St Mary's Hospital, London
St Mary's Hospital is an NHS hospital in Paddington, in the City of Westminster, founded in 1845. Since the UK's first academic health science centre was created in 2008, it has been operated by Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, which operates Charing Cross Hospital, Hammersmith Hospital, Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital and the Western Eye Hospital; until 1988 the hospital ran St Mary's Hospital Medical School, part of the federal University of London. In 1988 it merged with Imperial College London, with Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School in 1997 to form Imperial College School of Medicine. In 2007 Imperial College became an independent institution when it withdrew from the University of London; the original block of St Mary's Hospital in Norfolk Place was designed by Thomas Hopper in the classical style. It first opened its doors to patients in 1851, the last of the great voluntary hospitals to be founded. Among St Mary's founders was the surgeon Isaac Baker Brown, a controversial figure who performed numerous clitoridectomies at the London Surgical Home, his hospital for women, who "immediately set to work to remove the clitoris whenever he had the opportunity of doing so."
It was at St Mary's Hospital that C. R. Alder Wright first synthesized Diamorphine in 1874; the Clarence Memorial Wing, designed by Sir William Emerson and built with its main frontage on Praed Street, opened in 1904. It was at the hospital that Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928. Fleming’s laboratory has been restored and incorporated into a museum about the discovery and his life and work; the private Lindo wing, where there have been royal births and several celebrity births, opened in November 1937. Following the publication of the report by Sir William Goodenough in 1944, which advocated a minimum size for teaching hospitals, following the formation of the National Health Service in the 1948, several local hospitals became affiliated to St Mary’s Hospital; these included Paddington General Hospital, the Samaritan Hospital for Women and the Western Eye Hospital. In the 1950s, Felix Eastcott, a consultant surgeon and deputy director of the surgical unit at St Mary's Hospital, carried out some pioneering work on carotid endarterectomy designed to reduce the risk of stroke.
Paddington General Hospital closed and relocated services to the Paddington basin site in November 1986 and, in common with the other London teaching hospitals who lost their independence at that time, the medical school of St Mary's Hospital merged with that of Imperial College London in 1988. Royal family Alexander Windsor, Earl of Ulster – son of the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester Lady Davina Lewis – daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester Peter Phillips – son of the Princess Royal and Mark Phillips Lord Frederick Windsor – son of Prince and Princess Michael of Kent Lady Rose Gilman – daughter of Duke and Duchess of Gloucester Zara Phillips – daughter of the Princess Royal and Mark Phillips Lady Gabriella Windsor – daughter of Prince and Princess Michael of Kent Prince William, Duke of Cambridge – first son of Charles, Prince of Wales and Diana, Princess of Wales and second in line of succession, as of April 2018 Princess Theodora of Greece and Denmark – daughter of the King Constantine II of Greece and Anne-Marie of Denmark.
Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex – second son of Charles, Prince of Wales and Diana, Princess of Wales and third in line of succession until 2013, now sixth in line of succession, as of April 2018 Edward Windsor, Lord Downpatrick – son of George Windsor, Earl of St Andrews and Sylvana Windsor, Countess of St Andrews. Prince George of Cambridge – first son of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge and third in line of succession, as of April 2018 Princess Charlotte of Cambridge – daughter of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge and fourth in line of succession, as of April 2018 Prince Louis of Cambridge – second son of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge and fifth in line of succession, as of April 2018Other notable births Seal – British musician Olivia Robertson – author, co-founder and High Priestess of the Fellowship of Isis Elvis Costello – British musician Kiefer Sutherland – Canadian actor Arthur Wellesley, Marquess of Douro – son of the Duke and Duchess of Wellington Michael Page – British professional boxer and mixed martial artist Louis Spencer, Viscount Althorp – heir apparent to the Spencer earldom, nephew of Diana, Princess of Wales and first cousin of the Duke of Cambridge and the Duke of Sussex Admiral Schofield – American basketball player with the University of Tennessee Ellen Wilkinson, Labour Party politician, Minister of Education Arthur Cecil Alport – physician who first identified Alport syndrome in 1927 Roger Bannister – first man to run a four-minute mile, professor of neurology William Broadbent – 19th-century neurologist and cardiologist John Scott Burdon-Sanderson – Regius Professor of Medicine at the University of Oxford and Royal Medal winner Leonard Colebrook – physician and bacteriologist, MBBS in 1906, who, in 1935, showed Prontosil was effective against haemolytic streptococcus of puerperal fever Ara Darzi, Baron Darzi of Denham – Health Minister Alexander Fleming – awarded the Nobel Prize for discovery of penicillin Nim Hall – England rugby captain
A godparent, in many denominations of Christianity, is someone who bears witness to a child's baptism and aids in their catechesis, as well as their lifelong spiritual formation. In the past, in some countries, the role carried some legal obligations as well as religious responsibilities of the Godparent. In both religious and civil views, a godparent tends to be an individual chosen by the parents to take an interest in the child's upbringing and personal development, to offer mentorship or claim legal guardianship of the child should anything happen to the parents. A male godparent is a godfather, a female godparent is a godmother; the child is a godchild. As early as the 2nd century AD, infant baptism had begun to gain acceptance among Christians for the spiritual purification and social initiation of infants, the requirement for some confession of faith necessitated the use of adults who acted as sponsors for the child, they acted as guarantors of the child's spiritual beliefs. These sponsors were the natural parents of a child, as emphasized in 408 by St. Augustine who suggested that they could, it seems exceptionally, be other individuals.
Within a century, the Corpus Juris Civilis indicates that parents had been replaced in this role completely. This was clarified in 813 when the Synod of Mainz prohibited natural parents from acting as godparents to their own children. By the 5th century, male sponsors were referred to as "spiritual fathers", by the end of the 6th century, they were being referred to as "compaters" and "commaters", suggesting that these were being seen as spiritual co-parents; this pattern was marked by the creation of legal barriers to marriage that paralleled those for other forms of kin. A decree of Justinian, dated to 530, outlawed marriage between a godfather and his goddaughter, these barriers continued to multiply until the 11th century, forbidding marriage between natural and spiritual parents, or those directly related to them; as confirmation emerged as a separate rite from baptism from the 8th century, a second set of sponsors, with similar prohibitions emerged. The exact extent of these spiritual relationships as a bar to marriage in Catholicism was unclear until the Council of Trent, which limited it to relationships between the godparents, the child, the parents.
Luther and Calvin preserved infant baptism against the attacks of more radical reformers including Anabaptists, with it, sponsors at baptism. However, Luther objected to the marriage barriers it created, Zwingli stressed the role of parents and pastors, rather than the "witnesses", in religious instruction, Calvin and his followers tended to prefer the sponsors to be the natural parents. A single godparent was retained in baptism at Geneva and among French Calvinists, but some followers of Calvin, most notably in Scotland and the English colonies in America, rejected them altogether. In the early church, one sponsor seems to have been the norm, but in the early Middle Ages, there seems to have been two, one of each sex, this practice has been maintained in Orthodox Christianity. In 888, the Catholic Council of Metz attempted to limit the number to one, but proliferation seems to have continued. In early 14th-century Spain, as many as 20 godparents were being chosen. In England, the Synod of Worcester stipulated three sponsors, this has remained the norm in the Church of England.
The Council of Trent attempted to limit the numbers of godparents to one or two, but practice has differed across the Catholic world. The Church of England, the mother Church of the Anglican Communion, retained godparents in baptism, formally removing the marriage barriers in 1540, but the issue of the role and status of godparents continued to be debated in the English Church, they were abolished in 1644 by the Directory of Public Worship promulgated by the English Civil War Parliamentary regime, but continued to be used in some parishes in the north of England. After the Restoration in 1660, they were reintroduced to Anglicanism, with occasional objections, but dropped by every dissenting church. There is some evidence that the restored institution had lost some of its social importance as well as its universality. At present, in the Church of England, relatives can stand as godparents, although it is not clear that parents can be godparents, they sometimes are. Godparents should be both baptized and confirmed, but the requirement for confirmation can be waived.
There is no requirement for clergy to baptize those from outside their parishes, baptism can be reasonably delayed so that the conditions, including suitable godparents, can be met. As a result, individual clergy have considerable discretion over the qualifications of godparents. Many "contemporary Anglican rites require parents and godparents to respond on behalf of infant candidates." Lutherans follow a similar theology of godparents as Roman Catholics. They believe that godparents "help with their Christian upbringing if they should lose their parents". Lutherans, like Roman Catholics, believe that a godparent must be both a baptized and confirmed Christian; some Lutherans follow the Roman Catholic tradition that a Christian, not affiliated with the Lutheran denomination may serve as a witness rather than a godparent. The Book of Discipline stipulates that it is the duty of a godparent known as a sponsor, "to provide training for the children of the Church throughout their childhood that will lead to a personal commitment to Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior, to an understanding of
Prince George of Cambridge
Prince George of Cambridge is a member of the British royal family. He is the eldest child and elder son of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, third in the line of succession to the British throne behind his grandfather Prince Charles and his father; as he is expected to be King someday, his birth was celebrated across the Commonwealth realms. He has Prince Louis of Cambridge. George accompanies his parents on royal tours, has affected business and popular culture. On 3 December 2012, Clarence House announced that Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, were expecting their first child; the Duke is the elder son of Charles, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II, meaning that the child would be third in the line of succession to the British throne. Speculation ensued that the birth would boost the British national economy and provide a focus for national pride. Commemorative coins were issued by the Royal Mint, Royal Canadian Mint, Royal Australian Mint.
Prince George was born in Lindo Wing of St Mary's Hospital, London, at 16:24 BST on 22 July 2013. The customary formal bulletin announcing the royal birth was displayed on an easel outside Buckingham Palace, although in a break with tradition the news was first conveyed in a press release from palace officials; the newborn was hailed as a future king. 21-gun salutes signalled the birth in the capitals of Bermuda, the UK, New Zealand, Canada. The Duchess of Cambridge and her baby, accompanied by the Duke, left hospital on 23 July, the baby's name was announced as George Alexander Louis the following day. Prince George was baptised by the Archbishop of Canterbury in the Chapel Royal at St James's Palace on 23 October 2013, with Oliver Baker, Emilia Jardine-Paterson, Earl Grosvenor, Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton, the Hon. Julia Samuel, William van Cutsem and Zara Tindall serving as godparents; the font used at the ceremony was made for Queen Victoria's first child and the water was taken from the River Jordan.
The Royal Mint issued a set of commemorative coins to celebrate the christening, the first coins to mark a royal christening in Britain. Prince George's birth marked the second time that three generations of direct heirs to the British throne have been alive at the same time, a situation that last occurred between 1894 and 1901, in the last seven years of the reign of Queen Victoria. Prince George embarked on his first royal tour with his parents in April 2014, during which the Cambridges spent three weeks in New Zealand and Australia. Although he only appeared twice, the BBC described the "nine-month-old future king" as "the star of the show". Prime Minister of Australia Tony Abbott predicted in Parliament House, that George would one day be welcomed there as King of Australia. In June, Prince George made his first public appearance on the balcony of Buckingham Palace following the Trooping the Colour parade marking the Queen's Official Birthday. George's parents are adamant that he should grow up as as possible.
He is rarely seen in public, including royal tours. In August 2015, Kensington Palace stated that they wanted all global media to stop taking unauthorised photographs of George, as they believed "a line has been crossed" in paparazzi methods of locating and photographing him. On 22 April 2016, Prince George met Barack President of the United States, he was photographed with a rocking horse. The encounter prompted Obama to joke that "Prince George showed up to our meeting in his bathrobe... a clear breach of protocol." Prince George and Princess Charlotte accompanied their parents on a tour of Canada in September 2016, on a diplomatic visit to Poland and Germany in July 2017. In January 2016, George started his education at the Westacre Montessori School Nursery, near his family home at Anmer Hall in Norfolk, he attended his first day of primary school on 7 September 2017 at the private Thomas's School in Battersea. At school he is known as George Cambridge; the "Prince George effect" known as the "royal baby effect", is that clothing and products identified as used by George tend to sell better than before.
The effect was noted during his April 2014 tour of New Zealand and Australia and many businesses have attempted to use this effect to their advantage. He was ranked No. 49 on GQ's "50 Best Dressed Men in Britain" list in 2015. In 2016, the dressing gown he wore while meeting President Obama sold out after he was seen wearing it. In September 2017 the news that the Prince's school had served a Le Puy green lentil dish resulted in a spike in the legume's sales. In 2018, George became the youngest person to appear on Tatler's best-dressed list. Prince George's official title and style is "His Royal Highness Prince George of Cambridge". While his name was announced two days after his birth, he was, from birth, a British prince entitled to the style of Royal Highness under letters patent issued by King George V in 1917, which gave the title and style to the eldest son of the Prince of Wales's eldest son; as with other princes and princesses who are born to royal dukes, George's territorial designation is taken from his father's title, in this case "Cambridge", from the Dukedom of Cambridge.
Family tree of the British royal family List of living British princes and princesses Prince George of Cambridge at the Royal Family website Prince George of Cambridge on IM
Hill Samuel is a wholly owned subsidiary of Lloyds Banking Group's Offshore Private Banking unit. It was a leading British merchant bank and financial services firm before the takeover by TSB Group Plc. in 1987, which itself merged with Lloyds Bank to become Lloyds TSB in 1995. In 1832, Marcus Samuel founded a company near the Tower of London to import goods from the Far East. M. Samuel & Co. was successful in the importing business, so by the middle of the 19th century it expanded to the re-exporting business, importing goods worldwide and re-exporting them to Europe and North America. Recognising the opportunities offered by the emerging rise of the oil industry, in the 1880s Marcus shipped case oil from Russian oil fields to Japan such that by 1888 that he was able to commission his own ships for bulk oil transportation, his first ship, the'Murex', was the first tanker to pass through the Suez Canal in 1892 and this division of the company exists today as the Royal Dutch Shell Company. Hill Samuel & Co.
Limited was created in 1965 by the merger of M. Samuel & Co. and Philip Hill, Erlanger’s Limited. On the 10 December 1969, Hill Samuel Australia Limited opened its doors in Sydney with a staff of three executives. Offering a range of financial services and products with the expertise and fame of its parent company, Hill Samuel Australia began to win significant mandates. Following a proposal to the Australian Federal Government in 1985, Macquarie Bank Limited was established in February of that year as part of the restructure of Hill Samuel Australia as an independent trading bank; these small steps have led Macquarie Bank to be one of the most successful diversified provider of financial products originating in Australia. Before the merger with TSB Group Plc. Hill Samuel's 1987 Pre-tax profits were of consisted of merchant banking. In 1987, Hill Samuel had suspended trading in its shares on the London Stock Exchange amid signs that it would accept a merger bid from the Union Bank of Switzerland, as the two groups began takeover talks in July.
However, by October of that year a final successful takeover bid was made by the TSB Group Plc. one of the United Kingdom's largest retail banks at the time. By 1995, the merger of TSB Group and Lloyds Bank led Hill Samuel to become a subsidiary of Lloyds TSB, now restructured and renamed as Lloyds Banking Group. Macquarie Bank Royal Dutch Shell Company
Order of the British Empire
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire and the Viceroy of India. Nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most Commonwealth countries ceased recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire when they created their own honours; the five classes of appointment to the Order are, in descending order of precedence: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Knight Commander or Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire The senior two ranks of Knight or Dame Grand Cross, Knight or Dame Commander, entitle their members to use the title of Sir for men and Dame for women before their forename.
Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, may permit use of post-nominal letters but not the title of Sir or Dame. Honorary appointees are, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bob Geldof, for example. Honorary appointees who become a citizen of a Commonwealth realm can convert their appointment from honorary to substantive enjoy all privileges of membership of the order, including use of the title of Sir and Dame for the senior two ranks of the Order. An example is Irish broadcaster Terry Wogan, appointed an honorary Knight Commander of the Order in 2005, on successful application for British citizenship, held alongside his Irish citizenship, was made a substantive member and subsequently styled as Sir Terry Wogan. King George V founded the Order to fill gaps in the British honours system: The Orders of the Garter, of St Patrick honoured royals, peers and eminent military commanders.
In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War. When first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was formally divided into Military and Civil Divisions; the Order's motto is For the Empire. At the foundation of the Order, the'Medal of the Order of the British Empire' was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership. In 1922, this was renamed the'British Empire Medal', it stopped being awarded by the United Kingdom as part of the 1993 reforms to the honours system, but was again awarded beginning in 2012, starting with 293 BEMs awarded for Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee. In addition, the BEM is awarded by some other Commonwealth nations. In 2004, a report entitled "A Matter of Honour: Reforming Our Honours System" by a Commons committee recommended to phase out the Order of the British Empire, as its title was "now considered to be unacceptable, being thought to embody values that are no longer shared by many of the country's population".
The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, appoints all other members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three: Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales; the Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross, 845 Knights and Dames Commander, 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the total number of members of the fourth and fifth classes, but no more than 858 Officers and 1,464 Members may be appointed per year. Foreign appointees, as honorary members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Although the Order of the British Empire has by far the highest number of members of the British Orders of Chivalry, with over 100,000 living members worldwide, there are fewer appointments to knighthoods than in other orders. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, second-lowest of knighthood.
Because of this, an appointment as Dame Commander is made in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor. For example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges