Alice Victorine Antoinette Colonieu was a French ceramicist and sculptor. From an old family from Vaucluse, Alice Colonieu was the daughter of Albert, a SNCF controller, Cephyse Jouve. After leaving the École des Beaux-Arts of Marseille where she received several first and second prize during the war. Alice Colonieu follows the course of the vocational school ceramic Fontcarrade in Montpellier settled near Orange. From the year 1945 until the 1980s, Alice Colonieu expresses her talent with the clay as an expression. Alice Colonieu exhibit at the Decorative Arts in 1953 and 1954. In 1953 she became a member of the Federation of Crafts, she presented her ceramics at the exhibition of masterpieces of modern ceramic at Cannes in 1955. In 1961, Alice Colonieu won the gold medal at the National Exhibition of Arts. Alice Colonieu worked for major designers such as Jean Royère, Maurice Rinck and Jules Leleu whom she performed two beautiful ceramic panels for the Ocean liner Pierre Loti, but she is interested in the decoration of public buildings such as the postal office of Isle sur la Sorgue, the school Frédéric Mistral at Avignon or churches Roaix and Valréas.
Her works were exhibited at the Musée National d'Art Moderne of Paris, the International Museum of Ceramics in Faenza and in major international collections In 1960 Alice Colonieu moved to Roaix in Vaucluse, where she built a house. She explored book illustration. A local legend says that the penitents asked to Alice Colonieu to make a statue of the Virgin and to install on the back of a house in Villedieu; this set of Renaissance style, decorated with a king scallop is called the " Virgin of the Smile" and is still visible in Villedieu. In 1997 Alice Colonieu illustrated book of René Lachaud entitled Templiers: Chevaliers d'Orient et d'Occident, she died on 16 July 2010 at her home in Roaix. In 2012, an exhibition of 1950's ceramicists took place at the Museum of Mediterranean pottery featured Alice Colonieu's pieces. In September 2013, during the Marseille Provence 2013, in the rooms of the Hotel de Manville in Baux-de-Provence, was held the first exhibition of ceramics and glass, which exhibits the works of Alice Colonieu and Jean-Paul Van Lith.
During this event, Sylvie Caron, curator of the exhibition Marseille-Provence 2013, paid tribute to Alice Colonieu, exposing parts that have never been shown before including service personnel dishes or jewelry the artist had made for herself. At Vaison-la-Romaine, a street was named Impasse Alice Colonieu
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating and sleeping. Furniture is used to hold objects at a convenient height for work, or to store things. Furniture is considered a form of decorative art. In addition to furniture's functional role, it can serve a religious purpose, it can be made from many materials, including metal and wood. Furniture can be made using a variety of woodworking joints which reflect the local culture. People have been using natural objects, such as tree stumps and moss, as furniture since the beginning of human civilisation. Archaeological research shows that from around 30,000 years ago, people began constructing and carving their own furniture, using wood and animal bones. Early furniture from this period is known from artwork such as a Venus figurine found in Russia, depicting the goddess on a throne; the first surviving extant furniture is in the homes of Skara Brae in Scotland, includes cupboards and beds all constructed from stone.
Complex construction techniques such as joinery began in the early dynastic period of ancient Egypt. This era saw constructed wooden pieces, including stools and tables, sometimes decorated with valuable metals or ivory; the evolution of furniture design continued in ancient Greece and ancient Rome, with thrones being commonplace as well as the klinai, multipurpose couches used for relaxing and sleeping. The furniture of the Middle Ages was heavy and ornamented. Furniture design expanded during the Italian Renaissance of the fifteenth century; the seventeenth century, in both Southern and Northern Europe, was characterized by opulent gilded Baroque designs. The nineteenth century is defined by revival styles; the first three-quarters of the twentieth century are seen as the march towards Modernism. One unique outgrowth of post-modern furniture design is a return to natural textures; the English word furniture is derived from the French word fourniture, the noun form of fournir, which means to supply or provide.
Thus fourniture in French means provisions. The English usage, referring to household objects, is specific to that language; the practice of using natural objects as rudimentary pieces of furniture dates to the beginning of human civilisation. Early humans are to have used tree stumps as seats, rocks as rudimentary tables, mossy areas for sleeping. During the late palaeolithic or early neolithic period, from around 30,000 years ago, people began constructing and carving their own furniture, using wood and animal bones; the earliest evidence for the existence of constructed furniture is a Venus figurine found at the Gagarino site in Russia, which depicts the goddess in a sitting position, on a throne. A similar statue of a Mother Goddess was found in Catal Huyuk in Turkey, dating to between 6000 and 5500 BCE; the inclusion of such a seat in the figurines implies that these were common artefacts of that age. A range of unique stone furniture has been excavated in Skara Brae, a Neolithic village in Orkney, Scotland.
The site dates from 3100–2500 BCE and due to a shortage of wood in Orkney, the people of Skara Brae were forced to build with stone, a available material that could be worked and turned into items for use within the household. Each house shows a high degree of sophistication and was equipped with an extensive assortment of stone furniture, ranging from cupboards and beds to shelves, stone seats, limpet tanks; the stone dresser was regarded as the most important as it symbolically faces the entrance in each house and is therefore the first item seen when entering displaying symbolic objects, including decorative artwork such as several Neolithic Carved Stone Balls found at the site. Ancient furniture has been excavated from the 8th-century BCE Phrygian tumulus, the Midas Mound, in Gordion, Turkey. Pieces found here inlaid serving stands. There are surviving works from the 9th-8th-century BCE Assyrian palace of Nimrud; the earliest surviving carpet, the Pazyryk Carpet was discovered in a frozen tomb in Siberia and has been dated between the 6th and 3rd century BCE.
Civilisation in ancient Egypt began with the clearance and irrigation of land along the banks of the River Nile, which began in about 6000 BCE. By that time, society in the Nile Valley was engaged in organized agriculture and the construction of large buildings. At this period, Egyptians in the southwestern corner of Egypt were herding cattle and constructing large buildings. Mortar was in use by around 4000 BCE The inhabitants of the Nile Valley and delta were self-sufficient and were raising barley and emmer and stored it in pits lined with reed mats, they raised cattle and pigs and they wove linens and baskets. Evidence of furniture from the predynastic period is scarce, but samples from First Dynasty tombs indicate an advanced use of furnishings in the houses of the age. During the dynastic period, which began in around 3200 BCE, Egyptian art developed and this included furniture design. Egyptian furniture was constructed using wood, but other materials were sometimes used, such as leather, pieces were adorned with gold, silver and ebony, for decoration.
Wood found in Egypt was not suitable for furniture construction
The SS Normandie was an ocean liner built in Saint-Nazaire, for the French Line Compagnie Générale Transatlantique. She entered service in 1935 as the fastest passenger ship afloat, her novel design and lavish interiors led many to consider her the greatest of ocean liners. Despite this, she was not a commercial success and relied on government subsidy to operate. During service as the flagship of the CGT, she made 139 westbound transatlantic crossings from her home port of Le Havre to New York. Normandie held the Blue Riband for the fastest transatlantic crossing at several points during her service career, during which the RMS Queen Mary was her main rival. During World War II, Normandie was seized by U. S. authorities at New York and renamed USS Lafayette. In 1942, the liner caught fire while being converted to a troopship, capsized onto her port side and came to rest on the mud of the Hudson River at Pier 88, the site of the current New York Passenger Ship Terminal. Although salvaged at great expense, restoration was deemed too costly and she was scrapped in October 1946.
The beginnings of Normandie can be traced to the Roaring Twenties when shipping companies began looking to replace veterans such as RMS Mauretania and RMS Olympic. Those earlier boats had been designed around the huge numbers of steerage-class immigrants from Europe to the United States; when the U. S. closed the door on most immigration in the early 1920s, steamship companies ordered vessels built to serve upper-class tourists instead Americans who traveled to Europe to escape the Prohibition of alcohol. Companies like Cunard and the White Star Line planned to build their own superliners to rival newer boats of the day; the French Line began to plan its own superliner. The French Line's flagship was the Ile de France, which had modern Art Deco interiors but a conservative hull design; the designers intended their new superliner to be similar to earlier French Line boats. They were approached by Vladimir Yourkevitch, a former ship architect for the Imperial Russian Navy, who had emigrated to France after the revolution.
His ideas included a slanting clipper-like bow and a bulbous forefoot beneath the waterline, in combination with a slim hydrodynamic hull. Yourkevitch's concepts worked wonderfully in scale models, confirming his design's performance advantages; the French engineers asked Yourkevitch to join their project. He approached Cunard with his ideas, but was rejected because the bow was deemed too radical; the French Line commissioned artists to create posters and publicity for the liner. One of the most famous posters was by Adolphe Mouron Cassandre, a Russian emigrant to France. Another poster by Albert Sébille, showed the interior layout in a cutaway diagram 15 feet long; this poster is displayed in the Musée national de la Marine in Paris. Work by the Société Anonyme des Chantiers de Penhoët began on the unnamed flagship on 26 January 1931 at Saint-Nazaire, soon after the stock market crash of 1929. While the French continued construction, the competing White Star Line ship was cancelled and Cunard's Queen Mary was put on hold.
French builders ran into difficulty and had to ask for government money. Still, building was followed by newspapers and national interest was deep, as she was designed to represent France in the nation-state contest of the great liners and was built in a French shipyard using French parts; the growing hull in Saint-Nazaire had no formal designation except the contract name. Many names were suggested including Doumer, after Paul Doumer, the assassinated President of France. Normandie was chosen. In France, boat prefixes properly depend on the boat name's gender, but non-sailors use the masculine form, inherited from the French terms for boat, which can be "paquebot", "navire", "bateau", or "bâtiment", but English speakers refer to boats as feminine, the French Line carried many rich American customers. French Line wrote that their boat was to be called "Normandie," preceded by neither "le" nor "la" to avoid any confusion. On 29 October 1932 – three years to the day after the stock market crash – Normandie was launched in front of 200,000 spectators.
The 27,567-ton hull that slid into the Loire River was the largest launched and the wave crashed into a few hundred people, but with no injury. The boat was christened by wife of Albert Lebrun, the President of France. Normandie was outfitted until early 1935, her interiors, funnels and other fittings put in to make her into a working vessel. In May 1935, Normandie was ready for trials, which were watched by reporters; the superiority of Yourkevitch's hull was visible: hardly a wave was created off the bulbous bow. The boat reached a top speed of 32.125 knots and performed an emergency stop from that speed in 1,700 m. In addition to a novel hull which let her attain speed at far less power than other big liners, Normandie was filled with technical feats, she had turbo-electric transmission, with turbo-generators and electric propulsion motors built by Alsthom of Belfort. CGT chose turbo-electric transmission for the ability to use full power in reverse, because, according to CGT officials, it was quieter and more controlled and maintained.
The engine installation was heavier than conventional turbi
SS Île de France
The SS Île de France was a French ocean liner, built in Saint-Nazaire, for the Compagnie Générale Transatlantique. The ship was named after the region around Paris known as "L'Ile de France", launched in 1926 and commenced her maiden voyage on June 22, 1927, it was the first major ocean liner built after World War I, was the first liner to be decorated entirely with modern designs associated with the Art Deco style. She was neither the largest ship nor the fastest, but was considered the most beautifully decorated ship built by CGT, becoming the favored ship of the pre-World War II era, carrying young and fashionable Americans to Europe and back. All of the ship's luxurious fittings were removed for its conversion into a prison ship during World War II. After the war, Île de France resumed transatlantic operations. In 1956, she played a key role in rescuing passengers from the SS Andrea Doria after the latter ship's fatal collision with the MS Stockholm off Nantucket, her last hurrah came just before she was scrapped in 1959, "starring" in the movie The Last Voyage as a doomed ocean liner, being sunk, while scenes were being filmed with actors playing their parts in the flooded ship.
She was subsequently taken to Japan to be scrapped. The movie was released in 1960; the construction of the Île de France was part of an agreement between the Compagnie Générale Transatlantique and the French government dating to November 1912. This agreement was for the construction of four passenger-mail ships, with the first ship named Paris and the second, Île de France. World War I delayed construction until the 1920s, with the Paris being launched in 1916 and not entering service until 1921. After its keel was laid down in 1925, the Île de France was launched on 14 March 1926 at the shipyard Ateliers et Chantiers de Saint-Nazaire Penhoët in Saint-Nazaire on the west coast of France, was greeted by thousands of government and company officials, workers and French citizens; the ship would experience fourteen months of fitting-out before it left the shipyards in 1927 to begin sea trials on 29 May, for its maiden voyage on 22 June. In 1926, the CGT had released an elaborate booklet with a gold cover devoted to promoting the company's new ship.
The illustrations depicted huge and elegant but modern public rooms with female passengers carrying feather fans and smoking cigarettes, passengers being led around the uncluttered sun deck. The trend in ship interior design up to this point, including the Mauretania, the Olympic and the Imperator, all had interiors that celebrated various styles of the past, which could be found in the most expensive, upper-class manors or châteaux on land. In contrast, the interiors of the Île de France represented something new: for the first time, a ship's passenger spaces had been designed not to reproduce decorative styles of the past, but to celebrate the progressive style of the present, with a degree of modernity unlike any previous ship; the first-class dining room's decor was simple, in contrast to past styles which had vied with each other regarding extent of decoration and detail. The first class dining room was the largest of any ship existing at the time, rising through three decks high with a grand staircase as its entrance.
In addition to the luxurious dining room, there was a grand foyer, open to four decks, a chapel in the neo-gothic style, a shooting gallery, an elaborate gymnasium, a merry-go-round for the younger passengers. Every cabin, including the least luxurious, had beds instead of bunks. Many of the chairs been given a new designs; as each of the major liner companies subsequently planned their next passenger ships, many of the planners visited this extraordinary and trend-setting French vessel. After its sea trials, the Île de France traveled to its home port of Le Havre on June 5, 1927; the novelty of Art Deco aboard a ship was an immediate sensation and the reaction of the visiting press would be evident by favorable reviews the next week. On June 22, 1927 the Île de France traveled from Le Havre for its maiden voyage to New York. Upon its arrival in New York it received great attention from the American media and thousands of people crowded the docks just to see the new ship, her official accommodation was for 1,786 passengers, but her normal capacity was closer to 1400.
With a listed capacity of 537 in first-class, the Île de France, like the France and Paris, became fashionable. Captain Joseph Blancart and his chief purser, Henri Villar, became celebrities. With the contribution made by this splendid vessel, the CGT ended the year 1928 with record earnings. For the first time the company's receipts exceeded a billion francs, half of this derived from the New York service, which had transported more than 90,000 passengers, its popularity was such that by 1935, the ship had carried more first-class passengers than any other transatlantic liner. The ship was popular among wealthy Americans, it became the chosen ship of the youthful, the stylish, the famous. But they did not choose it for its speed – it was about as fast as the Aquitania of 1914, no larger. In 1936 it was immortalised in the song A Fine Romance performed by Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers in the film Swing Time with the lyric "You're just as hard to land as the Île de France". Though the Île de France was not the fastest vessel in the world, it pioneered the quickest mail system between Europe and the United States.
In July 1928, a seaplane catapult was installed at the ship's stern for trials with two CAMS 37 flying boats that launched when the ship was within 200 miles, which decreased the mail delivery time b
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona