Legislative Assembly of Ontario
The Legislative Assembly of Ontario is one of two components of the Legislature of Ontario, the other being the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario. The Legislative Assembly is the second largest Canadian provincial deliberative assembly by number of members after the National Assembly of Quebec; the Assembly meets at the Ontario Legislative Building at Queen's Park in the provincial capital of Toronto. As at the federal level in Canada, Ontario uses a Westminster-style parliamentary government, in which members are elected to the Legislative Assembly through general elections, from which the Premier of Ontario and Executive Council of Ontario are appointed based on majority support; the premier is Ontario's head of government, while the Lieutenant Governor, as representative of the Queen, acts as head of state. The largest party not forming the government is known as the Official Opposition, its leader being recognized as Leader of the Opposition by the Speaker; the Ontario Legislature is sometimes referred to as the "Ontario Provincial Parliament".
Members of the assembly refer to themselves as "Members of the Provincial Parliament" as opposed to "Members of the Legislative Assembly" as in many other provinces. Ontario is the only province to do so, in accordance with a resolution passed in the Assembly on April 7, 1938. However, the Legislative Assembly Act refers only to "members of the Assembly"; the current assembly was elected on June 2018, as part of the 42nd Parliament of Ontario. Owing to the location of the Legislative Building on the grounds of Queen's Park, the metonym "Queen's Park" is used to refer to both the Government of Ontario and the Legislative Assembly. In accordance with the traditions of the Westminster system, most laws originate with the cabinet, are passed by the legislature after stages of debate and decision-making. Ordinary Members of the Legislature may introduce play an integral role in scrutinizing bills in debate and committee and amending bills presented to the legislature by cabinet. Members are expected to be loyal to both their parliamentary party and to the interests of their constituents.
In the event of conflict, duty to the parliamentary party takes precedence. Party loyalty is enforced by the chief government whip. In the Ontario legislature this confrontation provides much of the material for Oral Questions and Members' Statements. Legislative scrutiny of the executive is at the heart of much of the work carried out by the Legislature's Standing Committees, which are made up of ordinary backbenchers. A Member's day will be divided among participating in the business of the House, attending caucus and committee meetings, speaking in various debates, or returning to his or her constituency to address the concerns and grievances of constituents. Depending on personal inclination and political circumstances, some Members concentrate most of their attention on House matters while others focus on constituency problems, taking on something of an ombudsman's role in the process, it is the task of the legislature to provide the personnel of the executive. As noted, under responsible government, ministers of the Crown are expected to be Members of the Assembly.
When a political party comes to power it will place its more experienced parliamentarians into the key cabinet positions, where their parliamentary experience may be the best preparation for the rough and tumble of political life in government. The Legislative Assembly of Ontario is the first and the only legislature in Canada to have a Coat of Arms separate from the provincial coat of arms. Green and gold are the principal colours in the shield of arms of the province; the Mace is the traditional symbol of the authority of the Speaker. Shown on the left is the current Mace. On the right is the original Mace from the time of the first parliament in 1792; the crossed Maces are joined by the shield of arms of Ontario. The crown on the wreath represents provincial loyalties; the griffin, an ancient symbol of justice and equity, holds a calumet, which symbolizes the meeting of spirit and discussion that Ontario's First Nations believe accompanies the use of the pipe. The deer represent the natural riches of the province.
The Loyalist coronets at their necks honour the original British settlers in Ontario who brought with them the British parliamentary form of government. The Royal Crowns, left 1992, right 1792, recognize the parliamentary bicentennial and represent Ontario's heritage as a constitutional monarchy, they were granted as a special honour by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on the recommendation of the Governor General. In the base, the maple leaves are for Canada, the trilliums for Ontario and the roses for York, the provincial capital. Proceedings of the Legislative Assembly are broadcast to Ontario cable television subscribers by the Ontario Parliament Network. A late-night rebroadcast of Question Period is aired on the provincial public broadcaster TVOntario; the 1st Parliament of Ontario was in session from September 3, 1867, until February 25, 1871, just prior to the 1871 general election. This was the first session of the Legislature after Confederation succeeding the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada.
The 1867 general election produced a tie between the Conservative Party led by John Sandfield Macdonald and the Liberal Party led by Archibald McKellar. Macdonald led a coalition government with the support of moderate Liberals; the Legislative Assembly was established by the British North Am
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
Gary Carr (politician)
Gary Carr is a politician in Ontario, Canada. He served as a Progressive Conservative member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1990 to 2003, served in the House of Commons of Canada as a Liberal from 2004 to early 2006. Gary Carr is the Chair of the Regional Municipality of Halton. Carr has a certificate in Business Administration from Ryerson University, was a businessman and sales manager in the transportation industry before entering public life, he continued his education as a politician, received an MBA from Athabasca University in 2002. Carr played professional ice hockey for five years in the farm teams of the Boston Bruins and Quebec Nordiques. In 1975, he was a Memorial Cup champion as a member of the Toronto Marlboros. Carr was first elected to the Ontario legislature in the provincial election of 1990, defeating incumbent Liberal Doug Carrothers by 108 votes in the riding of Oakville South. From 1993 to 1995, he was his party's Deputy House Leader; the Progressive Conservatives won a majority government under Mike Harris in the provincial election of 1995, Carr was re-elected.
He was appointed as a parliamentary assistant to the Solicitor-General for the entire term. Carr was again re-elected in the provincial election of 1999, defeating Liberal Kevin Flynn by over 13,000 votes, he was chosen as Speaker of the legislature on October 20, 1999, held this position for the entirety of the parliament which followed. Like his predecessor Chris Stockwell, Carr was known as an impartial Speaker, willing to criticize his own government. In 2003, he alienated several members of the Progressive Conservative Party by ruling that the government of Ernie Eves had committed a prima facie act of contempt against the legislature by holding its budget announcement at the headquarters of Magna International, rather than in the legislature itself, he was critical of the direction taken by the Progressive Conservative Party in this period, did not seek re-election in 2003. He left politics and coached the London Racers hockey team in London, UK. In 2004 Carr was recruited to run as a Liberal in the riding of Halton, which bordered his old provincial riding.
He defeated Conservative candidate Dean Martin in the election. Carr was defeated in the 2006 election by Conservative challenger Garth Turner. Gary Carr was elected as Chair of Halton Region on November 13, 2006. Carr overwhelmingly defeated former Halton Region CAO Brent Marshall, who resigned from his position as CAO to run against Carr. Carr was sworn in as the Regional Chairman on December 6, 2006. Gary Carr career statistics at The Internet Hockey Database Gary Carr – Parliament of Canada biography Ontario Legislative Assembly parliamentary history
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
John Garth Turner, is a Canadian business journalist, best-selling author, broadcaster, financial advisor and politician, twice elected as a Member of the House of Commons, former Minister of National Revenue and leadership candidate for the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. After serving as a PC MP between 1988 and 1993, he returned to political life as a candidate for the Conservative Party of Canada in the 2006 federal election, beating Liberal Gary Carr in the riding of Halton, Ontario. On October 18, 2006, the Conservative Party suspended him from the Conservative caucus for his independent stance and he sat as an Independent MP until February 6, 2007, when he joined the Liberal Party of Canada, his great-grandfather, Ebenezer Vining Bodwell, was a Liberal Member of Parliament. Turner was born in Woodstock and educated at the University of Toronto Schools where he belonged to Cody house, he earned a Bachelor of Arts in English literature from the University of Toronto, a Master of Arts in English literature from the University of Western Ontario.
Turner claimed that, during his university years, he joined The Waffle group within the New Democratic Party. Before entering a career in electoral politics, Turner founded and owned weekly newspapers in Ontario, worked as an editor for The Globe and Mail, Metroland Publishing and Thomson Newspapers, helped launch Maclean's as a newsweekly magazine, he was subsequently business editor of the Toronto Sun for ten years. Turner was elected as the Progressive Conservative MP for Halton—Peel in the 1988 election. A Red Tory, he became chairman of the consumer and corporate affairs committee, he became a candidate for the leadership of the PC Party in 1993, placing fourth on the first ballot. In the short-lived cabinet of Kim Campbell he was appointed Minister of National Revenue, but lost his seat in the 1993 election when his party was reduced to just two seats. After his election loss, Turner returned to journalism, becoming business editor for Baton Broadcasting and the CTV network and authoring a series of books on real estate and personal finance.
He became a popular public speaker on financial issues, syndicated newspaper columnist and radio broadcaster. After parting with Baton and CTV, he formed the television production company Millennium Media Television, which became the largest independent producer of network television programming in Canada; the company produced up to nine weekly series for broadcasters such as Global, CTV and YTV, its'Business Television' had the most substantial audience at the time for a financial program on Canadian television. During this period, Turner became a public speaker, traveling the country and attracting crowds at events sponsored by financial advisory companies, mutual fund companies and real estate investment companies, he authored a string of best-sellers, including'2015: After the Boom','The Strategy','The Defence','2020' and an annual RRSP guide. Turner was former CEO and founder of The Credit River Company, a Caledon-based destination and ecotourism company, noted for the restoration of heritage buildings in the area.
Turner served as national director of the Vancouver-based Sierra Legal Defence Fund, an organization dedicated to upholding environmental laws, resigning after his return to the House of Commons. His charity work included acting as a spokesperson for the Alzheimer Society of Canada. In April 2008, Garth Turner added a new book to his library as an investment author. Greater Fool, The Troubled Future of Real Estate, detailed Turner's view of the dangers confronting middle class Canadians who reside in volatile urban real estate markets across the country, his subsequent book, "After the Crash", published in early 2009, is an examination of the financial crisis gripping North America. In an article published in newspapers in December 2008, the Canadian Press called'Greater Fool' both "prescient" and "scarily bang-on." In February 2009,'After the Crash' became a national bestseller, according to the Globe and Mail and Booknet Canada. It concentrates on financial forecasting and strategies for the 2010-2015 period.
In 2009, Turner launched an online retail operation, xurbia.ca, offering renewable and alternative energy products and equipment, as well as preparedness supplies, citing climate change and the ongoing economic downturn as precipitating factors. He relaunched his pre-election eco-tourism business with the purchase of the historic Cataract Inn, in Caledon, outside of Toronto. Turner returned to his national speaking tours, focusing on investor education in a string of events once again sponsored by prominent companies in the financial services sector. Turner returned to politics with his election as a Conservative MP for Halton, which included most of the territory he had represented in his previous term, in the 2006 general election. Local political organizer Esther Shaye acted as his campaign manager. Turner was critical of former Liberal cabinet minister David Emerson's floor-crossing to the Conservatives. Turner called for Emerson to resign from Parliament and try to regain his seat in a by-election, saying that "anyone who crosses the floor should go back to the people for ratification and I stick by it and in this case that will happen...."
On October 18, 2006, the Ontario members of the Conservative caucus voted to suspend Turner for what they claimed were violations of caucus confidentiality as published in his weblog. Within hours, Turner was dismissed from the Conservative Party caucus, from the Conservative Party of Canada, by edict of the party's political leadership; the Conservative Party never furnished evidence of Turner's alleged breaches of confidenti
Halton (electoral district)
Halton was a federal electoral district in Ontario, represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1867 to 1988 before being abolished in an electoral district redistribution, again from 1997 to 2015, when it was again abolished in another electoral district redistribution. When it was last contested in 2011, its population was 203,437, of whom 115,255 were eligible electors. Halton riding was created by British North America Act in 1867, defined as Halton County. In 1966, the riding was redefined to consist of the Towns of Milton and Oakville and the Township of Esquesing in the County of Halton, the Township of Erin in the County of Wellington. In 1976, it was redefined to consist of the Towns of Milton and Oakville, the southern part of the Town of Halton Hills; the electoral district was abolished in 1987 when it was redistributed between Halton—Peel and Oakville—Milton ridings. In 1996, the riding was re-created to include the Town of Milton and the northern parts of the Town of Oakville and the City of Burlington, defined as: the Town of Milton, the part of the Town of Oakville lying northwest of a line drawn from northeast to southwest along Dundas Street West, southeaster along Eighth Line, southwest along Upper Middle Road, the part of the City of Burlington lying northwest of a line drawn from northeast to southwest along the Queen Elizabeth Way, northwest along Walkers Line, southwest along Upper Middle Road, northwest along Guelph Line, southwest along Dundas Street.
In 2015, the riding of Halton was abolished and redistributed between Milton, Oakville North—Burlington, Mississauga—Streetsville and Mississauga—Erin Mills. This riding elected the following Members of Parliament: Note: Conservative vote is compared to the total of the Canadian Alliance vote and Progressive Conservative vote in 2000 election. Note: Canadian Alliance vote is compared to the Reform vote in 1997 election. Note: NDP vote is compared to CCF vote in 1958 election. Note: Progressive Conservative vote is compared to "National Government" vote in 1940 election. Note: "National Government" vote is compared to Conservative vote in 1935 election. Note: Conservative vote is compared to Government vote in 1917 election, Liberal vote is compared to Opposition vote. Note: Government vote is compared to Conservative vote in 1911 election, Opposition vote is compared to Liberal vote. Note: indicates change in popular vote from to 1891 general election. On Mr. Chisholm being unseated, on petition, 8 December 1874: List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts " Census Profile".
2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved 2011-03-03. Federal riding history 1867 - 1987 from the Library of Parliament Federal riding history 1997 - 2008 from the Library of Parliament 2011 Results from Elections Canada Campaign expense data from Elections Canada
1997 Canadian federal election
The 1997 Canadian federal election was held on June 2 to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 36th Parliament of Canada. Prime Minister Jean Chrétien's Liberal Party of Canada won a second majority government; the Reform Party of Canada replaced the Bloc Québécois as the Official Opposition. The election results followed the pattern of the 1993 election; the Liberals swept Ontario. Reform made sufficient gains in the West to allow Preston Manning to become Leader of the Official Opposition, but lost its only seat east of Manitoba; the most significant change was major gains in Atlantic Canada by the New Democratic Party and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. The Liberals faced major losses, including two cabinet ministers; the Liberals' victory was not in doubt, though some commentators on election night were predicting that they would be cut down to a minority government, that Chrétien might lose his seat. Chrétien narrowly won his riding, the Liberals maintained a four-seat majority thanks to gains in Quebec at the expense of the Bloc.
Jean Charest's Tories and Alexa McDonough's NDP both regained official party status in the House of Commons. A change of 718 votes in just five ridings from the Liberals to the second place candidate would have resulted in a minority government; this was the first time that five political parties held official party status in a single session of Canada's Parliament. Voter turnout was 67.0% low at the time for Canadian elections. Prime Minister Jean Chrétien announced his approved request by Governor General Roméo LeBlanc to dissolve Parliament on April 26, 1997, with an election to be held on June 2 of that year. Chrétien's election call was one year and a half before the mandate of the government would expire, aside from the 1911 election, the earliest called by a party with a majority. Opinion polls at the time predicted that the Liberal Party was expected to win a landslide victory capturing at least 180 to 220 of the 301 seats in the House of Commons, with the fragmentation of the opposition meaning that one party was not expected to be able to defeat the government.
The election call was controversial both for being early and for occurring during Manitoba's recovery from the Red River Flood earlier in the year. Reg Alcock and several others inside the Liberal Party had opposed the timing of the vote, the poor results prompted Paul Martin's supporters to organize against Chrétien; the Liberal Party under Jean Chrétien campaigned on promising to continue to cut the federal deficit to allow for a budget surplus, to spend one half of the surplus on repaying Canada's national debt and cutting taxes while the other half of the surplus would be used to increase funding to health care, assistance for Canadian children in poverty, job creation. The platform was called Securing Our Future Together; the Liberal Party was attacked by the opposition parties for failing to keep many of the promises that the party campaigned on in the 1993 federal election. The Liberals attacked the Progressive Conservatives and the Reform Party for prematurely calling for tax cuts while a deficit still remained while attacking the New Democratic Party for proposing to increase government spending while Canada faced a deficit.
The Liberals suffered from a number of gaffes in their campaign. In one incident, when Jean Chrétien was questioned by reporters over the cost of the Liberals' election proposal of a national pharmacare program, reporters claimed that Chrétien was unsure of what the cost would be. Chrétien turned down invitations for interviews by Canada's national media outlet, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and MuchMusic. In the televised debates between the five major political parties, Chrétien apologized to Canadians for his government having cut funding for social programs to reduce the deficit. On election day, the Liberals won with a reduced majority. While they lost much of their support in Atlantic Canada, they won all but two seats in Ontario and improved on their numbers in Quebec, they were only assured of a majority. The Reform Party under Preston Manning campaigned on preserving national unity through decentralization of multiple federal government powers to all of the provinces, cutting taxes, reducing the size of government, reducing spending, opposing distinct society status for Quebec.
Feeling that the general acceptance of deficit reduction at the federal and provincial level had been encouraged by their party, Reform saw a chance to make the party a national in scope by making political inroads outside of the west in Ontario. Their platform was titled the Fresh Start for all Canadians; the Reformers ran a full slate of candidates in Quebec, making this the first and last election in which it would run candidates in every region of Canada. Reform's campaign ran into multiple problems; the party was accused by other parties and the media of holding intolerant views due to comments made by a number of Reform MPs during the writ period. Critics had accused the party's performance during the 1993-1997 parliament of being disorganized. Tension between the party's democratic nature and the leader-centric model of modern campaigning led to Manning's leadership abilities being questioned by a number of former members, including Stephen Harper, who accused Manning of inappropriately using a C$31,000 personal expens