller, after a few months, Frenchman Charles Legrand and his girlfriend. During 1843, there were other attempts of colonisation by French agriculturalist George Guiboud, which ended with yet another failure. In 1846, some Genoese made a similar effort, while in 1849 Frenchman Jacques Abrial was able to farm the island for three years. In 1852, a rich Englishman named George Watson-Taylor bought Montecristo and transformed Cala Maestra into a garden, planting eucalyptus and many exotic plants, among them the Asiatic Ailanthus altissima, an invasive species which now infests the island; the few modern buildings of Montecristo, such as the Royal Villa, date from this period.
The island was purchased by the Italian Government on 3 June 1869 for the sum of £100,000. Montecristo had been plundered in 1860 by Italian exiles living in London, who had come to Italy to join up with the Camicie rosse, but were shipwrecked on the island. Faced with the huge sum of money claimed by the owner to repair the damage, the government thought it better to buy the island, still uninhabited. After other attempts at colonisation in 1878, the Italian government founded a penal colony there, a branch of that in Pianosa. In 1889 Montecristo was given to Marquess Carlo Ginori, who restored the Villa and transformed the island into a hunting ground. In 1896, Montecristo was the honeymoon destination of Victor Emmanuel III of Savoy and Elena of Montenegro, after 1899 it became a royal hunting ground for Victor Emmanuel's exclusive use. During the Second World War the island, important because of its position between Italy and occupied Corsica, was garrisoned by the Italian army. In the late 1940s, the Italian Navy Intelligence agency temporarily took over the island for use as a training base for covert agents.
Among Italian officers assigned as instructors were Count Marco deCarrobio and Luigi Ferri. The would-be agents belonged to a right wing Albanian expatriate organization known as the Bloku Kombetar Independent led by activist Alush Leshanaku, according to Shyqri Bicaku, an Elbasan native, who underwent training. Montecristo was used as a Navy training base only from September to November, 1948, when the trainees were transferred to Italy's west coast. Four of the trained agents were parachuted into Albania in February, 1949, but soon quit their mission and escaped to Greece due to a failed field radio. After several episodes of vandalism and speculation attempts, the nature reserve was established in 1971. In December 2011 it was reported that black rats, present on the island at least since Roman times
The naumachia in the Ancient Roman world referred to both the staging of naval battles as mass entertainment, the basin or building in which this took place. The first known naumachia was given by Julius Caesar in Rome in 46 BC on occasion of his quadruple triumph. After having a basin dug near the Tiber, capable of holding actual biremes and quinqueremes, he made 2000 combatants and 4000 rowers, all prisoners of war, fight. In 2 BC on the occasion of the inauguration of the Temple of Mars Ultor, Augustus gave a naumachia based on Caesar's model; as cited in Res Gestæ, he created a basin on the right bank of the Tiber where 3000 men, not counting rowers, fought in 30 vessels with rams and a number of smaller boats. Claudius gave a naumachia in 52 AD on a natural body of water, Fucine Lake, to celebrate the completion of drainage work and tunneling on the site; the combatants were prisoners, condemned to death. Suetonius' account, written many years after the event, has them salute the emperor with the phrase "morituri te salutant".
There is no evidence that this form of address was used on any occasion other than this single naumachia. The naumachia was thus a bloodier show than gladiatorial combat, which consisted of smaller engagements and where the combat did not end with the death of the losers. More the appearance of naumachia is tied and only earlier than that other spectacle, "group combat", which did not pit single combatants against one another, but rather used two small armies. There again, the combatants were those on death row and did not have the specialized training of true gladiators. Caesar, creator of the naumachia had to transpose the same principle to another environment. Through the choreography of the combat, the naumachia had the ability to represent historical or pseudo-historical themes; each of the fleets participating represented a maritime power of Ancient Greece or the Hellenistic east: Egyptians and the Tyrians for Caesar’s naumachia and Athenians for that of Augustus and Rhodeans for that of Claudius.
It required greater resources than other such entertainments, as such these spectacles were reserved for exceptional occasions tied to celebrations of the emperor, his victories and his monuments. The specific nature of the spectacle as well as the historical themes borrowed from the Greek world are tied to the term naumachia; this word, a phonetic transcription of the Greek word for a naval battle, has since come to refer to the large artificial basins created for them. Caesar’s naumachia was a simple basin dug into the low-lying ground on the northern or southern banks of the Tiber, fed by its waters; the naumachia of Augustus is better known: in his Res Gestæ Augustus himself indicates that the basin measured 1800 x 1200 Roman feet. Pliny the Elder, describes an island formed in the center rectangular and connected to the shore by a bridge where the privileged spectators sat. Taking into consideration the size of the basin and the dimensions of a trireme, the thirty vessels used would hardly be able to manoeuvre.
Knowing that the crew of a Roman trireme was 170 rowers and 50 to 60 soldiers, a simple calculation allows us to see that to achieve the number of 3000 men the vessels of Augustus' fleet would have to have held more combatants than an actual fleet. The spectacle thus focused less on the movement of the vessels than the actual presence of them in the artificial basin, the hand-to-hand combat which developed, it was different for Claudius' naumachia. The two fleets each consisted of 50 vessels, which corresponds to the number of vessels in each of the two military fleets based at Misenum and at Ravenna. Lake Fucino was large enough that only part of it was needed, surrounded by pontoons, there was room enough for the vessels to manoeuvre and ram each other; the naumachia of Claudius therefore reproduced naval combat. According to Sextus Julius Frontinus in De aquaeductu, the water supply for the naumachia of Augustus was specially constructed, with the surplus used to water neighbouring gardens in the Trans Tiberim.
This was the Aqua Alsietina aqueduct, remains of which have been found on the slopes of Janiculum below the monastery of San Cosimato. There are several theories as to the precise location of the site; the republican viaduct discovered in the Via Aurelia near San Crisogono may have served as a conduit for the basin. The basin did not last long. During the reign of Augustus it was replaced by the nemus Cæsarum renamed "forest of Gaius and Lucius" for the grandsons of Augustus; this vast area was built upon by the end of the 1st century. A new development occurred during the reign of Nero: a naumachia in an amphitheatre. Suetonius and Dio Cassius speak of such a spectacle in 57 AD in a wooden amphitheatre inaugurated by the last of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nothing is known of the site other. Nero presented another naumachia in 64 AD; this was preceded by hunts and follow