Charles Auguste Émile Durand, known as Carolus-Duran, was a French painter and art instructor. He is noted for his depictions of members of high society in Third Republic France. He was the son of a hotel owner and his first drawing lessons were with a local sculptor named Augustin-Phidias Cadet de Beaupré at the Académie de Lille, took up painting with François Souchon, a student of Jacques Louis David. He went to Paris in 1853, where he adopted the name Carolus-Duran, in 1859, he had his first exhibition at the Salon. That same year, he began attending the Académie Suisse, where he studied until 1861, one of his early influences was the Realism of Gustave Courbet. From 1862 to 1866, he travelled to Rome and Spain, during that time, he moved away from Courbets style and became more interested in Diego Vélazquez. Upon returning to France, he was awarded his first gold medal at the Salon, in 1867, he became one of the nine members of the Société Japonaise du Jinglar, a group that included Henri Fantin-Latour, Félix Bracquemond and Marc-Louis Solon.
They would meet once a month in Sèvres for a dinner à la Japonaise and he married Pauline Croizette, a pastellist and miniaturist who had posed for his painting The Lady in Gloves in 1869. Their eldest daughter, Marie-Anne, married the playwright Georges Feydeau, after 1870, he devoted himself almost entirely to portraits. His success allowed him to open a studio on the Boulevard du Montparnasse and he was named a Knight in the Légion dhonneur in 1872, being promoted to Officer in 1878, Commander in 1889 and Grand Officer in 1900. In 1889 and 1900 he served on the juries at the Expositions Universelles, in 1890, he was one of the co-founders of the second Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and he was elected a member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in 1904. The following year, he was appointed Director of the French Academy in Rome and he was a frequent visitor to the resort at Fréjus, where he owned a small villa. Following his death, the resort named a plaza and a beach after him and they include John Singer Sargent, Ralph Wormeley Curtis, Kenyon Cox Theodore Robinson, Mariquita Jenny Moberly.
Mariette Leslie Cotton, Maximilien Luce, James Carroll Beckwith, Will Hicok Low, Paul Helleu, Robert Alan Mowbray Stevenson, of his twenty-five most notable students, the majority were English or American. Attribution This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh. Paintings of Carolus-Duran on Insecula Works by Carolus-Duran at Project Gutenberg Carolus-Duran in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website
Prix de Rome
The Prix de Rome was a French scholarship for arts students, initially for painters and sculptors, that was established in 1663 during the reign of Louis XIV of France. Winners were awarded a bursary that allowed them to stay in Rome for three to five years at the expense of the state, the prize was extended to architecture in 1720, music in 1803, and engraving in 1804. The prestigious award was abolished in 1968 by André Malraux, the Minister of Culture, the Prix de Rome was initially created for painters and sculptors in 1663 in France during the reign of Louis XIV. It was an annual bursary for promising artists having proved their talents by completing a very difficult elimination contest, the prize, organised by the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, was open to their students. From 1666, the winner could win a stay of three to five years at the Palazzo Mancini in Rome at the expense of the King of France. In 1720, the Académie Royale d’Architecture began a prize in architecture, six painters, four sculptors, and two architects would be sent to the French Academy in Rome founded by Jean-Baptiste Colbert from 1666.
Expanded after 140 years into five categories, the contest started in 1663 as two categories and sculpture, in 1803, music was added, and after 1804 there was a prix for engraving as well. The primary winner took the First Grand Prize and the Second Prizes were awarded to the runners-up, in 1803, Napoleon Bonaparte moved the French Academy in Rome to the Villa Medici with the intention of preserving an institution once threatened by the French Revolution. At first, the villa and its gardens were in a sad state, in this way, he hoped to retain for young French artists the opportunity to see and copy the masterpieces of antiquity and the Renaissance. Jacques-Louis David, having failed to win the three years in a row, considered suicide. Édouard Manet, Edgar Degas, Ernest Chausson and Maurice Ravel attempted the Prix de Rome, but did not gain recognition. Ravel tried a total of five times to win the prize, during World War II the prize winners were accommodated in the Villa Paradiso in Nice. The Prix de Rome was abolished in 1968 by André Malraux, since then, a number of contests have been created, and the academies, together with the Institut de France, were merged by the State and the Minister of Culture.
Selected residents now have an opportunity for study during an 18-month stay at The Academy of France in Rome, the heyday of the Prix de Rome was during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The Prix de Rome for Architecture was created in 1720, the engraving prize was created in 1804. A Prix de Rome was established in the Kingdom of Holland by Lodewijk Napoleon to award young artists and architects, during the years 1807–1810 prize winners were sent to Paris and onwards to Rome for study. Suspended in 1851 it was reinstated in 1870 by William III of the Netherlands, since the winners have been selected by the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam under the main headings of architecture and the visual arts. The Belgian Prix de Rome is an award for artists, created in 1832
Paul Maximilien Landowski was a French monument sculptor. His best-known work is the Christ the Redeemer statue in Rio de Janeiro, Landowski was born in Paris of a Polish refugee father of the January Uprising, and a French mother. He studied at the Académie Julian, before graduating from the French National Academy, he won the Prix de Rome in 1900 with his statue of David and he produced over thirty five monuments in the city of Paris and twelve more in the surrounding area. Among those is the Art Deco figure of St. Genevieve on the 1928 Pont de la Tournelle and he created Les Fantomes, the French Memorial to the Second Battle of the Marne which stands upon the Butte de Chalmont in Northern France. Landowski is widely known for the 1931 Christ the Redeemer statue in Rio de Janeiro, some sources indicate Landowski designed Christs head and hands, but it was Leonida who created the head when asked by Landowski. He won a medal at the art competitions at the 1928 Summer Olympics for Sculpture. From 1933 through 1937 he was Director of the French Academy in Rome, Landowski was the father of artists, painter Nadine Landowski, composer Marcel Landowski, and pianist and painter Françoise Landowski-Caillet.
He died in Boulogne-Billancourt, a suburb of Paris, where a dedicated to his work has over 100 works on display
French Academy in Rome
The French Academy in Rome is an Academy located in the Villa Medici, within the Villa Borghese, on the Pincio in Rome, Italy. The Academy was founded at the Palazzo Capranica in 1666 by Louis XIV under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Charles Le Brun, such scholars were and are known as pensionnaires de lAcadémie. One recipient of the scholarship in the 17th century was Pierre Le Gros the Younger, the Academy was housed in the Palazzo Capranica until 1737, and in the Palazzo Mancini from 1737 to 1793. These envois were annual works, sent to Paris to be judged, at first, the villa and its gardens were in a sad state and had to be renovated to house the winners of the Prix de Rome. The competition was interrupted during the first World War, and Mussolini confiscated the villa in 1941, the competition and Prix de Rome were eliminated in 1968 by André Malraux. The Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris and the Institut de France lost their guardianship of the Villa Medici to the Ministry of the Culture, from that time on, the boarders no longer belonged solely to the traditional disciplines but to new or previously neglected artistic fields.
These artists-in-residence are known as pensionnaires, the French word ‘pension’ refers to the room & board these, generally young and promising, artists receive. The artists are no longer recruited by a competition but by application, between 1961 and 1967, the artist Balthus, at the head of the Academy, carried out a vast restoration campaign of the palace and its gardens, providing them with modern equipment. Balthus participated “hands on” in all the phases of the construction, where the historic décor had disappeared, Balthus proposed personal alternatives. Work continued under the direction of director, Richard Peduzzi, under director Frédéric Mitterrand the Academy opened up its guest rooms to the general public at times when they are not used by pensionnaires or other official guests. k. a. Carolus-Duran 1913-1921, Albert Besnard 1921-1933, Denys Puech 1933-1937, Paul-Maximilien Landowski 1937-1960, Jacques Ibert 1961-1977, Comte Balthazar Klossowski de Rola, a. k. a. Balthus 1979-1985, Jean Leymarie 1985-1994, Jean-Marie Drot 1994-1997, Pierre-Jean Angremy, a. k. a. villamedici.
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Charles Errard the Younger was a French painter and engraver, co-founder and director of the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture. Louis XIVs minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert delegated to him the foundation of the French Academy in Rome in 1666, Charles Errard was trained as a painter by his father, Charles Errard the Elder, a court painter to Louis XIII. The sons long career as an artist in France was interrupted by stays in Rome, going there to study with his father in 1625, equipped with a royal scholarship. He drew ancient works of art as well as figures, reliefs and Trajans Column, soon he became a brilliant draughtsman. After his return to Paris, he worked for different French art lovers and collectors including, among others, during a further stay in Rome, he became acquainted with Poussin and his patron Cassiano dal Pozzo, for whom he painted two pictures. In 1651, according to Stiche, he produced illustrations after Poussins sketches to Leonardo da Vincis Trattato della Pittura, after his appointment as decorator of the royal palace, he received orders for the decoration of the Louvre Palace, the Palace of Fontainebleau, Saint-Germain-en-Laye and Versailles.
He was active as a painter for the royal opera. Errard was the co-founder of the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, in 1664–65 he carried out an art-collecting trip to Flanders on the kings behalf. He was selected from 1673 and 1675 to be the Principal of the Accademia di San Luca, after the death of Colbert in 1683, Errard resigned his offices. On his death in Rome aged 82, he was buried in Santa Trinità dei Monti and he left Louis XIV bronze copies of Florentine sculptures, particularly from Michelangelos sculptures in the Medici Chapel – these are now in the Louvre
Jean Alaux, called le Romain, was a French history painter and Director of the French Academy in Rome from 1846-52. Alaux was born in Bordeaux, the son of a painter and he received his first lessons in art from his father, but went on to a formal training with Pierre Lacour and with Pierre-Narcisse Guérin. In 1807 he was admitted to the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, from 1808 he entered works for the Prix de Rome, but his energies were diverted when his elder brother, Jean-Francois Alaux, asked him to help with a large neorama he was working on. Alaux eventually won the major Prix de Rome in 1815 with a work entitled Briseis weeping over the body of Patroclus and he subsequently became a pensionnaire at the French Academy in Rome from 1816 to 1820 and went on to become its director. Among his fellow artists at the Academy were such luminaries as Drolling and Gogniet, and sculptors such as Angers, Alaux painted at the Academy Diamedes carrying off the palladium and Episodes in the combats between the centaurs and the Lapithes.
Under the July Monarchy, he worked at the Galerie des batailles of the Château de Versailles, for which he painted The Battle of Villaviciosa, The Capture of Valenciennes and his directorship ended quietly with his retirement in 1852. Alaux died in Paris on 2 March 1864, paintings by Alaux Portrait of Jean Alaux by Ingres The atelier of Ingres in Rome